War and Peace and War

The Rise and Fall of Empires

Author: Peter Turchin

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101126912

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 6952

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Like Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, Peter Turchin in War and Peace and War uses his expertise in evolutionary biology to make a highly original argument about the rise and fall of empires. Turchin argues that the key to the formation of an empire is a society’s capacity for collective action. He demonstrates that high levels of cooperation are found where people have to band together to fight off a common enemy, and that this kind of cooperation led to the formation of the Roman and Russian empires, and the United States. But as empires grow, the rich get richer and the poor get poorer, conflict replaces cooperation, and dissolution inevitably follows. Eloquently argued and rich with historical examples, War and Peace and War offers a bold new theory about the course of world history.

Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall

Why States Rise and Fall

Author: Peter Turchin

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400889316

Category: History

Page: 264

View: 1830

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Many historical processes are dynamic. Populations grow and decline. Empires expand and collapse. Religions spread and wither. Natural scientists have made great strides in understanding dynamical processes in the physical and biological worlds using a synthetic approach that combines mathematical modeling with statistical analyses. Taking up the problem of territorial dynamics--why some polities at certain times expand and at other times contract--this book shows that a similar research program can advance our understanding of dynamical processes in history. Peter Turchin develops hypotheses from a wide range of social, political, economic, and demographic factors: geopolitics, factors affecting collective solidarity, dynamics of ethnic assimilation/religious conversion, and the interaction between population dynamics and sociopolitical stability. He then translates these into a spectrum of mathematical models, investigates the dynamics predicted by the models, and contrasts model predictions with empirical patterns. Turchin's highly instructive empirical tests demonstrate that certain models predict empirical patterns with a very high degree of accuracy. For instance, one model accounts for the recurrent waves of state breakdown in medieval and early modern Europe. And historical data confirm that ethno-nationalist solidarity produces an aggressively expansive state under certain conditions (such as in locations where imperial frontiers coincide with religious divides). The strength of Turchin's results suggests that the synthetic approach he advocates can significantly improve our understanding of historical dynamics.

War Before Civilization

Author: Lawrence H. Keeley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199761531

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 6082

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The myth of the peace-loving "noble savage" is persistent and pernicious. Indeed, for the last fifty years, most popular and scholarly works have agreed that prehistoric warfare was rare, harmless, unimportant, and, like smallpox, a disease of civilized societies alone. Prehistoric warfare, according to this view, was little more than a ritualized game, where casualties were limited and the effects of aggression relatively mild. Lawrence Keeley's groundbreaking War Before Civilization offers a devastating rebuttal to such comfortable myths and debunks the notion that warfare was introduced to primitive societies through contact with civilization (an idea he denounces as "the pacification of the past"). Building on much fascinating archeological and historical research and offering an astute comparison of warfare in civilized and prehistoric societies, from modern European states to the Plains Indians of North America, War Before Civilization convincingly demonstrates that prehistoric warfare was in fact more deadly, more frequent, and more ruthless than modern war. To support this point, Keeley provides a wide-ranging look at warfare and brutality in the prehistoric world. He reveals, for instance, that prehistorical tactics favoring raids and ambushes, as opposed to formal battles, often yielded a high death-rate; that adult males falling into the hands of their enemies were almost universally killed; and that surprise raids seldom spared even women and children. Keeley cites evidence of ancient massacres in many areas of the world, including the discovery in South Dakota of a prehistoric mass grave containing the remains of over 500 scalped and mutilated men, women, and children (a slaughter that took place a century and a half before the arrival of Columbus). In addition, Keeley surveys the prevalence of looting, destruction, and trophy-taking in all kinds of warfare and again finds little moral distinction between ancient warriors and civilized armies. Finally, and perhaps most controversially, he examines the evidence of cannibalism among some preliterate peoples. Keeley is a seasoned writer and his book is packed with vivid, eye-opening details (for instance, that the homicide rate of prehistoric Illinois villagers may have exceeded that of the modern United States by some 70 times). But he also goes beyond grisly facts to address the larger moral and philosophical issues raised by his work. What are the causes of war? Are human beings inherently violent? How can we ensure peace in our own time? Challenging some of our most dearly held beliefs, Keeley's conclusions are bound to stir controversy.

History of Empires

Rise and Fall of the Greatest Empires in History

Author: Robert Dean

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781547021246

Category:

Page: 60

View: 2067

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War. Famine. Conquest. Death. Explore the rise and fall of history's greatest empires. History Of Empires: Rise and Fall of the Greatest Empires in History! Understanding The Roman Empire, American Empire, British Empire, & Much More is a thrilling study of empires whose leaders lost sight of their civic obligations, leading to revolts, social disruption, and inescapable destruction. Explore the rise and fall of dynasties in Imperial China including the Mandate of Heaven and the dawn of the Zhou dynasty; the rise of China's First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang; brutal civil war, and the reign of the Han; and the First Opium War and the Qing Empire. Investigate the rise of Sparta and its culture of courage and discipline, the defeat of Athens, the helot revolts that eroded Sparta's might and Sparta's decline into backwater obscurity following defeat by Thebes in the Battle of Leuctra. Witness the faith and folly of the Ottoman Empire as it grew into one of the most powerful states in the world, reigned supreme for over 600 years, and fell into stagnation and decline because of degenerate, lackadaisical or incompetent rulers. Glimpse the growth, consolidation, repeated defeat, and eventual dissolution of the Roman Empire. Examine Hammurabi's elevation of Babylon, The Gate of the Gods, to peace and prosperity and centuries of conflict that led to the city repeatedly being sacked, rebuilt, razed, and reborn, and eventually buried beneath the sands of time, literally and figuratively. Watch the sun rise and set on the British Empire as it rose to a dominant world superpower then plunged into war and financial ruin. Observe the colonization of North America and America's growth from humble beginnings, through civil unrest and socio-economic upheaval, to emerge somehow stronger. Journey through war, famine, conquest, and death with History Of Empires: Rise and Fall of the Greatest Empires in History! Understanding The Roman Empire, American Empire, British Empire, & Much More. Scroll up to get your copy now.

Secular Cycles

Author: Peter Turchin,Sergey A. Nefedov

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691136963

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 349

View: 920

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"Secular Cycles elaborates and expands upon the demographic-structural theory first advanced by Jack Goldstone, which provides an explanation of long-term oscillations. This book tests that theory's specific and quantitative predictions by tracing the dynamics of population numbers, prices and real wages, elite numbers and incomes, state finances, and sociopolitical instability. Turchin and Nefedov study societies in England, France, and Russia during the medieval and early modern periods, and look back at the Roman Republic and Empire. Incorporating theoretical and quantitative history, the authors examine a specific model of historical change and, more generally, investigate the utility of the dynamical systems approach in historical applications."--BOOK JACKET.

The Fall of the Ottomans

The Great War in the Middle East

Author: Eugene Rogan

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465056695

Category: History

Page: 512

View: 465

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In 1914 the Ottoman Empire was depleted of men and resources after years of war against Balkan nationalist and Italian forces. But in the aftermath of the assassination in Sarajevo, the powers of Europe were sliding inexorably toward war, and not even the Middle East could escape the vast and enduring consequences of one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. The Great War spelled the end of the Ottomans, unleashing powerful forces that would forever change the face of the Middle East. In The Fall of the Ottomans, award-winning historian Eugene Rogan brings the First World War and its immediate aftermath in the Middle East to vivid life, uncovering the often ignored story of the region's crucial role in the conflict. Bolstered by German money, arms, and military advisors, the Ottomans took on the Russian, British, and French forces, and tried to provoke Jihad against the Allies in their Muslim colonies. Unlike the static killing fields of the Western Front, the war in the Middle East was fast-moving and unpredictable, with the Turks inflicting decisive defeats on the Entente in Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, and Gaza before the tide of battle turned in the Allies' favor. The great cities of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and, finally, Damascus fell to invading armies before the Ottomans agreed to an armistice in 1918. The postwar settlement led to the partition of Ottoman lands between the victorious powers, and laid the groundwork for the ongoing conflicts that continue to plague the modern Arab world. A sweeping narrative of battles and political intrigue from Gallipoli to Arabia, The Fall of the Ottomans is essential reading for anyone seeking to understand the Great War and the making of the modern Middle East.

Peoples and Empires

A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present

Author: Anthony Pagden

Publisher: Modern Library

ISBN: 0307431592

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 5329

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Written by one of the world’s foremost historians of human migration, Peoples and Empires is the story of the great European empires—the Roman, the Spanish, the French, the British—and their colonies, and the back-and-forth between “us” and “them,” culture and nature, civilization and barbarism, the center and the periphery. It’s the history of how conquerors justified conquest, and how colonists and the colonized changed each other beyond all recognition. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Empire of the Summer Moon

Quanah Parker and the Rise and Fall of the Comanches, the Most Powerful Indian Tribe in American History

Author: S. C. Gwynne

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1416591060

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 371

View: 7040

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Describes the actions of both whites and Comanches during a 40-year war over territory, in a story that begins with the kidnapping of a white girl, who grew up to marry a Comanche chief and have a son, Quanah, who became a great warrior.

War and the Law of Nations

A General History

Author: Stephen C. Neff

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521662055

Category: History

Page: 443

View: 7657

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This 2005 volume is a history of war, from an international law perspective, from Roman times to the present.

The Ottoman Endgame

War, Revolution, and the Making of the Modern Middle East, 1908-1923

Author: Sean McMeekin

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0143109804

Category: History

Page: 576

View: 9577

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Between 1911 and 1923, a series of wars - chief among them World War I - would engulf the Ottoman Empire and its successor states. Beginning with Italy's invasion of Ottoman Tripoli in September 1911, the opening salvo in what would soon spiral into a European conflict, the book concludes with the establishment of Turkish independence in the Treaty of Lausanne, 1923.

Churchill, Hitler, and "The Unnecessary War"

How Britain Lost Its Empire and the West Lost the World

Author: Patrick J. Buchanan

Publisher: Crown Forum

ISBN: 9780307409560

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 6678

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Were World Wars I and II inevitable? Were they necessary wars? Or were they products of calamitous failures of judgment? In this monumental and provocative history, Patrick Buchanan makes the case that, if not for the blunders of British statesmen–Winston Churchill first among them–the horrors of two world wars and the Holocaust might have been avoided and the British Empire might never have collapsed into ruins. Half a century of murderous oppression of scores of millions under the iron boot of Communist tyranny might never have happened, and Europe’s central role in world affairs might have been sustained for many generations. Among the British and Churchillian errors were: • The secret decision of a tiny cabal in the inner Cabinet in 1906 to take Britain straight to war against Germany, should she invade France • The vengeful Treaty of Versailles that mutilated Germany, leaving her bitter, betrayed, and receptive to the appeal of Adolf Hitler • Britain’s capitulation, at Churchill’s urging, to American pressure to sever the Anglo-Japanese alliance, insulting and isolating Japan, pushing her onto the path of militarism and conquest • The greatest mistake in British history: the unsolicited war guarantee to Poland of March 1939, ensuring the Second World War Certain to create controversy and spirited argument, Churchill, Hitler, and “the Unnecessary War” is a grand and bold insight into the historic failures of judgment that ended centuries of European rule and guaranteed a future no one who lived in that vanished world could ever have envisioned. From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Rise and Fall of the First Galactic Empire

Star Wars and Political Philosophy

Author: Mateusz Machaj

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781981172603

Category:

Page: 138

View: 9010

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What does Palpatine have to do with British philosopher Thomas Hobbes? Was the rise of the Empire a historical necessity? How much Nietzsche can you find in Anakin Skywalker? What does a theory of bureaucracy have to say about the Old Republic? And most importantly, what would Winston Churchill say about Jar-Jar Binks? These are just a few questions of galactic importance not only for the fictional Star Wars political system, but many nonfictional ones. They shed light on virtually all human civilizations that had existed so far and hopefully on civilizations that may appear in the future of mankind. Despite the fact that all generations write their own unique histories, we can find many commonalities among them - especially the types of ruinous mistakes cleverly revealed in the Star Wars saga. The book chronicles the story of the rise and fall of the First Galactic Empire to understand its flourishing and necessary collapse. The story can be told to future generations so they can understand that even something that happened a long time ago, in a galaxy far, far away may be extremely relevant to Earth's socio-political systems. Recommendations: "Why should you care about this book? For three reasons: first, because this book is consistently clever; second, it's genuinely funny; and third, and most important, because its ideas matter. Many people have written about the philosophical themes in Star Wars, and what they might mean for its fans in the real world. But in this book, Mateusz Machaj takes a fresh approach that sets his work apart within the genre. Rather than focus, for example, on the religious themes of the Force or the moral implications of humanity's relationship with technology, Machaj views the Star Wars saga as a parable about the dangers of political power. As he explains, each of the eight canonical films in the series adds its own insights into the nature of power and the corruption it breeds in society. When taken together, they offer a rich and fascinating narrative that weaves together ideas about commerce, social decline, politics, war, empire, and revolution." Matthew McCaffrey, University of Manchester "Machaj takes us on a whirlwind journey through the entire Star Wars series to draw out themes and lessons that most people miss, and that are the key to the peace and prosperity of our own galaxy." Thomas E. Woods Jr., New York Times bestselling author and host of the Tom Woods Show

The Decline and Fall of the British Empire, 1781-1997

Author: Piers Brendon

Publisher: Vintage Books USA

ISBN: 0307388417

Category: History

Page: 786

View: 1724

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Chronicles Britain's rise to imperial might in the wake of the American Revolution, recording life in its diverse colonies and reflecting on the inherent weaknesses of the empire, its inevitable decline, and its legacy for the present.

The Trouble with Empire

Challenges to Modern British Imperialism

Author: Antoinette Burton

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0199936609

Category: Anti-imperialist movements

Page: 336

View: 9562

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While imperial blockbusters fly off the shelves, there is no comprehensive history dedicated to resistance in the 19th and 20th century British Empire. The Trouble with Empire is the first volume to fill this gap, offering a brief but thorough introduction to the nature and consequences ofresistance to British imperialism. Historian Antoinette Burton's study spans the 19th and 20th centuries, when discontented subjects of empire made their unhappiness felt from Ireland to Canada to India to Africa to Australasia, in direct response to incursions of military might and imperial capitalism. The Trouble with Empire offersthe first thoroughgoing account of what British imperialism looked like from below and of how tenuous its hold on alien populations was throughout its long, unstable life. By taking the long view, moving across a variety of geopolitical sites and spanning the whole of the period 1840-1955, Burtonexamines the commonalities between different forms of resistance and unveils the structural weaknesses of the British Empire. From the Indian Mutiny of 1857 to the Anglo-Zulu War to the Opium War, The Trouble with Empire reveals the often-overlooked indigenous agency throughout the British empire and illuminates the limits of imperial power, both official and unofficial.

In the Shadows of the American Century

The Rise and Decline of US Global Power

Author: Alfred W. MCCoy

Publisher: Haymarket Books

ISBN: 1608467740

Category: History

Page: 280

View: 531

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In a completely original analysis, McCoy explores America’s rise as a world power, from the 1890s through the Cold War and its bid to extend its hegemony deep into the twenty-first century through a fusion of cyberwar, space warfare, trade pacts, and military alliances. McCoy then analyzes the marquee instruments of American hegemony—covert intervention, client elites, psychological torture, and worldwide surveillance. Alfred W. McCoy’s 2009 book Policing America’s Empire won the Kahin Prize from the Association for Asian Studies.

The Pity of War

Explaining World War I

Author: Niall Ferguson

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 078672529X

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 5729

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In The Pity of War, Niall Ferguson makes a simple and provocative argument: that the human atrocity known as the Great War was entirely England's fault. Britain, according to Ferguson, entered into war based on naïve assumptions of German aims—and England's entry into the war transformed a Continental conflict into a world war, which they then badly mishandled, necessitating American involvement. The war was not inevitable, Ferguson argues, but rather the result of the mistaken decisions of individuals who would later claim to have been in the grip of huge impersonal forces.That the war was wicked, horrific, inhuman,is memorialized in part by the poetry of men like Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon, but also by cold statistics. More British soldiers were killed in the first day of the Battle of the Somme than Americans in the Vietnam War; indeed, the total British fatalities in that single battle—some 420,000—exceeds the entire American fatalities for both World Wars. And yet, as Ferguson writes, while the war itself was a disastrous folly, the great majority of men who fought it did so with enthusiasm. Ferguson vividly brings back to life this terrifying period, not through dry citation of chronological chapter and verse but through a series of brilliant chapters focusing on key ways in which we now view the First World War.For anyone wanting to understand why wars are fought, why men are willing to fight them, and why the world is as it is today, there is no sharper nor more stimulating guide than Niall Ferguson's The Pity of War.

Empire of Guns

The Violent Making of the Industrial Revolution

Author: Priya Satia

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0735221871

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 760

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By a prize-winning young historian, an authoritative work that reframes the Industrial Revolution, the expansion of British empire, and emergence of industrial capitalism by presenting them as inextricable from the gun trade "A fascinating and important glimpse into how violence fueled the industrial revolution, Priya Satia's book stuns with deep scholarship and sparkling prose."--Siddhartha Mukherjee, Pulitzer Prize-winning author of The Emperor of All Maladies We have long understood the Industrial Revolution as a triumphant story of innovation and technology. Empire of Guns, a rich and ambitious new book by award-winning historian Priya Satia, upends this conventional wisdom by placing war and Britain's prosperous gun trade at the heart of the Industrial Revolution and the state's imperial expansion. Satia brings to life this bustling industrial society with the story of a scandal: Samuel Galton of Birmingham, one of Britain's most prominent gunmakers, has been condemned by his fellow Quakers, who argue that his profession violates the society's pacifist principles. In his fervent self-defense, Galton argues that the state's heavy reliance on industry for all of its war needs means that every member of the British industrial economy is implicated in Britain's near-constant state of war. Empire of Guns uses the story of Galton and the gun trade, from Birmingham to the outermost edges of the British empire, to illuminate the nation's emergence as a global superpower, the roots of the state's role in economic development, and the origins of our era's debates about gun control and the "military-industrial complex" -- that thorny partnership of government, the economy, and the military. Through Satia's eyes, we acquire a radically new understanding of this critical historical moment and all that followed from it. Sweeping in its scope and entirely original in its approach, Empire of Guns is a masterful new work of history -- a rigorous historical argument with a human story at its heart.

The Better Angels of Our Nature

Why Violence Has Declined

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin Group USA

ISBN: 0143122010

Category: Psychology

Page: 802

View: 5925

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Presents a controversial history of violence which argues that today's world is the most peaceful time in human existence, drawing on psychological insights into intrinsic values that are causing people to condemn violence as an acceptable measure.