The Shocking History of Phosphorus

A Biography of the Devil's Element

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780330390057

Category: Phosphorus

Page: 326

View: 6738

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For over 300 years, the chemical element phosphorus maimed, killed, polluted and burned - yet doctors prescribed it and whole industries were dedicated to its manufacture. This is a history of phosphorus, from its genesis through to its modern-day use in pesticides and household chemicals.

The Shocking History of Phosphorus

A Biography of the Devil's Element

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780333766385

Category: Phosphorus

Page: 326

View: 2542

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John Emsley's unusual study traces the history and development of the use of phosphorus, an autocombustive element that was discovered long before humans were responsible or capable of controlling its awesome power.

The 13th Element

The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Wiley

ISBN: 9780471441496

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 9198

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The incredible "glowing" history of the "Devil's element "phosphorus Discovered by alchemists, prescribed by apothecaries, exploited by ninth-century industrialists, and abused by twentieth-century combatants, the chemical element phosphorus has fascinated us for more than three centuries. It may even be the cause of will-o'-the wisps and spontaneous human combustion! Now John Emsley has written an enthralling account of this eerily luminescent element. Shining with wonderful nuggets-from murders-by-phosphorus to a match factory strike; from the firebombing of Hamburg to the deadly compounds derived from phosphorus today-The 13th Element weaves together a rich tableau of brilliant and oddball characters, social upheavals, and bizarre events.

The Elements of Murder

A History of Poison

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192806000

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 418

View: 2366

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A fascinating account of the five most toxic elements describes the lethal chemical properties of arsenic, antimony, lead, mercury, and thallium, as well as their use in some of the most famous murder cases in history, with profiles of such deadly poisoners as Mary Ann Cotton, Michael Swango, and Saddam Hussein and a look at modern-day environmental catastrophes.

Molecules of Murder

Criminal Molecules and Classic Cases

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782627995

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 5756

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Molecules of Murder is about infamous murderers and famous victims; about people like Harold Shipman, Alexander Litvinenko, Adelaide Bartlett, and Georgi Markov. Few books on poisons analyse these crimes from the viewpoint of the poison itself, doing so throws a new light on how the murders or attempted murders were carried out and ultimately how the perpetrators were uncovered and brought to justice. Part I includes molecules which occur naturally and were originally used by doctors before becoming notorious as murder weapons. Part II deals with unnatural molecules, mainly man-made, and they too have been dangerously misused in famous crimes. The book ends with the most famous poisoning case in recent years, that of Alexander Litvinenko and his death from polonium chloride. The first half of each chapter starts by looking at the target molecule itself, its discovery, its history, its chemistry, its use in medicine, its toxicology, and its effects on the human body. The second half then investigates a famous murder case and reveals the modus operandi of the poisoner and how some were caught, some are still at large, and some literally got away with murder. Molecules of Murder will explain how forensic chemists have developed cunning ways to detect minute traces of dangerous substances, and explain why some of these poisons, which appear so life-threatening, are now being researched as possible life-savers. Award winning science writer John Emsley has assembled another group of true crime and chemistry stories to rival those of his highly acclaimed Elements of Murder.

Nature's Building Blocks

An A-Z Guide to the Elements

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192570463

Category: Science

Page: 710

View: 4116

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John Emsley's Nature's Building Bocks was published in paperback in 2003. In this readable, informative, and fascinating guide to the elements are entries on each of the 100-odd chemical elements, arranged alphabetically from actinium to zirconium. Each entry comprises an explanation of where the element's name comes from, followed by Body element (the role it plays in living things), Element of history (how and when it was discovered), Economic element (what it is used for), Environmental element (where it occurs, how much), Chemical element (facts, figures, and narrative), and Element of surprise (an amazing, little-known fact). Since publication of the first edition there have been a number of developments. Three new chemical elements have been named and validated: darmstadtium, roetgenium, and copernicium and the section on 'transfermium elements' has now been incorporated into the main part of the book. Economic uses of elements have grown, and some quite rare elements such as Scandium are now economically important, along with updates to elements such as gold due to new roles in industry. Fully revised and updated for 2010, this browsable compendium holds a wealth of useful information.

War of Nerves

Chemical Warfare from World War I to Al-Qaeda

Author: Jonathan Tucker

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307430103

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 4590

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In this important and revelatory book, Jonathan Tucker, a leading expert on chemical and biological weapons, chronicles the lethal history of chemical warfare from World War I to the present. At the turn of the twentieth century, the rise of synthetic chemistry made the large-scale use of toxic chemicals on the battlefield both feasible and cheap. Tucker explores the long debate over the military utility and morality of chemical warfare, from the first chlorine gas attack at Ypres in 1915 to Hitler’s reluctance to use nerve agents (he believed, incorrectly, that the U.S. could retaliate in kind) to Saddam Hussein’s gassing of his own people, and concludes with the emergent threat of chemical terrorism. Moving beyond history to the twenty-first century, War of Nerves makes clear that we are at a crossroads that could lead either to the further spread of these weapons or to their ultimate abolition.

The Elements of Murder

A History of Poison

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192806000

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 418

View: 1888

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A fascinating account of the five most toxic elements describes the lethal chemical properties of arsenic, antimony, lead, mercury, and thallium, as well as their use in some of the most famous murder cases in history, with profiles of such deadly poisoners as Mary Ann Cotton, Michael Swango, and Saddam Hussein and a look at modern-day environmental catastrophes.

Death of the Chesapeake

A History of the Military's Role in Polluting the Bay

Author: Richard Albright

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118756665

Category: History

Page: 232

View: 6211

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In essence this book deals with an area that contributes significantly to the pollution and degradation of Chesapeake Bay, but has been completely overlooked in many of the efforts to restore the Bay, specifically, the federal military pollution sources. The book also recognizes for the first time, that efforts to restore the Bay have failed because of violation of a fundamental precept of environmental cleanup; that is, to sample the site and see what is there. The Bay itself has never been sampled. Thus this book presents a view of the environmental condition of Chesapeake Bay that is totally unique. It covers a part of the history of the Bay that is not widely known, including how the Bay was formed. It presents a mixture of science, military history, and novel solutions to the Bay's degradation. In so doing, the author examines the military use of the Bay and reveals the extent of munitions dumpsites containing nitrogen and phosphorus as well as chemical warfare material, and how this is effecting the environment. The book concludes with the author's own clean-up plan that, if implemented, would go a long way to restoring health to Bay. The book is supplemented with many photographs and maps.

Molecules at an Exhibition

Portraits of Intriguing Materials in Everyday Life

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192862068

Category: Science

Page: 250

View: 9411

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Discusses interesting chemicals, such as the smelliest, most lethal, and most versatile, in a non-technical style that covers each chemical's importance without using formulas, equations, or diagrams

The Last Sorcerers:

The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table

Author: Richard Morris

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309089050

Category: Science

Page: 296

View: 570

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They started with four: earth, air, fire, and water. From these basics, they sought to understand the essential ingredients of the world. Those who could see further, those who understood that the four were just the beginning, were the last sorcerers - and the world's first chemists. What we now call chemistry began in the fiery cauldrons of mystics and sorcerers seeking not to make a better world through science, but rather to make themselves richer through magic formulas and con games. But among these early magicians, frauds, and con artists were a few far-seeing "alchemists" who, through rigorous experimentation, transformed mysticism into science. By the 18th century the building blocks of nature, the elements of which all matter is composed, were on the verge of being discovery. Initially, it was not easy to determine whether a substance really was an element. Was water just water, plain and simple? Or could it be the sum of other (unknown and maybe unknowable) parts? And if water was made up of other substances, how could it be broken down into discreet, fundamental, and measurable components? Scientific historians generally credit the great 18th century French chemist Antoine Lavoisier with addressing these fundamental questions and ultimately modernizing the field of chemistry. Through his meticulous and precise work this chaotic new field of scientific inquiry was given order. Exacting by nature, Lavoisier painstakingly set about performing experiments that would provide lasting and verifiable proofs of various chemical theories. Unfortunately, the outspoken Lavoisier eventually lost his head in the Terror, but others would follow his lead, carefully examining, measuring, and recording their findings. As the field slowly progressed, another pioneer was to emerged almost 100 years later. Dimitri Mendeleev, an eccentric genius who cut his flowing hair and beard but once a year, sought to answer the most pressing questions that remained to chemists: Why did some elements have properties that resembled those of others? Were there certain natural groups of elements? And, if so, how many, and what elements fit into them? It was Mendeleev who finally addressed all these issues when he constructed the first Periodic Table in the late 1800s. But between and after Lavoisier and Mendeleev were a host of other colorful, brilliant scientists who made their mark on the field of chemistry. Depicting the lively careers of these scientists and their contributions while carefully deconstructing the history and the science, author Richard Morris skillfully brings it all to life. Hailed by Kirkus Reviews as a "clear and lively writer with a penchant for down-to-earth examples" Morris's gift for explanation - and pure entertainment - is abundantly obvious. Taking a cue from the great chemists themselves, Morris has brewed up a potent combination of the alluringly obscure and the historically momentous, spiked with just the right dose of quirky and ribald detail to deliver a magical brew of history, science, and personalities.

The Shocking History of Electric Fishes

From Ancient Epochs to the Birth of Modern Neurophysiology

Author: Stanley Finger,Marco Piccolino

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195366727

Category: Medical

Page: 470

View: 4634

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This beautifully illustrated and scholarly book examines the importance of electric fishes in science and medicine and how three species in particular shaped neurophysiology. Anchored in the philosophy and science of past epochs, it is the story of one of Nature's greatest puzzles. Over a long and tortuous path, it focuses on how some numbing fishes helped to make physiology modern.

Queen Victoria's Book of Spells

An Anthology of Gaslamp Fantasy

Author: Ellen Datlow,Terri Windling

Publisher: Tor Books

ISBN: 1429960914

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 8373

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"Gaslamp Fantasy," or historical fantasy set in a magical version of the nineteenth century, has long been popular with readers and writers alike. A number of wonderful fantasy novels owe their inspiration to works by nineteenth-century writers ranging from Jane Austen, the Brontës, and George Meredith to Charles Dickens, Anthony Trollope, and William Morris. And, of course, the entire steampunk genre and subculture owes more than a little to literature inspired by this period. Queen Victoria's Book of Spells is an anthology for everyone who loves these works of neo-Victorian fiction, and wishes to explore the wide variety of ways that modern fantasists are using nineteenth-century settings, characters, and themes. These approaches stretch from steampunk fiction to the Austen-and-Trollope inspired works that some critics call Fantasy of Manners, all of which fit under the larger umbrella of Gaslamp Fantasy. The result is eighteen stories by experts from the fantasy, horror, mainstream, and young adult fields, including both bestselling writers and exciting new talents such as Elizabeth Bear, James Blaylock, Jeffrey Ford, Ellen Kushner, Tanith Lee, Gregory Maguire, Delia Sherman, and Catherynne M. Valente, who present a bewitching vision of a nineteenth century invested (or cursed!) with magic. A Kirkus Reviews Best Fiction Book of 2013 At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

The chemistry of phosphorus

environmental, organic, inorganic, biochemical, and spectroscopic aspects

Author: John Emsley,Dennis Hall

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470238691

Category: Science

Page: 563

View: 3145

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Consuming Ocean Island

Stories of People and Phosphate from Banaba

Author: Katerina Martina Teaiwa

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253014603

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 9710

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Consuming Ocean Island tells the story of the land and people of Banaba, a small Pacific island, which, from 1900 to 1980, was heavily mined for phosphate, an essential ingredient in fertilizer. As mining stripped away the island's surface, the land was rendered uninhabitable, and the indigenous Banabans were relocated to Rabi Island in Fiji. Katerina Martina Teaiwa tells the story of this human and ecological calamity by weaving together memories, records, and images from displaced islanders, colonial administrators, and employees of the mining company. Her compelling narrative reminds us of what is at stake whenever the interests of industrial agriculture and indigenous minorities come into conflict. The Banaban experience offers insight into the plight of other island peoples facing forced migration as a result of human impact on the environment.

Clinical Aspects of Natural and Added Phosphorus in Foods

Author: Orlando M. Gutiérrez,Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh,Rajnish Mehrotra

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493965662

Category: Medical

Page: 266

View: 6789

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This comprehensive reference covers the impact of dietary phosphorus in phosphorus physiology, public health and the pathogenesis of disease. Divided into three parts, the first section is an overview of the history of phosphorus and the regulation of phosphorus homeostasis. The second section focuses on specific matters related to phosphorus in the food supply. Clinical applications of the material presented in the preceding sections are pulled together in the third section - including the importance of both phosphorus excess and phosphorus deficiency for the pathogenesis of a wide variety of disease including kidney, cardiovascular, bone and oncologic diseases. Clinical Aspects of Natural and Added Phosphorus in Foods is an indispensable resource for understanding the growing importance of dietary phosphorus content in health and disease, enhancing patient care and moving forward the field of phosphorus science.

Sorting the Beef from the Bull

The Science of Food Fraud Forensics

Author: Richard Evershed,Nicola Temple

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472911342

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 4670

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Horsemeat in burgers was hard to swallow, but there are far more sinister culinary crimes afoot... Chicken eggs that haven't come from chickens, melamine in infant's milk in China, nut shells in spices – these are just some examples of the food fraud that has occurred in recent years. As our urban lifestyle takes us further and further away from our food sources, there are increasing opportunities for dishonesty, duplicity and profit-making short-cuts. Food adulteration, motivated by money, is an issue that has spanned the globe throughout human history. Whether it's a matter of making a good quality oil stretch a bit further by adding a little extra 'something' or labelling a food falsely to appeal to current consumer trends – it's all food fraud, and it costs the food industry billions of dollars each year. The price to consumers may be even higher, with some paying for these crimes with their health and, in some cases, their lives. Sorting the Beef from the Bull is a collection of food fraud tales from around the world. It explains the role of science in uncovering some of the century's biggest food scams, and explores the arms race between food forensics and fraudsters as new methods of detection spur more creative and sophisticated means of committing the crimes. This book equips us with the knowledge of what is possible in the world of food fraud and shines a light on the shady areas of our food supply system where these criminals lurk.

The Radium Girls

The Dark Story of America's Shining Women

Author: Kate Moore

Publisher: Sourcebooks, Inc.

ISBN: 1492649368

Category: History

Page: 496

View: 9452

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A New York Times, USA Today, and Wall Street Journal Bestseller! "the glowing ghosts of the radium girls haunt us still."—NPR Books The incredible true story of the women who fought America's Undark danger The Curies' newly discovered element of radium makes gleaming headlines across the nation as the fresh face of beauty, and wonder drug of the medical community. From body lotion to tonic water, the popular new element shines bright in the otherwise dark years of the First World War. Meanwhile, hundreds of girls toil amidst the glowing dust of the radium-dial factories. The glittering chemical covers their bodies from head to toe; they light up the night like industrious fireflies. With such a coveted job, these "shining girls" are the luckiest alive — until they begin to fall mysteriously ill. But the factories that once offered golden opportunities are now ignoring all claims of the gruesome side effects, and the women's cries of corruption. And as the fatal poison of the radium takes hold, the brave shining girls find themselves embroiled in one of the biggest scandals of America's early 20th century, and in a groundbreaking battle for workers' rights that will echo for centuries to come. Written with a sparkling voice and breakneck pace, The Radium Girls fully illuminates the inspiring young women exposed to the "wonder" substance of radium, and their awe-inspiring strength in the face of almost impossible circumstances. Their courage and tenacity led to life-changing regulations, research into nuclear bombing, and ultimately saved hundreds of thousands of lives...

Nature's Building Blocks

An A-Z Guide to the Elements

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199605637

Category: Reference

Page: 699

View: 9648

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John Emsley's Nature's Building Blocks was published in paperback in 2003. In this readable, informative, and fascinating guide to the elements are entries on each of the 100-odd chemical elements, arranged alphabetically from actinium to zirconium. Each entry comprises an explanation of where the element's name comes from, followed by Body element (the role it plays in living things), Element of history (how and when it was discovered), Economic element (what it is used for), Environmental element (where it occurs, how much), Chemical element (facts, figures, and narrative), and Element of surprise (an amazing, little-known fact). Since publication of the first edition there have been a number of developments. Three new chemical elements have been named and validated: darmstadtium, roetgenium, and copernicium and the section on 'transfermium elements' has now been incorporated into the main part of the book. Economic uses of elements have grown, and some quite rare elements such as Scandium are now economically important, along with updates to elements such as gold due to new roles in industry. Fully revised and updated for 2010, this browsable compendium holds a wealth of useful information.

A Healthy, Wealthy, Sustainable World

Author: John Emsley

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782625895

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9788

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This book explains to the general reader the roles of chemistry in various areas of life ranging from the entirely personal to the worryingly global. These roles are currently not widely appreciated and certainly not well understood. The book is aimed at educated laypeople who want to know more about the world around them but have little chemical knowledge. The themes relate to the importance of chemistry in everyday life, the benefits they currently bring, and how their use can continue on a sustainable basis. Topics include: Health - conquering the diseases and stresses which still threaten us. Food - the role of agrochemicals and food chemists. Water - drinking water; the seas as a resource of raw materials. Fuels - what are they and from what are they made? Plastics - what are the used for and can they be sustainable? Cities - what role has chemistry in modern life? Sport - chemistry has changed the game. The world stands at a crossroads. What route to the future should we take? The road to a sustainable city beckons, but what effect will this have on chemistry, which appears so dependent on fossil resources? Its products are part of everyday living, and without them we could regress to the world of earlier generations when lives were blighted by disease, famines, dirt, and pain. In fact the industries based on chemistry the chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries could be sustainable and not only benefit those in the developed world but could be shared by everyone on this planet and for generations to come. This book shows how it might be achieved.