Underneath the Bragg Peaks

Structural Analysis of Complex Materials

Author: Takeshi Egami,Simon J.L. Billinge

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080971415

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 422

View: 5682

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This book focuses on the structural determination of crystalline solids with extensive disorder. Well-established methods exist for characterizing the structure of fully crystalline solids or fully disordered materials such as liquids and glasses, but there is a dearth of techniques for the cases in-between, crystalline solids with internal atomic and nanometer scale disorder. Egami and Billinge discuss how to fill the gap using modern tools of structural characterization. This problem is encountered in the structural characterization of a surprisingly wide range of complex materials of interest to modern technology and is becoming increasingly important. Takeshi Egami received the 2003 Eugene Bertram Warren Diffraction Physics Award for the work described in the book. The authors received 2010 J. D. Hanawalt Award from the International Union of Crystallography largely based on the success of this book. Introduces a unique method to study the atomic structure of nanomaterials Lays out the basic theory and methods of this important emerging technique The first edition is considered the seminal text on the subject

Underneath the Bragg Peaks

Structural Analysis of Complex Materials

Author: Takeshi Egami,S. J. L. Billinge

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080426980

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 4015

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This book describes a technique of structural study, the atomic-pair distribution function analysis. This is a relatively new technique, with a strong promise of wide application in the study of the local structure of crystalline materials and materials science in general.

Underneath the Bragg Peaks

Structural Analysis of Complex Materials

Author: Takeshi Egami,Simon J.L. Billinge

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080543383

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 422

View: 7904

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* Introducing a unique method to study the atomic structure of nano-materials * Award winning research. Takeshi Egami received the 2003 Eugene Bertram Warren Diffraction Physics Award for the work described in the book. This book focuses on the structural determination of crystalline solids with extensive disorder. Well-established methods exist for characterizing the structure of fully crystalline solids or fully disordered materials such as liquids and glasses, but there is a dearth of techniques for the cases in-between, crystalline solids with internal atomic and nanometer scale disorder. Egami and Billinge discuss how to fill the gap using modern tools of structural characterization. While this subject might sound rather narrow, the fact is that today this problem is encountered in the structural characterization of a surprisingly wide range of complex materials of interest to modern technology and is becoming increasingly important.

From Semiconductors to Proteins: Beyond the Average Structure

Author: S.J.L. Billinge,M.F. Thorpe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461506131

Category: Science

Page: 287

View: 1826

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This series of books, which is published at the rate of about one per year, addresses fundamental problems in materials science. The contents cover a broad range of topics from small clusters of atoms to engineering materials and involve chemistry, physics, materials science, and engineering, with length scales ranging from Angstroms up to millimeters. The emphasis is on basic science rather than on applications. Each book focuses on a single area of current interest and brings together leading experts to give an up-to-date discussion of their work and the work of others. Each article contains enough references that the interested reader can access the relevant literature. Thanks are given to the Center for Fundamental Materials Research at Michigan State University for supporting this series. M.F. Thorpe, Series Editor E-mail: [email protected] East Lansing, Michigan, November 200 I v PREFACE The study of the atomic structure of crystalline materials began at the beginning of the twentieth century with the discovery by Max von Laue and by W.H. and W.L. Bragg that crystals diffract x-rays. At that time, even the existence of atoms was controversial.

Local Structure from Diffraction

Author: simon Billinge,M.F. Thorpe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306470772

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 399

View: 9361

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This series of books, which is published at the rate of about one per year, addresses fundamental problems in materials science. The contents cover a broad range of topics from small clusters of atoms to engineering materials and involve chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, with length scales ranging from Ångstroms up to millimeters. The emphasis is on basic science rather than on applications. Each book focuses on a single area of current interest and brings together leading experts to give an up-to-date discussion of their work and the work of others. Each article contains enough references that the interested reader can access the relevant literature. Thanks are given to the Center for Fundamental Materials Research at Michigan State University for supporting this series. M.F. Thorpe, Series Editor E-mail: thorpe @ pa.msu.edu East Lansing, Michigan PREFACE One of the most challenging problems in the study of structure is to characterize the atomic short-range order in materials. Long-range order can be determined with a high degree of accuracy by analyzing Bragg peak positions and intensities in data from single crystals or powders. However, information about short-range order is contained in the diffuse scattering intensity. This is difficult to analyze because it is low in absolute intensity (though the integrated intensity may be significant) and widely spread in reciprocal space.

The Name of this Book Is Secret

Author: Pseudonymous Bosch

Publisher: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers

ISBN: 9780316039925

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 384

View: 2179

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Warning: this description has not been authorized by Pseudonymous Bosch. As much as he'd love to sing the praises of his book (he is very vain), he wouldn't want you to hear about his brave 11-year old heroes, Cass and Max-Ernest. Or about how a mysterious box of vials, the Symphony of Smells, sends them on the trail of a magician who has vanished under strange (and stinky) circumstances. And he certainly wouldn't want you to know about the hair-raising adventures that follow and the nefarious villains they face. You see, not only is the name of this book secret, the story inside is, too. For it concerns a secret. A Big Secret.

Uniting Electron Crystallography and Powder Diffraction

Author: Ute Kolb,Kenneth Shankland,Louisa Meshi,Anatoly Avilov,William I.F David

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9400755805

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 5497

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The polycrystalline and nanocrystalline states play an increasingly important role in exploiting the properties of materials, encompassing applications as diverse as pharmaceuticals, catalysts, solar cells and energy storage. A knowledge of the three-dimensional atomic and molecular structure of materials is essential for understanding and controlling their properties, yet traditional single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods lose their power when only polycrystalline and nanocrystalline samples are available. It is here that powder diffraction and single-crystal electron diffraction techniques take over, substantially extending the range of applicability of the crystallographic principles of structure determination. This volume, a collection of teaching contributions presented at the Crystallographic Course in Erice in 2011, clearly describes the fundamentals and the state-of-the-art of powder diffraction and electron diffraction methods in materials characterisation, encompassing a diverse range of disciplines and materials stretching from archeometry to zeolites. As such, it is a comprehensive and valuable resource for those wishing to gain an understanding of the broad applicability of these two rapidly developing fields.

Structure Determination from Powder Diffraction Data

Author: William I. F. David

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198500912

Category: Science

Page: 337

View: 6694

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Our understanding of the properties of materials, from drugs and proteins to catalysts and ceramics, is almost always based on structural information. This book describes the new developments in the realm of powder diffraction which make it possible for scientists to obtain such information even from polycrystalline materials. Written and edited by experts active in the field, and covering both the fundamental and applied aspects of structure solution from powder diffraction data, this book guides both novices and experienced practitioners alike through the maze of possibilities.

Nucleation in Condensed Matter

Applications in Materials and Biology

Author: Ken Kelton,Alan Lindsay Greer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080912648

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 756

View: 2257

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In Nucleation in Condensed Matter, key theoretical models for nucleation are developed and experimental data are used to discuss their range of validity. A central aim of this book is to enable the reader, when faced with a phenomenon in which nucleation appears to play a role, to determine whether nucleation is indeed important and to develop a quantitative and predictive description of the nucleation behavior. The third section of the book examines nucleation processes in practical situations, ranging from solid state precipitation to nucleation in biological systems to nucleation in food and drink. Nucleation in Condensed Matter is a key reference for an advanced materials course in phase transformations. It is also an essential reference for researchers in the field. Unified treatment of key theories, experimental evaluations and case studies Complete derivation of key models Detailed discussion of experimental measurements Examples of nucleation in diverse systems

Multifaceted Roles of Crystallography in Modern Drug Discovery

Author: Giovanna Scapin,Disha Patel,Eddy Arnold

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401797196

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 4511

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The present work offers a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of crystallographic, analytical, and computational methods used in modern drug design and development. Topics discussed include: drug design against complex systems (membrane proteins, cell surface receptors, epigenetic targets, and ribosomes); modulation of protein-protein interactions; the impact of small molecule structures in drug discovery and the application of concepts such as molecular geometry, conformation, and flexibility to drug design; methodologies for understanding and characterizing protein states and protein-ligand interactions during the drug design process; and monoclonal antibody therapies. These methods are illustrated through their application to problems of medical and biological significance, such as viral and bacterial infections, diabetes, autoimmune disease, and CNS diseases. As approaches to drug discovery have changed over time, so have the methodologies used to solve the varied, new, and difficult problems encountered in drug discovery. In recent years we have seen great progress in the fields of genetics, biology, chemistry, and medicine, but there are still many unmet medical needs, from bacterial infections to cancer to chronic maladies, that require novel, different, or better therapies. This work will be of interest to researchers and policy makers interested in the latest developments in drug design.

Intermetallic Chemistry

Author: Riccardo Ferro,Adriana Saccone

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080553354

Category: Science

Page: 813

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Intermetallic science is closely related to physics, chemistry, metallurgy, materials science & technology, and engineering. This book emphasizes the chemical aspects of this science, and therefore the mutual reactivity of metals and the characteristics of intermetallic compounds. Topics included are: OCo Phase diagrams of alloy systems. Many intermetallic systems form several compounds, generally not obeying common simple stoichiometric rules, which are often homogeneous in a certain range of compositions. The stability and extension of these phases are conveniently presented through phase diagrams. OCo Selected aspects of intermetallics structural chemistry, with emphasis on the solid state. The general structural characteristics of intermetallic phases are considered, with attention to nomenclature and to alternative and complementary methods of presenting crystal-chemical data. A brief account is given of derivative and degenerate structures, modular aspects of crystal structures, and of a few special groups of alloys such as quasicrystals and amorphous alloys. A number of selected structural prototypes with typical features, their possible grouping in structural OC familieso and their distribution among different types of alloys are provided. OCo Intermetallic reactivity trends in the Periodic Table. Attention is given to a few selected elemental parameters such as electron configuration and valence electron number and to their changes along the Table, which act as reference factors of the intermetallic behaviour. As an example, the relationships are considered between crystal structure and the number of valence electrons per atom (or per formula) in various classes of compounds or solid solution phases. OCo Alloying behaviour systematics of intermetallic systems with a description of the intermetallic reactivity of each element, or group of elements, in the order of their position in the Periodic Table. For each pair of metallic elements, their capability to form intermediate phases is summarised by maps and schemes. OCo A description of small scale preparation methods of intermetallics. A number of interesting and significant peculiarities are, e.g., those related to their high melting points, insolubility in common solvents, etc. A Systematic treatment of alloying behaviour A Wide overview of intermetallic chemistry A Illustrated, with many examples"

X-Ray Diffraction

In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies

Author: A. Guinier

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141349

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 9973

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Exploration of fundamentals of x-ray diffraction theory using Fourier transforms applies general results to various atomic structures, amorphous bodies, crystals, and imperfect crystals. 154 illustrations. 1963 edition.

X-Ray Scattering of Soft Matter

Author: Norbert Stribeck

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540698566

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 3622

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This manual is a useful ready-reference guide to the analytical power of modern X-ray scattering in the field of soft matter. The author describes simple tools that can elucidate the mechanisms of structure evolution in the studied materials, and follows this up with a step-by-step guide to more advanced methods. Data analysis based on clear, unequivocal results is rendered simple and straightforward – with a stress on careful planning of experiments and adequate recording of all required data.

IUTAM Symposium on Modelling Nanomaterials and Nanosystems

Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Aalborg, Denmark, 19-22 May, 2008

Author: R. Pyrz,Jens C. Rauhe

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402095570

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 342

View: 9630

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Recent interest in nanotechnology is challenging the community to analyse, develop and design nanometer to micrometer-sized devices for applications in new generations of computer, electronics, photonics and drug delivery systems. To successfully design and fabricate novel nanomaterials and nanosystems, we must necessarily bridge the gap in our understanding of mechanical properties and processes at length scales ranging from 100 nanometers (where atomistic simulations are currently possible) to a micron (where continuum mechanics is experimentally validated). For this purpose the difficulties and complexity originate in the substantial differences in philosophy and viewpoints between conventional continuum mechanics and quantum theories. The challenge lies in how to establish the relationship between a continuum mechanical system and its atomistic counterpart in order to define continuum variables that are calculable within an atomic system.

Introduction to the Characterization of Residual Stress by Neutron Diffraction

Author: M.T. Hutchings,P.J. Withers,T.M. Holden,Torben Lorentzen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 0203402812

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 420

View: 8747

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Over the past 25 years the field of neutron diffraction for residual stress characterization has grown tremendously, and has matured from the stage of trial demonstrations to provide a practical tool with widespread applications in materials science and engineering. While the literature on the subject has grown commensurately, it has also remained fragmented and scattered across various journals and conference proceedings. For the first time, this volume presents a comprehensive introduction to stress measurement using neutron diffraction. It discusses all aspects of the technique, from the basic physics, the different neutron sources and instrumentation, to the various strategies for lattice strain measurement and data interpretation. These are illustrated by practical examples. This book represents a coherent unified treatment of the subject, written by well-known experts. It will prepare students, engineers, and other newcomers for their first neutron diffraction experiments and provide experts with a definitive reference work.

Avalanches in Functional Materials and Geophysics

Author: Ekhard K. H. Salje,Avadh Saxena,Antoni Planes

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319456121

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 3735

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This book provides the state-of-the art of the present understanding of avalanche phenomena in both functional materials and geophysics. The main emphasis of the book is analyzing these apparently different problems within the common perspective of out-of-equilibrium phenomena displaying spatial and temporal complexity that occur in a broad range of scales. Many systems, when subjected to an external force, respond intermittently in the form of avalanches that often span over a wide range of sizes, energies and durations. This is often related to a class of critical behavior characterized by the absence of characteristic scales. Typical examples are magnetization processes, plastic deformation and failure occuring in functional materials. These phenomena share many similarities with seismicity arising from the earth crust failure due to stresses that originate from plate tectonics.

Diffuse Scattering and Defect Structure Simulations

A Cook Book Using the Program DISCUS

Author: Reinhard B. Neder,Thomas Proffen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199233691

Category: Computers

Page: 228

View: 5687

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Understanding the atomic structure of complex and time disordered materials relies upon computer simulations of these structures. This cook book provides a unique mixture of simulation know-how and hands on examples. All related files and the program DISCUS are included on a CDROM with the book.

Fundamentals of Powder Diffraction and Structural Characterization of Materials, Second Edition

Author: Vitalij Pecharsky,Peter Zavalij

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387095799

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 5610

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A little over ?ve years have passed since the ?rst edition of this book appeared in print. Seems like an instant but also eternity, especially considering numerous developments in the hardware and software that have made it from the laboratory test beds into the real world of powder diffraction. This prompted a revision, which had to be beyond cosmetic limits. The book was, and remains focused on standard laboratory powder diffractometry. It is still meant to be used as a text for teaching students about the capabilities and limitations of the powder diffraction method. We also hope that it goes beyond a simple text, and therefore, is useful as a reference to practitioners of the technique. The original book had seven long chapters that may have made its use as a text - convenient. So the second edition is broken down into 25 shorter chapters. The ?rst ?fteen are concerned with the fundamentals of powder diffraction, which makes it much more logical, considering a typical 16-week long semester. The last ten ch- ters are concerned with practical examples of structure solution and re?nement, which were preserved from the ?rst edition and expanded by another example – R solving the crystal structure of Tylenol .

Introduction to Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Multimessenger Astronomy and its Particle Physics Foundations

Author: Alessandro De Angelis,Mário Pimenta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319781812

Category: Science

Page: 733

View: 2516

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This book introduces particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Starting from an experimental perspective, it provides a unified view of these fields that reflects the very rapid advances being made. This new edition has a number of improvements and has been updated to describe the recent discovery of gravitational waves and astrophysical neutrinos, which started the new era of multimessenger astrophysics; it also includes new results on the Higgs particle. Astroparticle and particle physics share a common problem: we still don’t have a description of the main ingredients of the Universe from the point of view of its energy budget. Addressing these fascinating issues, and offering a balanced introduction to particle and astroparticle physics that requires only a basic understanding of quantum and classical physics, this book is a valuable resource, particularly for advanced undergraduate students and for those embarking on graduate courses. It includes exercises that offer readers practical insights. It can be used equally well as a self-study book, a reference and a textbook.

Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition

Author: N.A

Publisher: ScholarlyEditions

ISBN: 1464963444

Category: Medical

Page: 4229

View: 6833

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Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation. The editors have built Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Drug Research, and Drug Innovation: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.