The Sociology of Scientific Work

The Fundamental Relationship Between Science and Society

Author: Dominique Vinck

Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub

ISBN: 9781848449831

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 278

View: 6799

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'This work is a magisterial introduction to the sociology of science. With science being imbricated in the very tissue of our political lives – with climate change, energy policy, biodiversity conservation and so forth – it is increasingly important that the rich lessons of the field of science studies be brought to a wider readership. This book achieves that goal with great style: it is both highly accessible and rigorously researched.' – Geoffrey C. Bowker, Santa Clara University, US More than ever before, science and technology play a significant role in modern society as evidenced by the development of nanotechnologies and the controversies surrounding GMOs and climate change. This book comprehensively explores the flourishing field of science and technology studies and examines its creation, development and interaction with contemporary society. Dominique Vinck examines the various relationships between science and society including the emergence of sciences, the dynamics of innovation and technical democracy. He also investigates the principal social mechanisms of science and technology such as institutions, organizations, exchanges between researchers and the construction of scientific knowledge, expertise and innovation. The book provides a thorough overview of the field and reviews the major theoretical and methodological approaches as well as the current state of research on a range of topics. This original book will strongly appeal to students and researchers in the social sciences including economics, the management of innovation, political science and the sociology of science. All those interested in the debate on the role of science and technology in society will also find this book to be of great interest.

Science and Innovation Policy for the New Knowledge Economy

Author: Massimo G. Colombo,Luca Grilli,Lucia Piscitello

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 0857930532

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9892

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This timely book brings together cutting-edge research on the important subject of science and innovation (S&I) policies. The contributors - distinguished social science scholars - tackle the key challenges of designing and implementing public policies in the context of the new knowledge economy. They provide an extensive overview of the most advanced methods for designing, monitoring, and evaluating S&I policies, and analyse current applications in a wide-ranging selection of fields along the innovation supply chain, from legal and institutional landscapes to the industrial sector. Topics dis.

Technological Innovation and Economic Transformation

A Method for Contextual Analysis

Author: Heidi Gautschi,David Gautschi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137577363

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 196

View: 8272

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Society, in its quest for order in an inherently chaotic natural setting, tends to think about technological innovation much too narrowly. Innovation is necessary for economic growth, yet this narrow attitude limits its possibilities and focuses on achieving a single goal without acknowledging its effect on other aspects of society. By thinking out of the box, this book encourages thoughtful innovation while remaining conscious of its positive and negative consequences for society. It presents a method for contextual analysis that enables assessment of the disruption that any innovation could induce, and puts ideas into contexts so that innovators may anticipate consequences, minimize resistance, and enhance acceptance. Drawing on Anglophone and Francophone literatures in business, economics, history, and sociology, this book reminds us that progress is often achieved at some sacrifice of well-being. It allows academics and practitioners from these traditions to engage in systematic communication and enrich one another with new ideas.

A Social History of Truth

Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England

Author: Steven Shapin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226750187

Category: History

Page: 483

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Shapin explains how gentlemen-philosophers resolved varying testimony about such phemonema as comets, icebergs, and the pressure of water by bringing to bear practical social knowledge and standards of decorum. For instance, while "vulgar" divers reported they experienced no crushing pressure no matter how deep into the sea they dived, gentlemen-philosophers preferred the evidence of crushed pewter bottles. Shapin uses richly detailed historical narrative to make a powerful argument about the establishment of factual knowledge both in science and in everyday practice. Accounts of the mores and manners of gentlemen-philosophers illustrate Shapin's broad claim that trust is imperative for constituting every kind of knowledge. Knowledge-making is always a collective enterprise: people have to know whom to trust in order to know something about the natural world

Social and Behavioral Research and the Internet

Advances in Applied Methods and Research Strategies

Author: Marcel Das,Peter Ester,Lars Kaczmirek

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9781848728172

Category: Education

Page: 435

View: 8404

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"An absolutely delightful journey through the history and present of Internet surveys, this fascinating book explains how probability sampling can be implemented to produce a representative panel of respondents and describes the range of fascinating data that can then be collected from these participants. Eye tracking, biomarkers, visual layout, paradata, and measurement on sensitive topics are just a few of the themes examined by some of the world's leading survey methodologists. This book is must-have for anyone interested in one of the most important innovations in the research world."- Jon Krosnick, Stanford University, USA "The frequency with which Web surveys are used is in sharp contrast with the quality of the studies. Without a proper sampling design one cannot say anything about the population. Social and Behavioral Research and the Internet illustrates and discusses in a very clear way how Web surveys can be used in a scientific way. We hope that the described approach will be taken over by many other research institutions. This would...considerably improve social and behavioral science research." - Willem Saris, President of the European Survey Research Association Highlighting the progress made by research in using Web-based surveys for data collection, this timely volume summarizes the experiences of leading American and European behavioral and social scientists who collect data using the Internet. Some chapters present theory, methodology, design, and implementation, while others focus on best practice examples or issues such as data quality and the understanding of paradata. A number of contributors applied innovative Web-based research methods to the LISS panel of CentERdata collected from over 5,000 Dutch households. Their findings are presented in the book. The book addresses practical issues such as data quality, how to reach difficult target groups, how to design a survey to maximize response, and ethical issues that need to be considered. Innovative applications such as the use of biomarkers and eye-tracking techniques are also explored. Part I provides an overview of Internet survey research, including its methodologies, strengths, challenges, and best practices. Innovative ways to minimize sources of error are provided along with a review of mixed-mode designs, how to design a scientifically sound longitudinal panel and avoid sampling problems, and how to address ethical requirements in Web surveys. Part II focuses on advanced applications, including the impact of visual design on the interpretability of survey questions, the impact survey usability has on respondents' answers, design features that increase interaction, and how Internet surveys can be effectively used to study sensitive issues. Part III addresses data quality, sample selection, measurement and nonresponse error, and new applications for collecting online data. The issue of underrepresentation of certain groups in Internet research and the measures most effective at reducing it are also addressed. The book concludes with a discussion of the importance of paradata and the Web data collection process in general, followed by chapters with innovative experiments using eye-tracking techniques and biomarker data. This practical book will appeal to practitioners from market survey research institutes and researchers in disciplines such as psychology, education, sociology, political science, health studies, marketing, economics, and business who use the Internet for data collection, but is also an ideal supplement for graduate or upper-level undergraduate courses on (Internet) research methods or data collection taught in these fields.

The Scientific Revolution

Author: Steven Shapin

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226750221

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 6992

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"There was no such thing as the Scientific Revolution, and this is a book about it." With this provocative and apparently paradoxical claim, Steven Shapin begins his bold vibrant exploration of the origins of the modern scientific worldview. "Shapin's account is informed, nuanced, and articulated with clarity. . . . This is not to attack or devalue science but to reveal its richness as the human endeavor that it most surely is. . . .Shapin's book is an impressive achievement."—David C. Lindberg, Science "Shapin has used the crucial 17th century as a platform for presenting the power of science-studies approaches. At the same time, he has presented the period in fresh perspective."—Chronicle of Higher Education "Timely and highly readable . . . A book which every scientist curious about our predecessors should read."—Trevor Pinch, New Scientist "It's hard to believe that there could be a more accessible, informed or concise account of how it [the scientific revolution], and we have come to this. The Scientific Revolution should be a set text in all the disciplines. And in all the indisciplines, too."—Adam Phillips, London Review of Books "Shapin's treatise on the currents that engendered modern science is a combination of history and philosophy of science for the interested and educated layperson."—Publishers Weekly "Superlative, accessible, and engaging. . . . Absolute must-reading."—Robert S. Frey, Bridges "This vibrant historical exploration of the origins of modern science argues that in the 1600s science emerged from a variety of beliefs, practices, and influences. . . . This history reminds us that diversity is part of any intellectual endeavor."—Choice "Most readers will conclude that there was indeed something dramatic enough to be called the Scientific Revolution going on, and that this is an excellent book about it."—Anthony Gottlieb, The New York Times Book Review

Science, Social Theory & Public Knowledge

Author: Irwin, Alan,Michael, Mike

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335225896

Category: Social Science

Page: 192

View: 9685

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This topical and unique book draws together the three key perspectives on science-society relations: public understanding of science, scientific and public governance, and social theory. The book presents a series of case studies (including the debates on genetically modified foods and the AIDS movement in the USA) to discuss critically the ways in which social theorists, social scientists, and science policy makers deal with science-society relations.

Handbook of Science and Technology Studies

Author: Sheila Jasanoff,Gerald E Markle,James C Peterson,Trevor Pinch

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452213631

Category: Social Science

Page: 848

View: 2984

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For the most current, comprehensive resource in this rapidly evolving field, look no further than the Revised Edition of the Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. This masterful volume is the first resource in more than 15 years to define, summarize, and synthesize this complex multidisciplinary, international field. Tightly edited with contributions by an internationally recognized team of leading scholars, this volume addresses the crucial contemporary issues—both traditional and nonconventional—social studies, political studies, and humanistic studies in this changing field. Containing theoretical essays, extensive literature reviews, and detailed case studies, this remarkable volume clearly sets the standard for the field. It does nothing less than establish itself as the benchmark, one that will carry the field well into the next century.

The Culture of Science

How the Public Relates to Science Across the Globe

Author: Martin W. Bauer,Rajesh Shukla,Nick Allum

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136701419

Category: Science

Page: 490

View: 2069

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This book offers the first comparative account of the changes and stabilities of public perceptions of science within the US, France, China, Japan, and across Europe over the past few decades. The contributors address the influence of cultural factors; the question of science and religion and its influence on particular developments (e.g. stem cell research); and the demarcation of science from non-science as well as issues including the ‘incommensurability’ versus ‘cognitive polyphasia’ and the cognitive (in)tolerance of different systems of knowledge.

What is Sociology?

Author: Norbert Elias

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 9780231045513

Category: Social Science

Page: 187

View: 7352

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What is Sociology? presents in concise and provocative form the major ideas of a seminal thinker whose work--spanning more than four decades--is only now gaining the recognition here it has long had in Germany and France. Unlike other post-war sociologists, Norbert Elias has always held the concept of historical development among his central concerns; his dynamic theories of the evolution of modern man have remedied the historical and epistemological shortcomings of structualism and ethno-methodology. What is Sociology? refines the arguments that were first found in Elias' massive work on the civilizing process, in which he formulated his major assertions about the interdependence of the making of modern man and modern society. It is Elias' contention that changes in personality structure--embodied in phenomena ranging from table manners and hygiene habits to rites of punishment and courtly love--inevitably reflect and mould patterns of control generated by new political and social instututions. Elias' rejection of a dichotomy between individual and society, and his use of psychoanalysis, political theory, and social history, help restore a fullness of resource to sociology.

European Foundations of the Welfare State

Author: Franz-Xaver Kaufmann

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857454773

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 4577

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While social welfare programs, often inspired by international organizations, are spreading throughout the world, the more far-reaching notion of governmental responsibility for the basic well-being of all members of a political society is not, although it remains a feature of Europe and the former British Commonwealth. The welfare state in the European sense is not simply an administrative arrangement of various measures of social protection but a political project embedded in distinct cultural traditions. Offering the first accessible account in English of the historical development of the European idea of the welfare state, this book reviews the intellectual foundations which underpinned the road towards the European welfare state, formulates some basic concepts for its understanding, and highlights the differences in the underlying structural and philosophical conditions between continental Europe and the English-speaking world.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 7492

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A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Crafting the Quantum

Arnold Sommerfeld and the Practice of Theory, 1890-1926

Author: Suman Seth

Publisher: Mit Press

ISBN: 9780262013734

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 5877

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An intellectual and cultural history of the birth of theoretical physics in Germany,focusing on the pedagogy and research of a leader in work on the "older" quantum theory.

Citizens, Experts, and the Environment

The Politics of Local Knowledge

Author: Frank Fischer

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822326229

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 4496

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The tension between professional expertise and democratic governance has become increasingly significant in Western politics. Environmental politics in particular is a hotbed for citizens who actively challenge the imposition of expert theories that ignore particular local knowledge that can help to relate technical facts to social values. In Citizens, Experts, and the Environment Frank Fischer explores this often strained interaction between technical environmental experts and citizen participants and proposes a new model of politics based on participatory inquiry and citizen-expert synergy. Where information ideologues see the modern increase in information as capable of making everyone smarter, others see the emergence of a society divided between those with and those without knowledge. Suggesting realistic strategies to bridge this divide, Fischer calls for meaningful non-expert involvement in policymaking and shows how the deliberations of ordinary citizens can help solve complex social and environmental problems by contributing non-technical knowledge to the professionals' expertise. While incorporating theoretical critiques of positivism and methodology, he also offers hard evidence to demonstrate that the ordinary citizen is capable of a great deal more participation than is generally recognised. Recent situations in Copenhagen, Denmark; Woburn, Massachusetts; and Kerala, India, serve as models of the participatory inquiry he proposes, showing how the local knowledge of citizens is invaluable to policy formation. In his conclusion Fischer moves his model from the context of environmental issues to the larger societal issues of deliberative structures and participatory democracy. This study will interest political scientists, public policy practitioners, sociologists, scientists, environmentalists, activists, urban planners, and public administrators along with those interested in understanding the relationship between democracy and science in a modern technological society.

100 Plus

How the Coming Age of Longevity Will Change Everything, From Careers and Relationships to Family and

Author: Sonia Arrison

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465027709

Category: Medical

Page: 272

View: 5258

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Humanity is on the cusp of an exciting longevity revolution. The first person to live to 150 years has probably already been born. What will your life look like when you live to be over 100? Will you be healthy? Will your marriage need a sunset clause? How long will you have to work? Will you finish one career at sixty-five only to go back to school to learn a new one? And then, will you be happily working for another sixty years? Maybe you’ll be a parent to a newborn and a grandparent at the same time. Will the world become overpopulated? And how will living longer affect your finances, your family life, and your views on religion and the afterlife? In 100 Plus, futurist Sonia Arrison takes us on an eye-opening journey to the future at our doorsteps, where science and technology are beginning to radically change life as we know it. She introduces us to the people transforming our lives: the brilliant scientists and genius inventors and the billionaires who fund their work. The astonishing advances to extend our lives—and good health—are almost here. In the very near future fresh organs for transplants will be grown in laboratories, cloned stem cells will bring previously unstoppable diseases to their knees, and living past 100 will be the rule, not the exception. Sonia Arrison brings over a decade of experience researching and writing about cutting-edge advances in science and technology to 100 Plus, painting a vivid picture of a future that only recently seemed like science fiction, but now is very real. 100 Plus is the first book to give readers a comprehensive understanding of how life-extending discoveries will change our social and economic worlds. This illuminating and indispensable text will help us navigate the thrilling journey of life beyond 100 years.

Congressional Record

Proceedings and Debates of the ... Congress

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 3767

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The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session. The Congressional Record began publication in 1873. Debates for sessions prior to 1873 are recorded in The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States (1789-1824), the Register of Debates in Congress (1824-1837), and the Congressional Globe (1833-1873)

Ernst Cassirer and the Critical Science of Germany, 1899-1919

Author: Gregory B. Moynahan

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 0857283219

Category: Philosophy

Page: 278

View: 1671

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Reconstructing the relationship between science and politics in Imperial Germany, this book covers the early work of the philosopher and historian Ernst Cassirer (1874–1945) and discusses his relation to the Marburg School of philosophy.

Intellectual Curiosity and the Scientific Revolution

A Global Perspective

Author: Toby E. Huff

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139495356

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

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Seventeenth-century Europe witnessed an extraordinary flowering of discoveries and innovations. This study, beginning with the Dutch-invented telescope of 1608, casts Galileo's discoveries into a global framework. Although the telescope was soon transmitted to China, Mughal India, and the Ottoman Empire, those civilizations did not respond as Europeans did to the new instrument. In Europe, there was an extraordinary burst of innovations in microscopy, human anatomy, optics, pneumatics, electrical studies, and the science of mechanics. Nearly all of those aided the emergence of Newton's revolutionary grand synthesis, which unified terrestrial and celestial physics under the law of universal gravitation. That achievement had immense implications for all aspects of modern science, technology, and economic development. The economic implications are set out in the concluding epilogue. All these unique developments suggest why the West experienced a singular scientific and economic ascendancy of at least four centuries.