The Politics of Design in French Colonial Urbanism

Author: Gwendolyn Wright

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226908489

Category: Architecture

Page: 389

View: 3411

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Politics and culture are at once semi-autonomous and intertwined. Nowhere is this more revealingly illustrated than in urban design, a field that encompasses architecture and social life, traditions and modernization. Here aesthetic goals and political intentions meet, sometimes in collaboration, sometimes in conflict. Here the formal qualities of art confront the complexities of history. When urban design policies are implemented, they reveal underlying aesthetic, cultural, and political dilemmas with startling clarity. Gwendolyn Wright focuses on three French colonies—Indochina, Morocco, and Madagascar—that were the most discussed, most often photographed, and most admired showpieces of the French empire in the early twentieth century. She explores how urban policy and design fit into the French colonial policy of "association," a strategy that accepted, even encouraged, cultural differences while it promoted modern urban improvements that would foster economic development for Western investors. Wright shows how these colonial cities evolved, tracing the distinctive nature of each locale under French imperialism. She also relates these cities to the larger category of French architecture and urbanism, showing how consistently the French tried to resolve certain stylistic and policy problems they faced at home and abroad. With the advice of architects and sociologists, art historians and geographers, colonial administrators sought to exert greater control over such matters as family life and working conditions, industrial growth and cultural memory. The issues Wright confronts—the potent implications of traditional norms, cultural continuity, modernization, and radical urban experiments—still challenge us today.

USA

Modern Architectures in History

Author: Gwendolyn Wright

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781861893444

Category: Architecture

Page: 320

View: 4772

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Traces the evolution of American architecture from the late nineteenth century to the present day, arguing that America's unique blend of cultures, sensibilities, and aspirations has shaped architectural development and examining how changes in style, from early skyscrapers, to Art Deco in the 1920s, to today's modernist trends, reflect the social and political issues of their time. Original.

French Modern

Norms and Forms of the Social Environment

Author: Paul Rabinow

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226701743

Category: History

Page: 454

View: 2852

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In this study of space and power and knowledge in France from the 1830s through the 1930s, Rabinow uses the tools of anthropology, philosophy, and cultural criticism to examine how social environment was perceived and described. Ranging from epidemiology to the layout of colonial cities, he shows how modernity was revealed in urban planning, architecture, health and welfare administration, and social legislation.

Building the Dream

A Social History of Housing in America

Author: Gwendolyn Wright

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262730648

Category: Architecture

Page: 329

View: 384

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Examines the rich diversity of American architecture--from the frame houses of New England to condominiums in the Sunbelt--as they reflect the political, social, and economic ideologies of their times

Neo Delhi and the Politics of Postcolonial Urbanism

Author: Rohan Kalyan

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351846647

Category: Political Science

Page: 226

View: 9466

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book is augmented by an interactive website (neodelhi.net). During research trips to Delhi and Gurgaon between 2008 and 2015 the author produced a multi-media urban archive that includes full color photos, an essay film, ethnographic videos, field notes and more pertaining to the arguments and ideas presented in this book. The reader is encouraged to actively engage with the website alongside this text. This book challenges the prevailing metro-centric view of globalization. Rather than privileging the experiences of cities and urban regions in the industrialized world, it argues that cities in the so-called "developing" world present opportunities for scholars to re-think entrenched ideas of globalization, urban development and political community. Kalyan presents a trans-disciplinary exploration of the manifold possibilities and challenges that confront a "globalizing" megacity like New Delhi. Combining theoretical scholarship, ethnographic exploration, media archival research and textual and visual analysis, the book foregrounds complex urban dynamics in and around the region and raises critical questions about changing urban life for postcolonial cities across the Global South. Kalyan employs methodological approaches from political economy, urban studies and visual culture to render a vivid portrait of changing urban life in India’s largest conurbation. The book will be of interest to students and scholars of urban studies, postcolonial studies and inter-disciplinary studies.

Colonial Architecture and Urbanism in Africa

Intertwined and Contested Histories

Author: Fassil Demissie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351950533

Category: Political Science

Page: 456

View: 473

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Colonial architecture and urbanism carved its way through space: ordering and classifying the built environment, while projecting the authority of European powers across Africa in the name of science and progress. The built urban fabric left by colonial powers attests to its lingering impacts in shaping the present and the future trajectory of postcolonial cities in Africa. Colonial Architecture and Urbanism explores the intersection between architecture and urbanism as discursive cultural projects in Africa. Like other colonial institutions such as the courts, police, prisons, and schools, that were crucial in establishing and maintaining political domination, colonial architecture and urbanism played s pivotal role in shaping the spatial and social structures of African cities during the 19th and 20th centuries. Indeed, it is the cultural destination of colonial architecture and urbanism and the connection between them and colonialism that the volume seeks to critically address. The contributions drawn from different interdisciplinary fields map the historical processes of colonial architecture and urbanism and bring into sharp focus the dynamic conditions in which colonial states, officials, architects, planners, medical doctors and missionaries mutually constructed a hierarchical and exclusionary built environment that served the wider colonial project in Africa.

French Urbanism in Foreign Lands

Author: Ambe J. Njoh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319252984

Category: Social Science

Page: 203

View: 4558

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book will seek to close the gaps on the role of France in exporting Eurocentric spatial and environmental design principles and practice. It does so by analyzing the major spatial and physical development projects that French colonial authorities implemented in France’s colonial empire and elsewhere from the 15th to the 20th century. French urban planning ideology, principles and practice were not exported exclusively to territories under French colonial suzerainty. Accordingly, the book focuses on major physical and spatial planning schemes inspired by French planning thought in territories without a history of French colonialism.

Imperial Contagions

Medicine, Hygiene, and Cultures of Planning in Asia

Author: Robert Peckham,David M. Pomfret

Publisher: Hong Kong University Press

ISBN: 9888139126

Category: History

Page: 307

View: 5834

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Imperial Contagions argues that there was no straightforward shift from older, enclavist models of colonial medicine to a newer emphasis on prevention and treatment of disease among indigenous populations as well as European residents. It shows that colonial medicine was not at all homogeneous "on the ground" but was riven with tensions and contradictions. Indigenous elites contested and appropriated Western medical knowledge and practices for their own purposes. Colonial policies contained contradictory and cross-cutting impulses. This book challenges assumptions that colonial regimes were uniformly able to regulate indigenous bodies and that colonial medicine served as a "tool of empire."

The Birth of Vietnamese Political Journalism

Saigon, 1916-1930

Author: Philippe M.F. Peycam

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528043

Category: History

Page: 320

View: 1924

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Philippe M. F. Peycam completes the first ever English-language study of Vietnam's emerging political press and its resistance to colonialism. Published in the decade that preceded the Communist Party's founding, this journalistic phenomenon established a space for public, political contestation that fundamentally changed Vietnamese attitudes and the outlook of Southeast Asia. Peycam directly links Saigon's colonial urbanization to the creation of new modes of individual and collective political agency. To better justify their presence, French colonialists implemented a peculiar brand of republican imperialism to encourage the development of a highly controlled print capitalism. Yet the Vietnamese made clever use of this new form of political expression, subverting colonial discourse and putting French rulers on the defensive, while simultaneously stoking Vietnamese aspirations for autonomy. Peycam specifically considers the work of Western-educated Vietnamese journalists who, in their legal writings, called attention to the politics of French rule. Peycam rejects the notion that Communist and nationalist ideologies changed the minds of "alienated" Vietnamese during this period. Rather, he credits colonial urban modernity with shaping the Vietnamese activist-journalist and the role of the French, even at their most coercive, along with the modern public Vietnamese intellectual and his responsibility toward the group. Countering common research on anticolonial nationalism and its assumptions of ethno-cultural homogeneity, Peycam follows the merging of French republican and anarchist traditions with neo-Confucian Vietnamese behavior, giving rise to modern Vietnamese public activism, its autonomy, and its contradictory aspirations. Interweaving biography with archival newspaper and French police sources, he writes from within these journalists' changing political consciousness and their shifting perception of social roles.

A Critical History of Contemporary Architecture

1960-2010

Author: Asst Prof David Rifkind,Dr Elie G Haddad

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472429397

Category: Architecture

Page: 530

View: 7563

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book provides a comprehensive, critical overview of the developments in architecture from 1960 to 2010. The first section provides a presentation of major movements in architecture after 1960, and the second, a geographic survey that covers a wide range of territories around the world. This book not only reflects the different perspectives of its various authors, but also charts a middle course between the 'aesthetic' histories that examine architecture solely in terms of its formal aspects, and the more 'ideological' histories that subject it to a critique that often skirts the discussion of its formal aspects.

French Colonial Dakar

The Morphogenesis of an African Regional Capital

Author: N.A

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0719099358

Category: Architecture

Page: 232

View: 5336

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This book deals with the planning culture and architectural endeavours that shaped the model space of French colonial Dakar, a prominent city in West Africa. With a focus on the period from the establishment of the city in the mid-nineteenth century until the interwar years, our involvement with the design of Dakar as a regional capital reveals a multiplicity of 'top-down' and 'bottom-up' forces. These include a variety of urban politics, policies, practices and agencies, and complex negotiations on both the physical and conceptual levels. The study of the extra-European planning history of Europe has been a burgeoning field in scholarly literature, especially in the last few decades. There is a clear tendency within this literature, however, to focus on the more privileged colonies in the contemporary colonial order of preference, such as British India and the French colonies in North Africa. Colonial urban space in sub-Saharan Africa has thus been left relatively untreated. With a rich variety of historical material and visual evidence, the book incorporates both primary and secondary sources, collected from multilateral channels in Europe and Senegal. It includes an analysis of a variety of planning and architectural models, metropolitan-cum-indigenous. Of interest to scholars in history, geography, architecture, urban planning, African studies and Global South studies - this book is also one of the pioneers in attesting the connection between the French colonial doctrines of assimilation and association and French colonial planning and architectural policies in sub-Saharan Africa.

Segregation

A Global History of Divided Cities

Author: Carl H. Nightingale

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226580741

Category: History

Page: 517

View: 1307

DOWNLOAD NOW »
When we think of segregation, what often comes to mind is apartheid South Africa, or the American South in the age of Jim Crow—two societies fundamentally premised on the concept of the separation of the races. But as Carl H. Nightingale shows us in this magisterial history, segregation is everywhere, deforming cities and societies worldwide. Starting with segregation’s ancient roots, and what the archaeological evidence reveals about humanity’s long-standing use of urban divisions to reinforce political and economic inequality, Nightingale then moves to the world of European colonialism. It was there, he shows, segregation based on color—and eventually on race—took hold; the British East India Company, for example, split Calcutta into “White Town” and “Black Town.” As we follow Nightingale’s story around the globe, we see that division replicated from Hong Kong to Nairobi, Baltimore to San Francisco, and more. The turn of the twentieth century saw the most aggressive segregation movements yet, as white communities almost everywhere set to rearranging whole cities along racial lines. Nightingale focuses closely on two striking examples: Johannesburg, with its state-sponsored separation, and Chicago, in which the goal of segregation was advanced by the more subtle methods of real estate markets and housing policy. For the first time ever, the majority of humans live in cities, and nearly all those cities bear the scars of segregation. This unprecedented, ambitious history lays bare our troubled past, and sets us on the path to imagining the better, more equal cities of the future.

Postcolonial Urbanism

Southeast Asian Cities and Global Processes

Author: Ryan Bishop,John Phillips,Wei Wei Yeo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136060502

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 4096

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A common assumption about cities throughout the world is tht they are essentially an elaboration of the Euro-American model. Postcolonial Urbanism demonstrates the narrowness of this vision. Cities in the postcolonial world, the book shows, are producing novel forms of urbanism not reducible to Western urbanism. Despite being heavily colonized in the past, Southeast Asia has been largely ignored in discussions about postcolonial theory and in general considerations of global urbanism. An international cast of contributors focuses on the heavily urbanized world region of Southeast Asia to investigate the novel forms of urbanism germinating in postcolonial settings such as Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Hanoi, and the Philippines. Offering a mix of theoretical perspectives and empirical accounts, Postcolonial Urbanism presents a panoramic view of the cultures, societies, and politics of the postcolonial city.

French Urban Planning, 1940-1968

The Construction and Deconstruction of an Authoritarian System

Author: W. Brian Newsome

Publisher: Peter Lang

ISBN: 9781433104008

Category: Architecture

Page: 249

View: 419

DOWNLOAD NOW »
"French Urban Planning 1940-1968" explores the creation and progressive dismantling of France's centralized, authoritarian system of urban and architectural planning. Established in the wake of World War II to facilitate the reconstruction and expansion of cities, this planning program led to the evolution of large suburban housing estates plagued by inter/intra family conflict, juvenile delinquency, and other social difficulties, which sociologists connected to poor planning and design. Critics began calling for the democratization of planning to remedy design problems, and the government of Charles de Gaulle started reforming planning procedures in the late 1950s and early 1960s. This book moves beyond technical and political issues to explore forces of religion, gender, and class that affected planning practices. Key critics and state officials emerged from the Catholic Left. Some were women from working-class backgrounds, and they manipulated gender stereotypes to insert working- and middle-class women into the design process. Sometimes in opposition, but often together, these reformers initiated the most significant change of architectural and urban planning until the introduction of Francois Mitterrand's decentralization reforms in the 1980s. "French Urban Planning 1940-1968" will appeal to scholars and students interested in architectural, urban, and social trends in twentieth-century France."

The Politics of Furniture

Identity, Diplomacy and Persuasion in Post-War Interiors

Author: Fredie Floré,Cammie McAtee

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317020472

Category: Architecture

Page: 214

View: 6019

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In many different parts of the world modern furniture elements have served as material expressions of power in the post-war era. They were often meant to express an international and in some respects apolitical modern language, but when placed in a sensitive setting or a meaningful architectural context, they were highly capable of negotiating or manipulating ideological messages. The agency of modern furniture was often less overt than that of political slogans or statements, but as the chapters in this book reveal, it had the potential of becoming a persuasive and malleable ally in very diverse politically charged arenas, including embassies, governmental ministries, showrooms, exhibitions, design schools, libraries, museums and even prisons. This collection of chapters examines the consolidating as well as the disrupting force of modern furniture in the global context between 1945 and the mid-1970s. The volume shows that key to understanding this phenomenon is the study of the national as well as transnational systems through which it was launched, promoted and received. While some chapters squarely focus on individual furniture elements as vehicles communicating political and social meaning, others consider the role of furniture within potent sites that demand careful negotiation, whether between governments, cultures, or buyer and seller. In doing so, the book explicitly engages different scholarly fields: design history, history of interior architecture, architectural history, cultural history, diplomatic and political history, postcolonial studies, tourism studies, material culture studies, furniture history, and heritage and preservation studies. Taken together, the narratives and case studies compiled in this volume offer a better understanding of the political agency of post-war modern furniture in its original historical context. At the same time, they will enrich current debates on reuse, relocation or reproduction of some of these elements.

Urban Forms and Colonial Confrontations

Algiers Under French Rule

Author: Zeynep Çelik

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780520204577

Category: Architecture

Page: 236

View: 9115

DOWNLOAD NOW »
During its long history as the French colonial city par excellence, Algiers was the site of recurrent conflicts between colonizer and colonized. Through architecture and urban forms confrontations were crystallized, cultural identities were defined, and social engineering programs were shaped and challenged. In this pathbreaking book, Zeynep elik reads the city of Algiers as the site of social, political, and cultural conflicts during the 132 years of French occupation and argues that architecture and urban forms are integral components of the colonial discourse. Algiers' city planning, based on what elik calls "the trial-and-error" model of French colonial urbanism, included the fragmentation of the casbah, ambitious Beaux Arts schemes to create European forms of housing, master plans inspired by high modernism, and comprehensive regional plans. Eventually a dramatic housing shortage led all planning efforts to be centered on the construction of large-scale residential enclaves. French architects based their designs for domestic space on the concept of the "traditional house," itself an interdisciplinary colonial concept intertwined with the discourse on Algerian women. Housing also offered the French colonizers a powerful presence in a country where periodic resistance to the occupation eventually culminated in a seven-year war of liberation and an end to French rule. Extensively illustrated with photographs, maps, and housing plans, elik's book presents a fascinating example of colonial urban planning. Algiers comes alive as a city that reflected all the conflicts of colonialism while embracing innovation. During its long history as the French colonial city par excellence, Algiers was the site of recurrent conflicts between colonizer and colonized. Through architecture and urban forms confrontations were crystallized, cultural identities were defined, and social engineering programs were shaped and challenged. In this pathbreaking book, Zeynep elik reads the city of Algiers as the site of social, political, and cultural conflicts during the 132 years of French occupation and argues that architecture and urban forms are integral components of the colonial discourse. Algiers' city planning, based on what elik calls "the trial-and-error" model of French colonial urbanism, included the fragmentation of the casbah, ambitious Beaux Arts schemes to create European forms of housing, master plans inspired by high modernism, and comprehensive regional plans. Eventually a dramatic housing shortage led all planning efforts to be centered on the construction of large-scale residential enclaves. French architects based their designs for domestic space on the concept of the "traditional house," itself an interdisciplinary colonial concept intertwined with the discourse on Algerian women. Housing also offered the French colonizers a powerful presence in a country where periodic resistance to the occupation eventually culminated in a seven-year war of liberation and an end to French rule. Extensively illustrated with photographs, maps, and housing plans, elik's book presents a fascinating example of colonial urban planning. Algiers comes alive as a city that reflected all the conflicts of colonialism while embracing innovation.

Historicizing Colonial Nostalgia

European Women's Narratives of Algeria and Kenya 1900-Present

Author: Patricia M. E. Lorcin

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN: 1137013036

Category: History

Page: 330

View: 2506

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This illuminating study of European women's narratives in colonial Algeria and Kenya argues that nostalgia was not a post-colonial phenomenon but was embedded in the colonial period. Patricia M. E. Lorcin explores the distinction between imperial nostalgia, associated with the loss of power that results from the loss of empire, and colonial nostalgia, associated with loss of socio-cultural standing—in other words, loss of a certain way of life. This distinction helps to make women's discursive role an important factor in the creation of colonial nostalgia, due to their significant contribution to the establishment of a European colonial environment.

Constitutionalism, Legitimacy, and Power

Nineteenth-Century Experiences

Author: Kelly L Grotke,Markus J Prutsch

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191034711

Category: Law

Page: 450

View: 3378

DOWNLOAD NOW »
If one counts the production of constitutional documents alone, the nineteenth century can lay claim to being a 'constitutional age'; one in which the generation and reception of constitutional texts served as a centre of gravity around which law and politics consistently revolved. This volume critically re-examines the role of constitutionalism in that period, in order to counter established teleological narratives that imply a consistent development from absolutism towards inclusive, participatory democracy. Various aspects of constitutional histories within and outside of Europe are examined from a comparative, transnational, and multidisciplinary historical perspective, organized around five key themes. The first part looks at constitutions as anti-revolutionary devices, and addresses state building, monarchical constitutionalism, and restorations. The second part takes up constitutions and the justification of new social inequalities, focusing on women's suffrage, human rights, and property. The third part uses individual country studies to take on questions of how constitutions served to promote nationalism. The use of constitutions as instruments of imperialism is covered in the fourth part, and the final part examines the ways that constitutions function simultaneously as legal and political texts. These themes reflect a certain scepticism regarding any easy relationship between stated constitutional ideals and enacted constitutional practices. Taken together, they also function as a general working hypothesis about the role of constitutions in the establishment and maintenance of a domestically and internationally imbalanced status quo, of which we are the present-day inheritors. More particularly, this volume addresses the question of the extent to which nineteenth-century constitutionalism may have set the stage for new forms of domination and discrimination, rather than inaugurating a period of 'progress' and increasing equality.

The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History

Author: John Parker,Richard Reid

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667552

Category: History

Page: 560

View: 7033

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The Oxford Handbook of Modern African History represents an invaluable tool for historians and others in the field of African studies. This collection of essays, produced by some of the finest scholars currently working in the field, provides the latest insights into, and interpretations of, the history of Africa - a continent with a rich and complex past. An understanding of this past is essential to gain perspective on Africa's current challenges, and this accessible and comprehensive volume will allow readers to explore various aspects - political, economic, social, and cultural - of the continent's history over the last two hundred years. Since African history first emerged as a serious academic endeavour in the 1950s and 1960s, it has undergone numerous shifts in terms of emphasis and approach, changes brought about by political and economic exigencies and by ideological debates. This multi-faceted Handbook is essential reading for anyone with an interest in those debates, and in Africa and its peoples. While the focus is determinedly historical, anthropology, geography, literary criticism, political science and sociology are all employed in this ground-breaking study of Africa's past.

The Politics of the Provisional

Art and Ephemera in Revolutionary France

Author: Richard Taws

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271061898

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 7791

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In revolutionary France the life of things could not be assured. War, shortage of materials, and frequent changes in political authority meant that few large-scale artworks or permanent monuments to the Revolution’s memory were completed. On the contrary, visual practice in revolutionary France was characterized by the production and circulation of a range of transitional, provisional, ephemeral, and half-made images and objects, from printed paper money, passports, and almanacs to temporary festival installations and relics of the demolished Bastille. Addressing this mass of images conventionally ignored in art history, The Politics of the Provisional contends that they were at the heart of debates on the nature of political authenticity and historical memory during the French Revolution. Thinking about material durability, this book suggests, was one of the key ways in which revolutionaries conceptualized duration, and it was crucial to how they imagined the Revolution’s transformative role in history. The Politics of the Provisional is the first book in the Art History Publication Initiative (AHPI), a collaborative grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Thanks to the AHPI grant, this book is available on a variety of popular e-book platforms.