The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality

Author: Tracy Ore

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780078026904

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 3591

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This best-selling anthology surveys how and why the categories of race, class, gender, and sexuality are constructed, maintained, experienced, and transformed. The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality then moves beyond simply discussing various forms of stratification and the impact of these on members of marginalized groups by providing a thorough discussion of how such systems of stratification are formed, perpetuated, and interconnected. Readers are then challenged at the end of each reading with critical thinking questions to relate content to their lives and understand how their own attitudes, actions, and perspectives may serve to perpetuate a stratified system.

The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality: Race, Class, Gender and Sexuality

Author: Tracy Ore

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

ISBN: 9780078026645

Category: Social Science

Page: 848

View: 5447

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This anthology examines the social construction of race, class, gender, and sexuality and the institutional bases for these relations. While other texts discuss various forms of stratification and the impact of these on members of marginalized groups, The Social Construction of Difference and Inequality provides a thorough discussion of how such systems of stratification are formed and perpetuated and how forms of stratification are interconnected. Critical thinking questions at the end of each reading and part opening essays aid students in understanding how the material relates to their lives and how their own attitudes, actions, and perspectives may serve to perpetuate a stratified system.

Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Social Class

Dimensions of Inequality and Identity

Author: Susan J. Ferguson

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483374971

Category: Social Science

Page: 656

View: 3835

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An eye-opening exploration of how socials statuses intersect to shape our identities and produce inequalities. In this fully edited and streamlined Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Social Class: Dimensions of Inequality and Identity, Second Edition, Susan Ferguson has carefully selected readings that open readers’ eyes to the ways that social statuses shape our experiences and impact our life chances. The anthology represents many of the leading voices in the field and reflects the many approaches used by scholars and researchers to understand this important and evolving subject. The anthology is organized around broad topics (Identity, Power and Privilege, Social Institutions, etc.), rather than categories of difference (Race, Gender, Class, Sexuality) to underscore this fundamental insight: race, class, gender, and sexuality do not exist in isolation; they often intersect with one another to produce social inequalities and form the bases of our identities in society. Nine readings are new to this edition: Michael Polgar—on Jewish assimilation and culture in the U.S. Katherine Franke—on the 1940 Supreme Court case, Suneri v. Cassagne, concerning racial identity Carla Pfeffer—on transgender identity Michelle Alexander—on the New Jim Crow Richard Lachmann—on the decline of the U.S. as an economic and political power Abby Ferber—on privilege and “oppression blindness” Amada Hess—Why Women Aren’t Welcome on the Internet Iris Marion Young—Five Faces of Oppression Ellis Cose—Rage of the Privileged “The choice of readings in Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Social Class: Dimensions of Inequality and Identity is better than my current text in terms of inequality and steps of closing the gaps.” – Dr. Deden Rukmana, Savannah State University “I really like how Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Social Class: Dimensions of Inequality and Identity deals with underlying concepts rather than difference by x, y, or z.” – Ana Villalobos, Brandeis University

Blind to Sameness

Sexpectations and the Social Construction of Male and Female Bodies

Author: Asia Friedman

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022602377X

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 7400

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What is the role of the senses in how we understand the world? Cognitive sociology has long addressed the way we perceive or imagine boundaries in our ordinary lives, but Asia Friedman pushes this question further still. How, she asks, did we come to blind ourselves to sex sameness? Drawing on more than sixty interviews with two decidedly different populations—the blind and the transgendered—Blind to Sameness answers provocative questions about the relationships between sex differences, biology, and visual perception. Both groups speak from unique perspectives that magnify the social construction of dominant visual conceptions of sex, allowing Friedman to examine the visual construction of the sexed body and highlighting the processes of social perception underlying our everyday experience of male and female bodies. The result is a notable contribution to the sociologies of gender, culture, and cognition that will revolutionize the way we think about sex.

Identities and Inequalities: Exploring the Intersections of Race, Class, Gender, & Sexuality

Author: David Newman

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

ISBN: 9780078027031

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 5586

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We don’t experience our everyday lives through just one lens; rather, we experience all elements of our identity—race, class, gender, sexuality—simultaneously. Identities and Inequalities acknowledges this complex reality and brings to light the importance of studying the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality. It also examines these intersections as both elements of personal identity and sources of social inequality. This new edition brings into conversation a multitude of current events, from police violence and global public health crises, to the legalization of same-sex marriage. With both updated statistics and a fresh look at today’s social climate, Newman’s Identities and Inequalities will prepare students to study these all-important issues in a whole new way. The Connect course for this offering includes SmartBook, an adaptive reading and study experience which guides students to master, recall, and apply key concepts while providing automatically-graded assessments. Instructors and students can now access their course content through the Connect digital learning platform by purchasing either standalone Connect access or a bundle of print and Connect access. McGraw-Hill Connect® is a subscription-based learning service accessible online through your personal computer or tablet. Choose this option if your instructor will require Connect to be used in the course. Your subscription to Connect includes the following: • SmartBook® - an adaptive digital version of the course textbook that personalizes your reading experience based on how well you are learning the content. • Access to your instructor’s homework assignments, quizzes, syllabus, notes, reminders, and other important files for the course. • Progress dashboards that quickly show how you are performing on your assignments and tips for improvement. • The option to purchase (for a small fee) a print version of the book. This binder-ready, loose-leaf version includes free shipping. Complete system requirements to use Connect can be found here: http://www.mheducation.com/highered/platforms/connect/training-support-students.html

Understanding Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality

A Conceptual Framework

Author: Lynn Weber

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195396416

Category: Social Science

Page: 326

View: 1413

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Understanding Race, Class, Gender, & Sexuality: A Conceptual Framework, Second Edition, is the only text that develops a theoretical framework for the analysis of intersectionality. Weber argues that these social systems are historically and geographically contextual power relationships that are simultaneously expressed and experienced at both the macro level of social institutions and the micro level of individual lives and small groups. This is also the only text that teaches students how to apply the theory to their own analyses. Originally published in its first edition as two separate books, the second edition integrates the main text and the case studies into one volume. As in the previous edition, Weber uses education as an extended example to show students how to conduct a race, class, gender, and sexuality analysis. With completely updated data, this edition adds important new research in sexuality, globalization, and education. It also features new case studies, including one on Hurricane Katrina and another on the 2008 Presidential election. Understanding Race, Class, Gender, & Sexuality: A Conceptual Framework, Second Edition, can be used in a variety of courses: in social inequality, communication, women's and gender studies, ethnic studies, American studies, sociology, political science, human services, and public health.

Race, Class, and Gender in the United States

Author: Paula S. Rothenberg

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780716761488

Category: Social Science

Page: 774

View: 6662

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Race, Class, and Gender in the United States: An Integrated Study presents students with a compelling, clear study of issues of race, gender, and sexuality within the context of class. Rothenberg deftly and consistently helps students analyze each phenomena, as well as the relationships among them, thereby deepening their understanding of each issue surrounding race and ethnicity.

Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality

A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States

Author: Joel Spring

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317312848

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 5632

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Joel Spring’s history of school polices imposed on dominated groups in the United States examines the concept of deculturalization—the use of schools to strip away family languages and cultures and replace them with those of the dominant group. The focus is on the education of dominated groups forced to become citizens in territories conquered by the U.S., including Native Americans, Enslaved Africans, Chinese, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Hawaiians. In 7 concise, thought-provoking chapters, this analysis and documentation of how education is used to change or eliminate linguistic and cultural traditions in the U.S. looks at the educational, legal, and social construction of race and racism in the United States, emphasizing the various meanings of "equality" that have existed from colonial America to the present. Providing a broader perspective for understanding the denial of cultural and linguistic rights in the United States, issues of language, culture, and deculturalization are placed in a global context. The major change in the 8th Edition is a new chapter, "Global Corporate Culture and Separate But Equal," describing how current efforts at deculturalization involve replacing family and personal cultures with a corporate culture to increase worker efficiency. Substantive updates and revisions are made throughout all other chapters

The Matrix of Race

Social Construction, Intersectionality, and Inequality

Author: Rodney D. Coates,Abby L. Ferber,David L. Brunsma

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1483310876

Category: Social Science

Page: 480

View: 9625

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The Matrix of Race, for race and ethnic relations courses, is written by three leading scholars -- Rodney D. Coates, David L. Brunsma, and Abby L. Ferber -- and reflects a very contemporary way of looking at race, minorities, and intergroup relations. Older texts use a "categorical" approach and feature a series of chapters that examine one minority group at a time (African Americans, Latino/a Americans, Asian Americans, Native Americans, etc.). Newer texts designed within the last 5-10 years are more likely to be organized topically, discuss various racial and ethnic minorities within the context of these topics, and use the most current theories and perspectives in this field. The Matrix of Race is built around these core ideas: -Race is a both a social construction and a social institution -Race is intersectional--it is embedded within other statuses (such as gender, social class, sexuality) -Concepts of race change over time and as we move from one physical location to another -We are all active agents in upholding, reproducing, or resisting constructions of race.

Categorically Unequal

The American Stratification System

Author: Douglas S. Massey

Publisher: Russell Sage Foundation

ISBN: 1610443802

Category: Social Science

Page: 340

View: 1533

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The United States holds the dubious distinction of having the most unequal income distribution of any advanced industrialized nation. While other developed countries face similar challenges from globalization and technological change, none rivals America's singularly poor record for equitably distributing the benefits and burdens of recent economic shifts. In Categorically Unequal, Douglas Massey weaves together history, political economy, and even neuropsychology to provide a comprehensive explanation of how America's culture and political system perpetuates inequalities between different segments of the population. Categorically Unequal is striking both for its theoretical originality and for the breadth of topics it covers. Massey argues that social inequalities arise from the universal human tendency to place others into social categories. In America, ethnic minorities, women, and the poor have consistently been the targets of stereotyping, and as a result, they have been exploited and discriminated against throughout the nation's history. African-Americans continue to face discrimination in markets for jobs, housing, and credit. Meanwhile, the militarization of the U.S.-Mexican border has discouraged Mexican migrants from leaving the United States, creating a pool of exploitable workers who lack the legal rights of citizens. Massey also shows that women's advances in the labor market have been concentrated among the affluent and well-educated, while low-skilled female workers have been relegated to occupations that offer few chances for earnings mobility. At the same time, as the wages of low-income men have fallen, more working-class women are remaining unmarried and raising children on their own. Even as minorities and women continue to face these obstacles, the progressive legacy of the New Deal has come under frontal assault. The government has passed anti-union legislation, made taxes more regressive, allowed the real value of the federal minimum wage to decline, and drastically cut social welfare spending. As a result, the income gap between the richest and poorest has dramatically widened since 1980. Massey attributes these anti-poor policies in part to the increasing segregation of neighborhoods by income, which has insulated the affluent from the social consequences of poverty, and to the disenfranchisement of the poor, as the population of immigrants, prisoners, and ex-felons swells. America's unrivaled disparities are not simply the inevitable result of globalization and technological change. As Massey shows, privileged groups have systematically exploited and excluded many of their fellow Americans. By delving into the root causes of inequality in America, Categorically Unequal provides a compelling argument for the creation of a more equitable society. A Volume in the Russell Sage Foundation's Centennial Series

Social Inequality & The Politics of Representation

Author: Celine-Marie Pascale

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1412992214

Category: Social Science

Page: 339

View: 3093

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This anthology critically analyzes how cultures around the world make social categories of race, class, gender and sexuality meaningful in particular ways. The collection uses a wide range of readings to examine how contemporary issues of race, class, gender, and sexuality are constructed, mobilized, and transformed. Unlike many books in this area, the U.S. is not analytical center. However, for U.S. students this approach allows them to appreciate their personal class system from a more dynamic and ultimately relevant perspective. They will feel compelled to challenge their personal beliefs about inequality and will be encouraged to contemplate how the growing global economy will impact their personal social standings. This anthology will include 4 sections - race/ethnicity, gender, sexuality, wealth/poverty - and approximately 20 total readings. The book, as well as each section, will include comprehensive introductions to frame the international issues for U.S. students.

The Undeserving Rich

American Beliefs about Inequality, Opportunity, and Redistribution

Author: Leslie McCall

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107355230

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4656

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It is widely assumed that Americans care little about income inequality, believe opportunities abound, admire the rich, and dislike redistributive policies. Leslie McCall contends that such assumptions are based on both incomplete survey data and economic conditions of the past and not present. In fact, Americans have desired less inequality for decades, and McCall's book explains why. Americans become most concerned about inequality in times of inequitable growth, when they view the rich as prospering while opportunities for good jobs, fair pay and high quality education are restricted for everyone else. As a result, they favor policies to expand opportunity and redistribute earnings in the workplace, reducing inequality in the market rather than redistributing income after the fact with tax and spending policies. This book resolves the paradox of how Americans can express little enthusiasm for welfare state policies and still yearn for a more equitable society, and forwards a new model of preferences about income inequality rooted in labor market opportunities rather than welfare state policies.

Fractured Identities

Changing Patterns of Inequality

Author: Harriet Bradley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1509503285

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6122

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The gap between rich and poor, included and excluded, advantaged and disadvantaged is steadily growing as inequality becomes one of the most pressing issues of our times. The new edition of this popular text explores current patterns of inequality in the context of increasing globalization, world recession and neoliberal policies of austerity. Within a framework of intersectionality, Bradley discusses various theories and concepts for understanding inequalities of class, gender, ethnicity and age, while an entirely new chapter touches on the social divisions arising from disabilities, non-heterosexual orientations and religious affiliation. Bradley argues that processes of fracturing, which complicate the way we as individuals identify and locate ourselves in relation to the rest of society, exist alongside a tendency to social polarization: at one end of the social hierarchy are the super-rich; at the other end, long-term unemployment and job insecurity are the fate of many, especially the young. In the reordering of the social hierarchy, members of certain ethnic minority groups, disabled people and particular segments of the working class suffer disproportionately, while prevailing economic conditions threaten to offset the gains made by women in past decades. Fractured Identities shows how only by understanding and challenging these developments can we hope to build a fairer and more socially inclusive society.

The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People

Building a Foundation for Better Understanding

Author: Institute of Medicine,Board on the Health of Select Populations,Committee on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health Issues and Research Gaps and Opportunities

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309210658

Category: Medical

Page: 366

View: 7282

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At a time when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals--often referred to under the umbrella acronym LGBT--are becoming more visible in society and more socially acknowledged, clinicians and researchers are faced with incomplete information about their health status. While LGBT populations often are combined as a single entity for research and advocacy purposes, each is a distinct population group with its own specific health needs. Furthermore, the experiences of LGBT individuals are not uniform and are shaped by factors of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, geographical location, and age, any of which can have an effect on health-related concerns and needs. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People assesses the state of science on the health status of LGBT populations, identifies research gaps and opportunities, and outlines a research agenda for the National Institute of Health. The report examines the health status of these populations in three life stages: childhood and adolescence, early/middle adulthood, and later adulthood. At each life stage, the committee studied mental health, physical health, risks and protective factors, health services, and contextual influences. To advance understanding of the health needs of all LGBT individuals, the report finds that researchers need more data about the demographics of these populations, improved methods for collecting and analyzing data, and an increased participation of sexual and gender minorities in research. The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People is a valuable resource for policymakers, federal agencies including the National Institute of Health (NIH), LGBT advocacy groups, clinicians, and service providers.

The Gender Trap

Parents and the Pitfalls of Raising Boys and Girls

Author: Emily W. Kane

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814737838

Category: Social Science

Page: 287

View: 5326

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"Emily Kane shows clearly that most parents understand children's personality to be some combination of nature and nurture, and many wish they could help nurture their children to escape gender traps. Yet these parents are themselves trapped by the gender structure itself, especially the accountability they feel to other people's expectations, and the fear that if their boys are free to explore activities usually associated with girls they will be punished by the world around them. The author shows clearly that to help parents navigate childrearing, we have to change the world around them. A good read, perfect for the undergraduate classroom, and clear enough even to give to those new parents in your family or the neighborhood."--Cover.

The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality

Author: Dennis Gilbert

Publisher: Pine Forge Press

ISBN: 141297965X

Category: Social Science

Page: 297

View: 6671

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In this Eighth Edition of his acclaimed and thought-provoking text, author Dennis Gilbert explores historical and contemporary empirical studies of class inequality in America through the lens of nine key variables. Focusing on the socioeconomic core of the American class system, Gilbert describes a consistent pattern of growing inequality in the United States since the early 1970s. In his search for the answer to why class disparities continue to increase, Gilbert examines changes in the economy, family life, and politics, drawing on vivid first-person accounts to illustrate the human emotion wrapped up in class issues.

The Meritocracy Myth

Author: Stephen J. McNamee,Robert K. Miller Jr.

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers

ISBN: 1442219831

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 1157

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The Meritocracy Myth challenges the widely held American belief in meritocracy—that people get out of the system what they put into it based on individual merit. The third edition has been revised and streamlined, with fresh examples and updated statistical information throughout. Chapters eight and nine have been combined into a comprehensive chapter about discrimination as a non-merit barrier to upward mobility. The book also features a new section on “The Great Recession.” The Meritocracy Myth examines talent, attitude, work ethic, and character as elements of merit, and evaluates the effect of non-merit factors such as social status, race, heritage, and wealth on meritocracy. A compelling book on an often-overlooked topic, The Meritocracy Myth has become a classroom classic to introduce students to this provocative topic.

The Social construction of gender

Author: Judith Lorber

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 374

View: 1832

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Published in Cooperation with Sociologists for Women in Society "Women are women and men are men"--this old aphorism is being challenged with ever increasing frequency as social researchers focus on the nature of constructed gender roles. Much of the recent work in this area has appeared in the journal Gender & Society, which is the genesis of most of the papers in The Social Construction of Gender. In their collection, Lorber and Farrell present the best of current research on how the constructivist approach has been applied to a number of variables, including family structure, the work place, social class, racial ethnic identity, and politics. Theoretical and methodological implications of the constructed nature of gender roles are highlighted, as well as the existing theories of gender deconstruction. The articles and introductory material in this volume reflect feminist social science theory in concrete ways that make the text accessible to scholars, professionals and students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. This resource is ideal for courses on feminist studies, sociology of gender, and social theory construction. "One of the strengths of this book is that it provides some conceptual tools that we may not have come across elsewhere. . . . A second strength of the book is the welcome addition of racial/ethnic identity and social class to the issue of gender. . . . All in all, the book is a rich offering of ideas, research, and experience. Each article can stand alone as a valuable contribution; as an anthology, the book insists that we look at the realities of gender." --Smith College Studies in Social Work "A fine collection of current research on one of the major topics of the day. Shows that sociology can be both lively and intellectually illuminating." --R. W. Connell, Macquarie University, Sydney "Psychologists have much to gain from attending to a sociological perspective. The Social Construction of Gender provides that perspective intertwined with an excellent integration of feminist theory and relevant psychological literature. Judith Lorber and Susan Farrell have compiled 18 articles that, like sociology, continually challenge the reader to reflect upon the broad structural issues that pervasively influence construction of reality. . . . well articulated. . . . chapters regarding masculinity consider points of view sometimes overlooked by feminist theorists. . . .provides a solid knowledge base for those feminists in psychology without a sociological background. The Social Construction of Gender was a pleasure to read. Informative, clear, and concise, it presents a view of women's position in Western society that bridges psychology, sociology, economics, management, anthropology, history, politics, religion, and public policy." --Association for Women in Psychology Newsletter

What is Gender?

Sociological Approaches

Author: Mary Holmes

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446240258

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 2544

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Is gender something done to us by society, or something we do? What is the relationship between gender and other inequalities? What is Gender? explores these complex and important questions, helping readers to critically analyse how women's and men's lives are shaped by the society in which they live. The book offers a comprehensive account of trends in sociological thinking, from a material and economic focus on gender inequalities to the debates about meaning initiated by the linguistic or cultural turn. The book begins by questioning simplistic biological conceptions of gender and goes on to evaluate different theoretical frameworks for explaining gender, as well as political approaches to gender issues. The cultural turn is also examined in relation to thinking about how gender is related to other forms of inequality such as class and 'race'. The book is up-to-date and broad in its scope, drawing on a range of disciplines, such as: sociology, psychoanalysis, masculinity studies, literary criticism, feminist political theory, feminist philosophy and feminist theory.