War and Law Since 1945

Author: Geoffrey Best

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198206992

Category: Law

Page: 434

View: 835

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Civilization has long sought to limit the violence and ugliness of war. This book traces the recent history of these efforts and explores important contemporary issues in the area. Geoffrey Best shows how the Second World War prompted reconstruction of international law, and charts the fortunes of its relations with war since then. He critically surveys the whole range of contemporary armed conflicts - high-tech international wars, wars of national liberation, revolutionary risingsand civil wars. Far more than a litany of the trouble-spots and tragedies of the second half of the twentieth century, this book offers an original and thought-provoking approach to contemporary history, law, politics and ethics, and will be essential reading for anyone concerned with war. Reviews of the hardback edition: `a magnificent exposition of the modern pursuit of legal restraint on warfare ... The lawyers of war and the international humanitarians would be well advised to ponder Bests Laws of War for its scholarly realism and its humanity.' London Review of Books `He writes with enormous authority and at times, for such a heavy subject, a delightfully light touch ... In obliging us to take the very notion of the ethical conduct of war so seriously, Geoffrey Best has performed an enormous service.' Lawrence Freedman, History Today `This is an important book, which the specialists in this subject will refer to for decades to come.' Noel Malcolm,Sunday Telegraph `To write a book of this character, which is scrupulous in never overstating success, and not lose faith in the process, you have to remain an optimist. Geoffrey Best has succeeded in doing this in his impressive study.' A.W. Brian Simpson, Times Literary Supplement `...ambitious, highly significant and courageous ... Interdisciplinary in approach, it is an important text for teachers, students and the practitioners of international relations alike ... Its conclusions, so relevant to the latter part of this century, should not be ignored.' Dermot Keogh, Irish Times `...affords new insights into war and its limits as defined by the law ... an interesting read ... Geoffrey Bests new book gives much food for thought to anyone interested in humanitarian law. It is well worth reading.' Hans-Peter Gasser, International Review of the Red Cross `Geoffrey Best does a signal service to lawyers, and to all students of the law of war, in his most recent examination of this field ... Dr Best has made an important contribution.' James J. Busuttil, International Relations `a sympathetic, intellectually tough and absolutely outstanding account of the contemporary role of the laws of war ... His writing is full of vivid imagery, enlivening what in other hands is often an arid landscape.' Adam Roberts, Survival

God and War

American Civil Religion since 1945

Author: Raymond Haberski, Jr.

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813553180

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 2886

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Americans have long considered their country to be good—a nation "under God" with a profound role to play in the world. Yet nothing tests that proposition like war. Raymond Haberski argues that since 1945 the common moral assumptions expressed in an American civil religion have become increasingly defined by the nation's experience with war. God and War traces how three great postwar “trials”—the Cold War, the Vietnam War, and the War on Terror—have revealed the promise and perils of an American civil religion. Throughout the Cold War, Americans combined faith in God and faith in the nation to struggle against not only communism but their own internal demons. The Vietnam War tested whether America remained a nation "under God," inspiring, somewhat ironically, an awakening among a group of religious, intellectual and political leaders to save the nation's soul. With the tenth anniversary of 9/11 behind us and the subsequent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan winding down, Americans might now explore whether civil religion can exist apart from the power of war to affirm the value of the nation to its people and the world.

The United Nations Security Council and War

The Evolution of Thought and Practice since 1945

Author: Vaughan Lowe,Adam Roberts,Jennifer Welsh,Dominik Zaum

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191614939

Category: Political Science

Page: 816

View: 4922

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This is the first major exploration of the United Nations Security Council's part in addressing the problem of war, both civil and international, since 1945. Both during and after the Cold War the Council has acted in a limited and selective manner, and its work has sometimes resulted in failure. It has not been - and was never equipped to be - the centre of a comprehensive system of collective security. However, it remains the body charged with primary responsibility for international peace and security. It offers unique opportunities for international consultation and military collaboration, and for developing legal and normative frameworks. It has played a part in the reduction in the incidence of international war in the period since 1945. This study examines the extent to which the work of the UN Security Council, as it has evolved, has or has not replaced older systems of power politics and practices regarding the use of force. Its starting point is the failure to implement the UN Charter scheme of having combat forces under direct UN command. Instead, the Council has advanced the use of international peacekeeping forces; it has authorized coalitions of states to take military action; and it has developed some unanticipated roles such as the establishment of post-conflict transitional administrations, international criminal tribunals, and anti-terrorism committees. The book, bringing together distinguished scholars and practitioners, draws on the methods of the lawyer, the historian, the student of international relations, and the practitioner. It begins with an introductory overview of the Council's evolving roles and responsibilities. It then discusses specific thematic issues, and through a wide range of case studies examines the scope and limitations of the Council's involvement in war. It offers frank accounts of how belligerents viewed the UN, and how the Council acted and sometimes failed to act. The appendices provide comprehensive information - much of it not previously brought together in this form - of the extraordinary range of the Council's activities. This book is a project of the Oxford Leverhulme Programme on the Changing Character of War.

Postwar

A History of Europe Since 1945

Author: Tony Judt

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440624766

Category: History

Page: 960

View: 4375

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Finalist for the Pulitzer Prize Winner of the Council on Foreign Relations Arthur Ross Book Award One of the New York Times' Ten Best Books of the Year Almost a decade in the making, this much-anticipated grand history of postwar Europe from one of the world's most esteemed historians and intellectuals is a singular achievement. Postwar is the first modern history that covers all of Europe, both east and west, drawing on research in six languages to sweep readers through thirty-four nations and sixty years of political and cultural change-all in one integrated, enthralling narrative. Both intellectually ambitious and compelling to read, thrilling in its scope and delightful in its small details, Postwar is a rare joy.

CHURCHILL

A Study in Greatness

Author: Geoffrey Best

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9781852852535

Category: History

Page: 370

View: 7439

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"We are all worms. But I do believe I am a glow-worm." --Churchill Winston Churchill's inspiring leadership in the Second World War once made him above criticism. In recent years his record has come under attack from revisionists. In Churchill: A Study in Greatness one of Britain's most distinguished historians rebuts these charges and makes sense of this extraordinary man and his long controversial, colourful, contradictory and heroic career. Geoffrey Best brings out both his strengths and his weaknesses, looking past the many received versions of Churchill in a biography that balances the private and the public man and offers a clear insight into Churchill's greatness. "We are all worms. But I do believe I am a glow-worm." --Churchill Winston Churchill's inspiring leadership in the Second World War once made him above criticism. In recent years his record has come under attack from revisionists. In Churchill: A Study in Greatness one of Britain's most distinguished historians rebuts these charges and makes sense of this extraordinary man and his long controversial, colourful, contradictory and heroic career. Geoffrey Best brings out both his strengths and his weaknesses, looking past the many received versions of Churchill in a biography that balances the private and the public man and offers a clear insight into Churchill's greatness.

The Internationalists

How a Radical Plan to Outlaw War Remade the World

Author: Oona A. Hathaway,Scott J. Shapiro

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 150110988X

Category: History

Page: 608

View: 7546

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“An original book…about individuals who used ideas to change the world” (The New Yorker)—the fascinating exploration into the creation and history of the Paris Peace Pact, an often overlooked but transformative treaty that laid the foundation for the international system we live under today. In 1928, the leaders of the world assembled in Paris to outlaw war. Within the year, the treaty signed that day, known as the Peace Pact, had been ratified by nearly every state in the world. War, for the first time in history, had become illegal. But within a decade of its signing, each state that had gathered in Paris to renounce war was at war. And in the century that followed, the Peace Pact was dismissed as an act of folly and an unmistakable failure. This book argues that the Peace Pact ushered in a sustained march toward peace that lasts to this day. A “thought-provoking and comprehensively researched book” (The Wall Street Journal), The Internationalists tells the story of the Peace Pact through a fascinating and diverse array of lawyers, politicians, and intellectuals. It reveals the centuries-long struggle of ideas over the role of war in a just world order. It details the brutal world of conflict the Peace Pact helped extinguish, and the subsequent era where tariffs and sanctions take the place of tanks and gunships. The Internationalists is “indispensable” (The Washington Post). Accessible and gripping, this book will change the way we view the history of the twentieth century—and how we must work together to protect the global order the internationalists fought to make possible. “A fascinating and challenging book, which raises gravely important issues for the present…Given the state of the world, The Internationalists has come along at the right moment” (The Financial Times).

The Law Against War

The Prohibition on the Use of Force in Contemporary International Law

Author: Olivier Corten

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847316050

Category: Law

Page: 569

View: 5333

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The Law against War is a translated and updated version of a book published in 2008 in French (Le droit contre la guerre, Pedone). The aim of this book is to study the prohibition of the use of armed force in contemporary positive international law. Some commentators claim that the field has undergone substantial changes arising especially since the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. More specifically, several scholars consider that the prohibition laid down as a principle in the United Nations Charter of 1945 should be relaxed in the present-day context of international relations, a change that would seem to be reflected in the emergence of ideas such as 'humanitarian intervention', 'preventive war' or in the possibility of presuming Security Council authorisation under certain exceptional circumstances. The argument in this book is that while marked changes have been observed, above all since the 1990s, the legal regime laid down by the Charter remains founded on a genuine jus contra bellum and not on the jus ad bellum that characterised earlier periods. 'The law against war', as in the title of this book, is a literal rendering of the familiar Latin expression and at the same time it conveys the spirit of a rule that remains, without a doubt, one of the cornerstones of public international law. From the Foreword by Bruno Simma 'Corten's book is weighty not just by its size, but above all through the depth and comprehensiveness with which it analyzes the entirety of what the author calls the law against war, the jus contra bellum... Corten tackles his immense task with a combination of methodical rigour, applying modern positivism and abstaining from constructions of a lex ferenda, and great sensibility for the political context and the ensuing possibilities and limitations of the legal regulation of force.'

Long Wars and the Constitution

Author: Stephen M. Griffin

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674074459

Category: Political Science

Page: 375

View: 7261

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Extension of presidential leadership in foreign affairs to war powers has destabilized our constitutional order and deranged our foreign policy. Stephen M. Griffin shows unexpected connections between the imperial presidency and constitutional crises, and argues for accountability by restoring Congress to a meaningful role in decisions for war.

The World Since 1945

An International History

Author: P. M. H. Bell,Mark Gilbert

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472534425

Category: History

Page: 584

View: 9976

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A masterly synthesis of the history of the contemporary world, The World Since 1945 offers the ideal introduction to the events of the period between the end of the Second World War and the present day. P. M. H. Bell and Mark Gilbert balance a clear narrative with in-depth analysis to guide the reader through the aftermath of the Second World War, the Cold War, decolonization, Détente and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, up to the on-going ethnic strife and political instability of the 21st century. The new edition has been thoroughly revised to fully reflect developments in the history and historiography of the post-war world, and features five new chapters on the post-Cold War world, covering topics including: - The rise and fall of American hegemony - The decline of Europe - The rise of Asia - Political Islam as a global force - The role of human rights The World Since 1945 challenges us to better understand what happened and why in the post-war period and shows the ways in which the past continues to exercise a profound influence on the present. It is essential reading for any student of contemporary history.

The State, War, and the State of War

Author: Kalevi Jaakko Holsti

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521577908

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

View: 9406

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Why do we have Rwandas, Bosnias, and Somalias? This book explores the sources of such bitter, prolonged conflicts that result in immense human tragedies of civilian deaths and mass refugee flows. The author argues that such conflicts, and not wars between states, are the wars of the future. What can the United Nations and other international institutions do about them? Can organizations designed to manage conflicts between states successfully manage wars whose origins are domestic? The author develops some ideas about conflict resolution and peace derived from such recent experiences of war.

The United States and Western Europe Since 1945

From "Empire" by Invitation to Transatlantic Drift

Author: Geir Lundestad

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191647780

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 4331

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Based on new and existing research by a world-class scholar, this is the first book in twenty years to examine the dynamics of the entire American-West European relationship since 1945. The relationship between the United States and Western Europe has always been crucial and recent events dictate that it is becoming ever more so. In this important new work, Geir Lundestad analyses the balance between the cooperation and conflict which has characterized this relationship in the post-war period. He examines talk of transatlantic drift, and the strain now apparent between the USA and the nation states of Western Europe. In the concluding section, Lundestad offers a topical view of the future of transatlantic interaction. Throughout the work Lundestad's much cited 'empire by invitation' thesis is both put into practice and extended in time and scope. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in one of the most important and enduring international relationships of the last sixty years.

Religion and International Law

Author: Mark W. Janis,Carolyn Maree Evans

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041111746

Category: Political Science

Page: 513

View: 1853

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One of the great tasks, perhaps the greatest, weighing on modern international lawyers is to craft a universal law and legal process capable of ordering relations among diverse people with differing religions, histories, cultures, laws, and languages. In so doing, we need to take the world's peoples as we find them and not pretend out of existence their wide variety. This volume builds on the eleven essaysedited by Mark Janis in 1991 in The Influence of Religion and the Development of International Law, more than doubling its authors and essays and covering more religious traditions. Now included are studies of the interface between international law and ancient religions, Confucianism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, as well as essays addressing the impact of religious thought on the literature and sources of international law, international courts, and human rights law.

The Politics of Globality since 1945

Assembling the Planet

Author: Rens van Munster,Casper Sylvest

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317239881

Category: Political Science

Page: 202

View: 8149

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This timely, comprehensive and interdisciplinary volume advances an original argument about the complex roots and multiple politics of globality. It shows that technological innovations and decisive developments since 1945 – from the nuclear revolution to anthropogenic climate change and debates about the Anthropocene – have prompted reflections on the global condition of humanity and helped reshape political communities by making the world (appear) small, manageable and interconnected. The contributors stress how human beings have transformed both their habitat and their view of human-earth relations since 1945. Such changes have been accompanied by important shifts in political visions, prompted new forms of human association, encouraged legal and institutional reform and spurred ideas about ecological humility. At the same time, the spatially all-encompassing nature of globality have also informed projects of human mastery and a range of practices historically associated with militarization and a strongly statist conception of national security. This volume reflects on these paradoxical relationships, their history and contemporary relevance. Contributing to the overlapping concerns of four burgeoning fields of study across the humanities and the social sciences - globality and globalization studies; geopolitics and political geography; Anthropocene studies; global governance and political theory – the book will be of great use to scholars and graduates working in these areas.

War Experience and Memory in Global Cultures Since 1914

Author: Angela K. Smith,Sandra Barkhof

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429953569

Category: History

Page: 282

View: 1847

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This edited collection explores and develops representations of war experience from 1914 to the ongoing conflicts of the 21st century, through the specific lens of memory. It builds on recent explorations of the importance of war experience in shaping cultural memory that have focused on the aftermath of the First World War and the Second World War, particularly through Holocaust studies. These essays, by a range of international and interdisciplinary scholars, broaden the scope considerably, examining the alternate spaces of the First World War and those that followed it through a range of different media, offering an artistic trajectory to the centennial commemorations of 2014-18.

Documents on the Laws of War

Author: Adam Roberts,Richard Guelff

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 765

View: 8788

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This new edition has been revised and updated to take account of the many diplomatic, legal and military developments of the last ten years. Conflicts in the Persian Gulf, the Balkans and Rwanda have ensured that the laws of war remain relevant.

The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict

Author: Yoram Dinstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316453820

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 2233

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Written by the leading commentator on the subject, this is the seminal textbook on the law of international armed conflict. Focusing on recent issues arising in the course of hostilities between States, it explores the dividing line between lawful and unlawful combatants, the meaning of war crimes and command responsibility, the range of prohibited weapons, the distinction between combatants and civilians, the parameters of targeting and proportionality, the loss of protection from attack (including 'direct participation in hostilities') and special protection (granted, pre-eminently, to the environment and to cultural property). In a completely revised and updated text, the author expertly covers the key principles and includes important new issues, including the use of autonomous weapons and the complexities of urban warfare. The subtleties and nuances of the international law of armed conflict are made accessible to the student and practitioner alike, whilst retaining the academic rigour of previous editions.

Constructing the Memory of War in Visual Culture since 1914

The Eye on War

Author: Ann Murray

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351360205

Category: Art

Page: 272

View: 3513

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This collection provides a transnational, interdisciplinary perspective on artistic responses to war from 1914 to the present, analysing a broad selection of the rich, complex body of work which has emerged in response to conflicts since the Great War. Many of the creators examined here embody the human experience of war: first-hand witnesses who developed a unique visual language in direct response to their role as victim, soldier, refugee, resister, prisoner and embedded or official artist. Contributors address specific issues relating to propaganda, wartime femininity and masculinity, women as war artists, trauma, the role of art in soldiery, memory, art as resistance, identity and the memorialisation of war.

Savage Continent

Europe in the Aftermath of World War II

Author: Keith Lowe

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 1250015049

Category: History

Page: 480

View: 3054

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The Second World War might have officially ended in May 1945, but in reality it rumbled on for another ten years... The end of the Second World War in Europe is one of the twentieth century's most iconic moments. It is fondly remembered as a time when cheering crowds filled the streets, danced, drank and made love until the small hours. These images of victory and celebration are so strong in our minds that the period of anarchy and civil war that followed has been forgotten. Across Europe, landscapes had been ravaged, entire cities razed and more than thirty million people had been killed in the war. The institutions that we now take for granted - such as the police, the media, transport, local and national government - were either entirely absent or hopelessly compromised. Crime rates were soaring, economies collapsing, and the European population was hovering on the brink of starvation. In Savage Continent, Keith Lowe describes a continent still racked by violence, where large sections of the population had yet to accept that the war was over. Individuals, communities and sometimes whole nations sought vengeance for the wrongs that had been done to them during the war. Germans and collaborators everywhere were rounded up, tormented and summarily executed. Concentration camps were reopened and filled with new victims who were tortured and starved. Violent anti-Semitism was reborn, sparking murders and new pogroms across Europe. Massacres were an integral part of the chaos and in some places – particularly Greece, Yugoslavia and Poland, as well as parts of Italy and France – they led to brutal civil wars. In some of the greatest acts of ethnic cleansing the world has ever seen, tens of millions were expelled from their ancestral homelands, often with the implicit blessing of the Allied authorities. Savage Continent is the story of post WWII Europe, in all its ugly detail, from the end of the war right up until the establishment of an uneasy stability across Europe towards the end of the 1940s. Based principally on primary sources from a dozen countries, Savage Continent is a frightening and thrilling chronicle of a world gone mad, the standard history of post WWII Europe for years to come.