Understanding Physics

Author: Michael Mansfield,Colm O'Sullivan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118437829

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 6818

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Understanding Physics – Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable students to proceed easily to subsequent courses in physics and may be used to support such courses. Mathematical methods (in particular, calculus and vector analysis) are introduced within the text as the need arises and are presented in the context of the physical problems which they are used to analyse. Particular aims of the book are to demonstrate to students that the easiest, most concise and least ambiguous way to express and describe phenomena in physics is by using the language of mathematics and that, at this level, the total amount of mathematics required is neither large nor particularly demanding. 'Modern physics' topics (relativity and quantum mechanics) are introduced at an earlier stage than is usually found in introductory textbooks and are integrated with the more 'classical' material from which they have evolved. This book encourages students to develop an intuition for relativistic and quantum concepts at as early a stage as is practicable. The text takes a reflective approach towards the scientific method at all stages and, in keeping with the title of the text, emphasis is placed on understanding of, and insight into, the material presented.

Understanding the Universe

An Introduction to Physics and Astrophysics

Author: James B. Seaborn

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461206898

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 1524

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Intended for undergraduate non-science majors, satisfying a general education requirement or seeking an elective in natural science, this is a physics text, but with the emphasis on topics and applications in astronomy. The perspective is thus different from most undergraduate astronomy courses: rather than discussing what is known about the heavens, this text develops the principles of physics so as to illuminate what we see in the heavens. The fundamental principles governing the behaviour of matter and energy are thus used to study the solar system, the structure and evolution of stars, and the early universe. The first part of the book develops Newtonian mechanics towards an understanding of celestial mechanics, while chapters on electromagnetism and elementary quantum theory lay the foundation of the modern theory of the structure of matter and the role of radiation in the constitution of stars. Kinetic theory and nuclear physics provide the basis for a discussion of stellar structure and evolution, and an examination of red shifts and other observational data provide a basis for discussions of cosmology and cosmogony.

Electronic Imaging in Astronomy

Detectors and Instrumentation

Author: Ian S. McLean

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540765832

Category: Science

Page: 552

View: 6290

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The second edition of Electronic Imaging in Astronomy: Detectors and Instrumentation describes the remarkable developments that have taken place in astronomical detectors and instrumentation in recent years – from the invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in 1970 to the current era of very large telescopes, such as the Keck 10-meter telescopes in Hawaii with their laser guide-star adaptive optics which rival the image quality of the Hubble Space Telescope. Authored by one of the world’s foremost experts on the design and development of electronic imaging systems for astronomy, this book has been written on several levels to appeal to a broad readership. Mathematical expositions are designed to encourage a wider audience, especially among the growing community of amateur astronomers with small telescopes with CCD cameras. The book can be used at the college level for an introductory course on modern astronomical detectors and instruments, and as a supplement for a practical or laboratory class.

Physics of the environment and climate

Author: Gérard Guyot

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471968283

Category: Nature

Page: 632

View: 3121

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Physics of the Environment and Climate GA(c)rard Guyot This introductory text reviews, for the first time in a unified form, information which is generally scattered between more specialized books in physics, meteorology, climatology, ecophysiology, agronomy and instrumental physics. In Physics of the Environment and Climate, GA(c)rard Guyot brings together physical, meteorological, ecological, and agronomical data, with a view to clarifying our understanding of complex global and climatological phenomena relating to the environment. In addition to the intrinsic scientific interest of this subject, it also has important applications in planning and production in agriculture, management of the rural environment, and evaluation of the impact of human activity on our surroundings. The first three chapters analyse energy and mass exchanges within and above the plant canopy and in the upper layers of the soil. They describe also the interaction existing between plant activity (photosynthesis, transpiration, etc.) and environmental factors. The following two chapters introduce the basic knowledge necessary for an understanding of the mechanisms affecting climates at different scales from the synoptic to local microclimates. The utilization of climatic data is then presented. Beginning with statistical analyses, the author leads on to practical applications, such as the determination of climatic risks, climatic and agro-climatic distribution in zones, and crop forecasting. The final chapter reviews the equipment and measurement methods used for the determination of various climatic factors. The broad nature of the book's approach, its inclusion of large-scale processes, explanations of how to measure climatic factors, and their use in solving practical problems in agro-climatology, will give the book immediate appeal. It provides the necessary information for land management planning from an agro-meteorological point of view, and is suitable for the undergraduate student and non-specialist reader with only a basic understanding of physics and mathematics. Readership: Students of agronomy, meteorology, climatology, geography, environmental science, atmospheric physics and environmental physics. Engineers and professionals in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, ecology, the rural environment, and the management of land, water and other natural resources.

Space Weather

Physics and Effects

Author: Volker Bothmer,Ioannis A. Daglis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540345787

Category: Science

Page: 438

View: 9252

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The editors present a state-of-the-art overview on the Physics of Space Weather and its effects on technological and biological systems on the ground and in space. It opens with a general introduction on the subject, followed by a historical review on the major developments in the field of solar terrestrial relationships leading to its development into the up-to-date field of space weather. Specific emphasis is placed on the technological effects that have impacted society in the past century at times of major solar activity. Chapter 2 summarizes key milestones, starting from the base of solar observations with classic telescopes up to recent space observations and new mission developments with EUV and X-ray telescopes (e.g., STEREO), yielding an unprecedented view of the sun-earth system. Chapter 3 provides a scientific summary of the present understanding of the physics of the sun-earth system based on the latest results from spacecraft designed to observe the Sun, the interplanetary medium and geospace. Chapter 4 describes how the plasma and magnetic field structure of the earth's magnetosphere is impacted by the variation of the solar and interplanetary conditions, providing the necessary science and technology background for missions in low and near earth's orbit. Chapter 5 elaborates the physics of the layer of the earth's upper atmosphere that is the cause of disruptions in radio-wave communications and GPS (Global Positioning System) errors, which is of crucial importance for projects like Galileo. In Chapters 6-10, the impacts of technology used up to now in space, on earth and on life are reviewed.

From Physics to Daily Life

Applications in Biology, Medicine, and Healthcare

Author: Beatrice Bressan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527687068

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 386

View: 8149

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Beatrice Bressan brings together a number of outstanding examples of successful cross-disciplinary technology transfer originating in fundamental physics research, which dramatically impacted progress in biomedical research and clinical applications. Many of these examples were developed at CERN, a hotbed of fundamental inventions in particle physics. Additional sections of the book deal with knowledge management and technology transfer including its economic aspects. While each chapter has been drafted by an expert in the field, the editor has carefully edited the whole book, ensuring a coherent overall structure. A must-have for policy makers, technology companies, investors, strategic planners in research and technology, as well as attractive reading for the research community.

Quantitative Geophysics and Geology

Author: Louis Lliboutry

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781852331153

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 7443

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This book is unique in bridging the gap between geology and geophysics. Its integrative approach presents students and researchers in these disciplines with other methodologies as they try to understand the Earth's processes. It runs the gamut of earth sciences, from earthquakes and seismic exploration to thermal convection and the orogenic processes. Each chapter starts with the well-established facts and then proceeds through a logical framework to the most conjectural questions, such as continental drift in Paleozoicc and Precambrian times or mantle convection. Many of the issues discussed here do not yet have unanimously agreed solutions, but the extensive references point the reader to further possibilities.

Building Physics: Heat, Air and Moisture

Fundamentals and Engineering Methods with Examples and Exercises

Author: Hugo S. L. Hens

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3433608571

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 316

View: 3735

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Bad experiences with construction quality, the energy crises of 1973 and 1979, complaints about "sick buildings", thermal, acoustical, visual and olfactory discomfort, the need for good air quality, the move towards more sustainability - all these have accelerated the development of a field that, for a long time, was hardly more than an academic exercise: building physics (in English speaking countries sometimes referred to as building science). The discipline embraces domains such as heat and mass transfer, building acoustics, lighting, indoor environmental quality and energy efficiency. In some countries, fire safety is also included. Through the application of physical knowledge and its combination with information coming from other disciplines, the field helps to understand the physical phenomena governing building parts, building envelope, whole buildings and built environment performance, although for the last the wording "urban physics" is used. Today, building physics has become a key player on the road to a performance based building design. The book deals with the description, analysis and modeling of heat, air and moisture transport in building assemblies and whole buildings with main emphasis on the building engineering applications, including examples. The physical transport processes determine the performance of the building envelope and may influence the serviceability of the structure and the whole building. Compared to the second edition, in this third edition the text has partially been revised and extended.

Particle Astrophysics

Author: Donald H. Perkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198509523

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7750

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Recent years have seen a symbiosis of the fields of elementary particle physics and the astrophysics of the early universe. This text presents the background of the subjects and the latest developments at a level suitable for the average physics undergraduate. After introductory chapters in elementary particles and their interactions and role in the expanding universe, the problems and challenges of cosmological asymmetries, dark matter and dark energy are presented, followed by chapterson the growth of cosmic structure, on high energy cosmic rays and on particle processes in stars. A balance is maintained between theory and experiment and the text supplemented with over 100 problems, together with answers and model solutions.

Physics of the Environment

Author: A. W. Brinkman

Publisher: Imperial College Press

ISBN: 1848161794

Category: Science

Page: 213

View: 683

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Most books on environmental science focus on ecological or biological aspects of environmental conservation, often with a polemic agenda. The physics, if covered at all, is generally superficial. Using pertinent examples from the environment and the ways in which people interact with it, Physics of the Environment sets out to provide a cogent account of the underlying physical laws with a lucidity and rigor appropriate to an undergraduate course in the subject. Students will gain an understanding of the physical concepts that govern the world as well as an appreciation of the technologies of power generation and transport, and the impact these have on the environment.

The R Book

Author: Michael J. Crawley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118448960

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1080

View: 4724

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Hugely successful and popular text presenting an extensive and comprehensive guide for all R users The R language is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software packages, enabling users to apply many statistical techniques that would be impossible without such software to help implement such large data sets. R has become an essential tool for understanding and carrying out research. This edition: Features full colour text and extensive graphics throughout. Introduces a clear structure with numbered section headings to help readers locate information more efficiently. Looks at the evolution of R over the past five years. Features a new chapter on Bayesian Analysis and Meta-Analysis. Presents a fully revised and updated bibliography and reference section. Is supported by an accompanying website allowing examples from the text to be run by the user. Praise for the first edition: ‘…if you are an R user or wannabe R user, this text is the one that should be on your shelf. The breadth of topics covered is unsurpassed when it comes to texts on data analysis in R.’ (The American Statistician, August 2008) ‘The High-level software language of R is setting standards in quantitative analysis. And now anybody can get to grips with it thanks to The R Book…’ (Professional Pensions, July 2007)

Chemically Reacting Flow

Theory, Modeling, and Simulation

Author: Robert J. Kee,Michael E. Coltrin,Peter Glarborg,Huayang Zhu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119186293

Category: Science

Page: 792

View: 1051

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A guide to the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of chemically reacting flow Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory, Modeling, and Simulation, Second Edition combines fundamental concepts in fluid mechanics and physical chemistry while helping students and professionals to develop the analytical and simulation skills needed to solve real-world engineering problems. The authors clearly explain the theoretical and computational building blocks enabling readers to extend the approaches described to related or entirely new applications. New to this Second Edition are substantially revised and reorganized coverage of topics treated in the first edition. New material in the book includes two important areas of active research: reactive porous-media flows and electrochemical kinetics. These topics create bridges between traditional fluid-flow simulation approaches and transport within porous-media electrochemical systems. The first half of the book is devoted to multicomponent fluid-mechanical fundamentals. In the second half the authors provide the necessary fundamental background needed to couple reaction chemistry into complex reacting-flow models. Coverage of such topics is presented in self-contained chapters, allowing a great deal of flexibility in course curriculum design. • Features new chapters on reactive porous-media flow, electrochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, transport properties, and solving differential equations in MATLAB • Provides the theoretical underpinnings and practical applications of chemically reacting flow • Emphasizes fundamentals, allowing the analyst to understand fundamental theory underlying reacting-flow simulations • Helps readers to acquire greater facility in the derivation and solution of conservation equations in new or unusual circumstances • Reorganized to facilitate use as a class text and now including a solutions manual for academic adopters Computer simulation of reactive systems is highly efficient and cost-effective in the development, enhancement, and optimization of chemical processes. Chemically Reacting Flow: Theory, Modeling, and Simulation, Second Edition helps prepare graduate students in mechanical or chemical engineering, as well as research professionals in those fields take utmost advantage of that powerful capability.

Essays on the Frontiers of Modern Astrophysics and Cosmology

Author: Santhosh Mathew

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319018876

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 1777

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This book is a collection of fourteen essays that describe an inspiring journey through the universe and discusses popular science topics that modern physics and cosmology are struggling to deal with. What is our place in the universe and what happens in the magnificent cosmos where we exist for a brief amount of time. In an unique way that incorporates mythological and philosophical perspectives, the essays in this work address the big questions of what the universe is, how it came into being, and where it may be heading. This exciting adventure is a rich scientific history of elegant physics, mathematics, and cosmology as well as a philosophical and spiritual pursuit fueled by the human imagination.

Planet Mars

Story of Another World

Author: François Forget,François Costard,Philippe Lognonné

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0387489274

Category: Science

Page: 229

View: 1767

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Mars, like planet Earth, is a complex and vast world with a long history. The authors of this book give a new insight of Mars by adopting an original outline based on history rather than on subtopic (atmosphere, surface, interior). They focus on the past and present evolution of Mars and also incorporate all the recent results from the space missions of Mars Express, Spirit and Opportunity. This book goes to the heart of current planetological research, and illustrates it with many beautiful images. The authors describe the magnificent scenery on Mars including Olympus Mons, more than 20,000 metres high and the solar system's biggest volcano. At Mars' poles, glaciers, formed from thousands of fine strata, are evidence of past climatic fluctuations. Drs Forget and Costard and Professor Lognonne introduce a new world and reveal the workings of the planet Mars. They answer the questions: How was Mars formed? Why has its evolution followed a different path to that of Earth? What do its river beds, volcanoes and glaciers tell us about its past? Could life have existed there? Does it exist there now? What processes drive Mars today? The five parts of the book trace the history of Mars. Part 1 examines its formation from the ashes of dead stars, more than 4 5 billion years ago. Part 2 travels through its early and turbulent youth and gradual, 3-5-billion-year long metamorphosis. Part 3 traces the creation of great planetary structures while Part 4 explores this active planet as it is today, with its dust storms, water features and atmosphere, and shows that Mars is subject to continual climatic change. Finally, in Part 5, the story of the recent exploration of Mars and current research in laboratories and space agencies in preparation for the missions of the next twenty years is recounted.

Contributions from Science Education Research

Author: Roser Pintó

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402050313

Category: Education

Page: 518

View: 9596

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In August 2005, over 500 international researchers from the field of science education met at the 5th European Science Education Research Association conference in Barcelona, Spain. Two of the main topics at this conference were: the decrease in the number of students interested in school science and concern about the worldwide outcomes of studies on students’ scientific literacy. At the conference, over 400 papers were presented, covering a wide range of topics relevant to science education research, such as evidence-based practice, teachers’ professional development, the role of ICT and multimedia, formal and informal learning environments, and argumentation and modelling in science education. This volume includes edited versions of 37 outstanding papers presented during the conference, including the lectures of the keynote speakers. They have been selected for their quality, variety and interest, and present a good overview of the field of science education research.

The liquid state

applications of molecular simulations

Author: David M. Heyes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 251

View: 6309

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This volume details the application of molecular simulation to the liquid state. It is organised in a clear and logical way that first takes the reader through the underlying statistical mechanical theory necessary to understand the liquid state, especially those aspects that can be taken advantage of by simulation to help unravel the nature of the liquid state. The Liquid State - Applications of Molecular Simulations continues by covering the various modern variants of the Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics techniques, for example, Gibbs ensemble MC and alternative ensemble MD. The effects of molecular architecture and chemical composition on the microscopic and macroscopic behaviour of liquids are also covered. The author has included chapters on surfaces, equations of state and phase equilibria, which emphasise new simulation techniques and conclusions made from the theories. Langmuir films, liquid crystals and the glassy state are also considered. A full understanding of the behaviour of liquids is extremely important in, for example, the detergent and oil industries. In order fully to understand and predict the behaviour of liquids, complex simulation techniques are now frequently used. The Liquid State - Applications of Molecular Simulations is an invaluable state-of-the-art analysis for advanced undergraduates and postgraduates as well as researchers in government and industry.

Essential Soil Physics

An Introduction to Soil Processes, Functions, Structure and Mechanics

Author: K. H. Hartge

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781486307272

Category: Soil physics

Page: 391

View: 3502

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Soils are the porous skin of the Earth with variable and complex structures composed of solid, liquid and gaseous phases. This textbook (based on the 4th, German language edition) introduces the reader gently but comprehensively to soil physical processes. The authors discuss both the origin and dynamics of soil physical properties and functions -- including volume-mass relations of the solid, water and gas phases, grain and pore size distributions, permeability and storage capacity for water, gases and heat -- and finally soil deformation and strength in relation to mechanical and hydraulic stresses resulting in structural changes through compaction, kneading, slaking and soil crusting.