The Politics of Evidence

From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence

Author: Justin Parkhurst

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131738086X

Category: Political Science

Page: 196

View: 7962

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There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

The Politics of Evidence (Open Access)

From evidence-based policy to the good governance of evidence

Author: Justin Parkhurst

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317380878

Category: Political Science

Page: 182

View: 6963

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The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. There has been an enormous increase in interest in the use of evidence for public policymaking, but the vast majority of work on the subject has failed to engage with the political nature of decision making and how this influences the ways in which evidence will be used (or misused) within political areas. This book provides new insights into the nature of political bias with regards to evidence and critically considers what an ‘improved’ use of evidence would look like from a policymaking perspective. Part I describes the great potential for evidence to help achieve social goals, as well as the challenges raised by the political nature of policymaking. It explores the concern of evidence advocates that political interests drive the misuse or manipulation of evidence, as well as counter-concerns of critical policy scholars about how appeals to ‘evidence-based policy’ can depoliticise political debates. Both concerns reflect forms of bias – the first representing technical bias, whereby evidence use violates principles of scientific best practice, and the second representing issue bias in how appeals to evidence can shift political debates to particular questions or marginalise policy-relevant social concerns. Part II then draws on the fields of policy studies and cognitive psychology to understand the origins and mechanisms of both forms of bias in relation to political interests and values. It illustrates how such biases are not only common, but can be much more predictable once we recognise their origins and manifestations in policy arenas. Finally, Part III discusses ways to move forward for those seeking to improve the use of evidence in public policymaking. It explores what constitutes ‘good evidence for policy’, as well as the ‘good use of evidence’ within policy processes, and considers how to build evidence-advisory institutions that embed key principles of both scientific good practice and democratic representation. Taken as a whole, the approach promoted is termed the ‘good governance of evidence’ – a concept that represents the use of rigorous, systematic and technically valid pieces of evidence within decision-making processes that are representative of, and accountable to, populations served.

Public Policy, Governance and Polarization

Making Governance Work

Author: David K. Jesuit,Russell Alan Williams

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317197984

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 234

View: 1306

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Polarization is widely diagnosed as a major cause of the decline of evidence-based policy making and public engagement-based styles of policy making. It creates an environment where hardened partisan viewpoints on major policy questions are less amenable to negotiation, compromise or change. Polarization is not a temporary situation – it is the “new normal.” Public Policy, Governance and Polarization seeks to provide a theoretical foundation for scholars and policy makers who need to understand the powerful and often disruptive forces that have arisen in Europe and North America over the past decade. Academics and practitioners need to better understand this growing trend and to find ways in which it may be managed so that policy solutions to these threats may be developed and implemented. Researchers and future policymakers in fields such as public administration, public management and public policy need to recognise how institutional design, corporatist interest group systems and different pedagogical approaches may help them understand, discuss and work beyond policy polarization. Edited by two leading political science scholars, this book aims to begin that process.

Decentring Health Policy

Learning from British Experiences in Healthcare Governance

Author: Mark Bevir,Justin Waring

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315310791

Category: Political Science

Page: 210

View: 7598

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Taking a ‘decentred’ approach to the analysis of health policy means being attentive to the historical contingencies and circumstances within which reforms are located, the influence of dominant or elite narratives in the shaping of policy, the local traditions and customary practices through which policies are mobilised, and the way local actors contest, negotiate and co-construct policy. This book offers a unique analysis of the changing landscape of healthcare reform in Britain, as an example of decentralized reforms across the developed world. The collection is framed by the recognition that healthcare reform has resulted in variegated and decentralized forms of governance. The chapters look at distinct aspects of reform within the British NHS to bring to light the influence of local histories, traditions, coalitions, and values, in the remaking of a national healthcare system. Each chapter focuses on a different aspects of reform, and in others developing cross-national and comparative analysis. However, each offers a unique contribution and analysis of contemporary theories of healthcare governance. This book will be of key interest to scholars, students and practitioners in healthcare, health and social policy, political science, and public management and governance.

Hybrid Public Policy Innovations

Contemporary Policy Beyond Ideology

Author: Mark Fabian,Robert Breunig

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351245929

Category: Political Science

Page: 290

View: 4435

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Political discourse in much of the world remains mired in simplistic ideological dichotomies of market fundamentalism for efficiency versus substantial socialism for equity. Contemporary public policy design is far more sophisticated. It blends market, government and community tools to simultaneously achieve both equity and efficiency. Unlike in the twentieth century, this design is increasingly grounded in a deep evidence base derived by way of rigorous empirical techniques. A new paradigm is emerging: hybrid policies. This volume provides a thorough introduction to this technical side of public policy analysis and development. It demonstrates that it is possible to go beyond ideology, and find there some powerful answers to our most pressing problems. An international team of experts, many of whom have experience with the design or implementation of?hybrid policies, helps cover the behavioural, institutional and regulatory theories that inform the choice of policy objectives and lead the initial conception of solutions. They explain the reasons why we need evidence-based public policy and the state-of-the-art empirical techniques involved in its development. And they analyse a range of in-depth case studies from industrial relations to health care to illustrate how hybrids can intermingle the strengths of governments, markets and the community to combat the weaknesses of each and arrive at bipartisan outcomes. Hybrid Public Policy Innovations is geared to scholars and practitioners of public policy administration and management who desire to understand the analytical reasons why policies are designed the way they are, and the purpose of evidence-gathering frameworks attached to policies at implementation.

The Politics of Expertise in International Organizations

How International Bureaucracies Produce and Mobilize Knowledge

Author: Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1134879717

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 3063

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This edited volume advances existing research on the production and use of expert knowledge by international bureaucracies. Given the complexity, technicality and apparent apolitical character of the issues dealt with in global governance arenas, ‘evidence-based’ policy-making has imposed itself as the best way to evaluate the risks and consequences of political action in global arenas. In the absence of alternative, democratic modes of legitimation, international organizations have adopted this approach to policy-making. By treating international bureaucracies as strategic actors, this volume address novel questions: why and how do international bureaucrats deploy knowledge in policy-making? Where does the knowledge they use come from, and how can we retrace pathways between the origins of certain ideas and their adoption by international administrations? What kind of evidence do international bureaucrats resort to, and with what implications? Which types of knowledge are seen as authoritative, and why? This volume makes a crucial contribution to our understanding of the way global policy agendas are shaped and propagated. It will be of great interest to scholars, policy-makers and practitioners in the fields of public policy, international relations, global governance and international organizations.

Politics, Public Policy and Social Protection in Africa

Evidence from Cash Transfer Programmes

Author: Nicholas Awortwi,Emmanuel Remi Aiyede

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351716824

Category: Social Science

Page: 156

View: 2798

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Africa is now in a much-improved position to support its poor and vulnerable people. It has more money, more policy commitment and abundant intervention programmes. Yet the number of citizens living lives of desperation, or at risk of destitution, is at an all-time high, and still rising. What is turning such positive prospects into such a disappointing result? Politics, Public Policy and Social Protection in Africa reveals key answers, drawing on empirical studies of cash transfer programmes in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda. Social cash transfer might be the most effective "safety net" formula to emerge so far. The country chapters in this book explore why it works and how it might be harnessed for poverty alleviation. The studies uncover the very different motives of donors, politicians and the poor themselves for making it their preferred choice; why governments are not expanding the donor-driven pilot programmes as expected, and why ruling elites are not trying to help or hinder a concept which, on the face of it, could derail one of their most lucrative gravy trains. This book will be of value and interest to researchers and students of African politics, African social policy and sociology, as well as policy maker and donors.

The Politics of Bureaucracy

An Introduction to Comparative Public Administration

Author: B.Guy Peters

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136706178

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 6816

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Written by a leading authority in the field, this comprehensive exploration of the political and policy-making roles of public bureaucracies is now available in a fully revised sixth edition, offering extensive, well documented comparative analysis of the effects of politics on bureaucracy. New to the 6th edition: More international case studies on North America, Western and Eastern European and Asian countries. Discussion of how governments have been developing strategies to enhance co-ordination and coherence across their programmes. Analysis of the use of performance management in public administration. More tables, case studies and internet links. Extensive revision and updating to take into account the wealth of new literature that has emerged in recent years, including a discussion of E-Governance and analysis of ‘new public management’. Drawing on evidence from a wide variety of political systems, The Politics of Bureaucracy continues to be essential reading for all students of government, policy analysis, and politics and international relations.

Climate Adaptation Policy and Evidence

Understanding the Tensions between Politics and Expertise in Public Policy

Author: Peter Tangney

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351978489

Category: Political Science

Page: 258

View: 2918

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Evidence-based policymaking is often promoted within liberal democracies as the best means for government to balance political values with technical considerations. Under the evidence-based mandate, both experts and non-experts often assume that policy problems are sufficiently tractable and that experts can provide impartial and usable advice to government so that problems like climate change adaptation can be effectively addressed; at least, where there is political will to do so. This book compares the politics and science informing climate adaptation policy in Australia and the UK to understand how realistic these expectations are in practice. At a time when both academics and practitioners have repeatedly called for more and better science to anticipate climate change impacts and, thereby, to effectively adapt, this book explains why a dearth of useful expert evidence about future climate is not the most pressing problem. Even when it is sufficiently credible and relevant for decision-making, climate science is often ignored or politicised to ensure the evidence-based mandate is coherent with prevailing political, economic and epistemic ideals. There are other types of policy knowledge too that are, arguably, much more important. This comparative analysis reveals what the politics of climate change mean for both the development of useful evidence and for the practice of evidence-based policymaking.

Evidence-Based Policymaking

Insights from Policy-Minded Researchers and Research-Minded Policymakers

Author: Karen Bogenschneider,Thomas J. Corbett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135149798

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 368

View: 5709

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This book examines ways to enhance evidence-based policymaking, striking a balance between theory and practice. The attention to theory builds a greater understanding of why miscommunication and mistrust occur. Until we better appreciate the forces that divide researchers and policymakers, we cannot effectively construct strategies for bringing them together.

Psychological Governance and Public Policy

Governing the mind, brain and behaviour

Author: Jessica Pykett,Rhys Jones,Mark Whitehead

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317396596

Category: Science

Page: 158

View: 2012

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There have been significant developments in the state of psychological, neuroscientific and behavioural scientific knowledge relating to the human mind, brain, action and decision-making over the past two decades. These developments have influenced public policy making and popular culture in the UK and elsewhere – through policies and emerging social practices focussed on behavioural change, happiness, wellbeing, therapy, resilience and character. Yet little attention has been paid to examining the wider political and ethical significance of the widespread use of psychological governance techniques. There is a pressing and recognised need to address the behaviour change agenda in relation to how our cultural ideas about the brain, mind, behaviour and self are changing. This book provides a critical account of existing forms of psychological governance in relation to public policy. It asks whether we can speak of a co-ordinated and novel shift in governance or, rather, whether these trends are more simply pragmatic policy tools based on advances in scientific evidence. With contributions from leading scholars across the social sciences from the UK, the USA and Canada, chapters identify practical, political and research challenges posed by the current policy enthusiasm for particular branches of affective neuroscience, behavioural economics, positive psychology and happiness economics. The core focus of this book is to investigate the ways in which knowledge about the mind, brain and behaviour has informed the methods and techniques of governance and to explore the implications of this for shaping citizen identity and social practice. This groundbreaking book will be of interest to students, scholars and policy-makers interested and working within geography, economics, sociology, psychology, politics and cultural studies.

The Power of Information Networks

New Directions for Agenda Setting

Author: Lei Guo,Maxwell McCombs

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317537238

Category: Political Science

Page: 254

View: 4688

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The news media have significant influence on the formation of public opinion. Called the agenda-setting role of the media, this influence occurs at three levels. Focusing public attention on a select few issues or other topics at any moment is level one. Emphasizing specific attributes of those issues or topics is level two. The Power of Information Networks: The Third Level of Agenda Setting introduces the newest perspective on this influence. While levels one and two are concerned with the salience of discrete individual elements, the third level offers a more comprehensive and nuanced perspective to explain media effects in this evolving media landscape: the ability of the news media to determine how the public associates the various elements in these media messages to create an integrated picture of public affairs. This is the first book to detail the theoretical foundations, methodological approaches, and international empirical evidence for this new perspective. Cutting-edge communication analytics such as network analysis, Big Data and data visualization techniques are used to examine these third-level effects. Diverse applications of the theory are documented in political communication, public relations, health communication, and social media research. The Power of Information Networks will interest scholars, students and practitioners concerned with the media and their social and cultural effects.

Social Enterprise

At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society

Author: Marthe Nyssens

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134182171

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 352

View: 4938

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In one of its previous books, the EMES European Research Network traced the most significant developments in 'social entrepreneurship' emerging inside the third sector in Europe. Building upon that seminal work, this volume presents the results of an extensive research project carried out over a four-year period of a comparative analysis of 160 social enterprises across eleven EU countries. It breaks new ground in both its articulation of multidisciplinary theoretical frameworks and its rigorous analysis of empirical evidence based on a homogenized data collection methodology. Looking at work intergration, it is structured around a number of key themes (multiple goals and multiple stakeholders, multiple resources, trajectories of workers, public policies) developed through a transversal European analysis, and is illustrated with short country experiences that reflect the diversity of welfare models across Europe. With contributions from an impressive list of academics, all members of the EMES European Research Network, this rich follow-up volume to The Emergence of Social Enterprise is essential reading for academics, researchers and students in the fields of the third sector and social policies.

Politics of Bureaucracy

Author: B. Guy Peters,Guy Peters

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134648162

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 7741

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First published in 2002. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Handbook of Policy Formulation

Author: Michael Howlett,Ishani Mukherjee

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784719323

Category:

Page: 584

View: 6827

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Policy formulation relies upon the interplay of knowledge-based analysis of issues with power-based considerations, such as the political assessment of the costs and benefits of proposed actions, and its effects on the partisan and electoral concerns of governments. Policy scholars have long been interested in how governments successfully create, deploy and utilise policy instruments, but the literature on policy formulation has, until now, remained fragmented. This comprehensive Handbook unites original scholarship on policy tools and design, with contributions examining policy actors and the roles they play in the formulation process.

Advancing Collaboration Theory

Models, Typologies, and Evidence

Author: John C. Morris,Katrina Miller-Stevens

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131760850X

Category: Political Science

Page: 294

View: 7247

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The term collaboration is widely used but not clearly understood or operationalized. However, collaboration is playing an increasingly important role between and across public, nonprofit, and for-profit sectors. Collaboration has become a hallmark in both intragovernmental and intergovernmental relationships. As collaboration scholarship rapidly emerges, it diverges into several directions, resulting in confusion about what collaboration is and what it can be used to accomplish. This book provides much needed insight into existing ideas and theories of collaboration, advancing a revised theoretical model and accompanying typologies that further our understanding of collaborative processes within the public sector. Organized into three parts, each chapter presents a different theoretical approach to public problems, valuing the collective insights that result from honoring many individual perspectives. Case studies in collaboration, split across three levels of government, offer additional perspectives on unanswered questions in the literature. Contributions are made by authors from a variety of backgrounds, including an attorney, a career educator, a federal executive, a human resource administrator, a police officer, a self-employed entrepreneur, as well as scholars of public administration and public policy. Drawing upon the individual experiences offered by these perspectives, the book emphasizes the commonalities of collaboration. It is from this common ground, the shared experiences forged among seemingly disparate interactions that advances in collaboration theory arise. Advancing Collaboration Theory offers a unique compilation of collaborative models and typologies that enhance the existing understanding of public sector collaboration.

E-Government for Good Governance in Developing Countries

Empirical Evidence from the eFez Project

Author: Driss Kettani,Bernard Moulin

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 1783082631

Category: Computers

Page: 298

View: 6437

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Drawing lessons from the eFez Project in Morocco, this volume offers practical supporting material to decision makers in developing countries on information and communication technologies for development (ICT4D), specifically e-government implementation. The book documents the eFez Project experience in all of its aspects, presenting the project’s findings and the practical methods developed by the authors (a roadmap, impact assessment framework, design issues, lessons learned and best practices) in their systematic quest to turn eFez’s indigenous experimentations and findings into a formal framework for academics, practitioners and decision makers. The volume also reviews, analyzes and synthesizes the findings of other projects to offer a comparative study of the eFez framework and a number of other e-government frameworks from the growing literature.

The Politics of Evidence-Based Policy Making

Author: Paul Cairney

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137517816

Category: Political Science

Page: 137

View: 2014

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The Politics of Evidence Based Policymaking identifies how to work with policymakers to maximize the use of scientific evidence. Policymakers cannot consider all evidence relevant to policy problems. They use two shortcuts: ‘rational’ ways to gather enough evidence, and ‘irrational’ decision-making, drawing on emotions, beliefs, and habits. Most scientific studies focus on the former. They identify uncertainty when policymakers have incomplete evidence, and try to solve it by improving the supply of information. They do not respond to ambiguity, or the potential for policymakers to understand problems in very different ways. A good strategy requires advocates to be persuasive: forming coalitions with like-minded actors, and accompanying evidence with simple stories to exploit the emotional or ideological biases of policymakers.

Food Policy in the United States

An Introduction

Author: Parke Wilde

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315470314

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 262

View: 6718

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This new edition offers a timely update to the leading textbook dedicated to all aspects of U.S. food policy. The update accounts for experience with policy changes in the 2014 Farm Bill and prospects for the next Farm Bill, the publication of the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the removal of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status for trans fats, the collapse of the Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) treaty, stalled child nutrition reauthorization legislation, reforms in food-labeling policy, the consequences of the 2016 presidential election and many other developments. The second edition offers greater attention both to food justice issues and to economic methods, including extensive economics appendices in a new online Companion Website. As with the first edition, real-world controversies and debates motivate the book’s attention to economic principles, policy analysis, nutrition science and contemporary data sources. The book assumes that the reader's concern is not just the economic interests of farmers and food producers but also includes nutrition, sustainable agriculture, food justice, the environment and food security. The goal is to make U.S. food policy more comprehensible to those inside and outside the agri-food sector whose interests and aspirations have been ignored. The chapters cover U.S. agriculture, food production and the environment, international agricultural trade, food and beverage manufacturing, food retail and restaurants, food safety, dietary guidance, food labeling, advertising and federal food assistance programs for the poor. The author is an agricultural economist with many years of experience in the nonprofit advocacy sector, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and as a professor at Tufts University. The author's blog on U.S. food policy provides a forum for discussion and debate of the issues set out in the book.

The New Political Economy of Urban Education

Neoliberalism, Race, and the Right to the City

Author: Pauline Lipman

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136759999

Category: Education

Page: 224

View: 316

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Urban education and its contexts have changed in powerful ways. Old paradigms are being eclipsed by global forces of privatization and markets and new articulations of race, class, and urban space. These factors and more set the stage for Pauline Lipman's insightful analysis of the relationship between education policy and the neoliberal economic, political, and ideological processes that are reshaping cities in the United States and around the globe. Using Chicago as a case study of the interconnectedness of neoliberal urban policies on housing, economic development, race, and education, Lipman explores larger implications for equity, justice, and "the right to the city". She draws on scholarship in critical geography, urban sociology and anthropology, education policy, and critical analyses of race. Her synthesis of these lenses gives added weight to her critical appraisal and hope for the future, offering a significant contribution to current arguments about urban schooling and how we think about relations between neoliberal education reforms and the transformation of cities. By examining the cultural politics of why and how these relationships resonate with people's lived experience, Lipman pushes the analysis one step further toward a new educational and social paradigm rooted in radical political and economic democracy.