Early Days of X-ray Crystallography

Author: André Authier

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191635022

Category: Science

Page: 464

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The year 2012 marked the centenary of one of the most significant discoveries of the early twentieth century, the discovery of X-ray diffraction (March 1912, by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping) and of Bragg's law (November 1912). The discovery of X-ray diffraction confirmed the wave nature of X-rays and the space-lattice hypothesis. It had two major consequences: the analysis of the structure of atoms, and the determination of the atomic structure of materials. This had a momentous impact in chemistry, physics, mineralogy, material science, biology and X-ray spectroscopy. The book relates the discovery itself, the early days of X-ray crystallography, and the way the news of the discovery spread round the world. It explains how the first crystal structures were determined by William Bragg and his son Lawrence, and recounts which were the early applications of X-ray crystallography in chemistry, mineralogy, materials science, physics, biological sciences and X-ray spectroscopy. It also tells how the concept of space lattice developed since ancient times up to the nineteenth century, and how our conception of the nature of light has changed over time. The contributions of the main actors of the story, prior to the discovery, at the time of the discovery and immediately afterwards, are described through their writings and are put into the context of the time, accompanied by brief biographical details. This thoroughly researched account on the multiple faces of a scientific specialty, X-ray crystallography, is aimed both at the scientists, who rarely subject the historical material of past discoveries in their field to particular scrutiny with regard to the historical details and at the historians of science who often lack the required expert knowledge to scrutinize the involved technical content in sufficient depth (M. Eckert - Metascience).

Science in the 20th Century and Beyond

Author: Jon Agar

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745660495

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 494

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A compelling history of science from 1900 to the present day, this is the first book to survey modern developments in science during a century of unprecedented change, conflict and uncertainty. The scope is global. Science's claim to access universal truths about the natural world made it an irresistible resource for industrial empires, ideological programs, and environmental campaigners during this period. Science has been at the heart of twentieth century history - from Einstein's new physics to the Manhattan Project, from eugenics to the Human Genome Project, or from the wonders of penicillin to the promises of biotechnology. For some science would only thrive if autonomous and kept separate from the political world, while for others science was the best guide to a planned and better future. Science was both a routine, if essential, part of an orderly society, and the disruptive source of bewildering transformation. Jon Agar draws on a wave of recent scholarship that explores science from interdisciplinary perspectives to offer a readable synthesis that will be ideal for anyone curious about the profound place of science in the modern world.

Chemical Sciences in the 20th Century

Bridging Boundaries

Author: Carsten Reinhardt

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527612742

Category: Science

Page: 297

View: 9769

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Chemistry in the last century was characterized by spectacular growth and advances, stimulated by revolutionary theories and experimental breakthroughs. Yet, despite this rapid development, the history of this scientific discipline has achieved only recently the status necessary to understand the effects of chemistry on the scientific and technological culture of the modern world. This book addresses the bridging of boundaries between chemistry and the other "classical" disciplines of science, physics and biology as well as the connections of chemistry to mathematics and technology. Chemical research is represented as an interconnected patchwork of scientific specialties, and this is shown by a mixture of case studies and broader overviews on the history of organic chemistry, theoretical chemistry, nuclear- and cosmochemistry, solid state chemistry, and biotechnology. All of these fields were at the center of the development of twentieth century chemistry, and the authors cover crucial topics such as the emergence of new subdisciplines and research fields, the science-technology relationship, and national styles of scientific work. This monograph represents a unique treasure trove for general historians and historians of science, while also appealing to those interested in the theoretical background and development of modern chemistry.

The Weak Hydrogen Bond

In Structural Chemistry and Biology

Author: Gautam R. Desiraju,Thomas Steiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198509707

Category: Science

Page: 507

View: 9946

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Review from previous edition 'For crystallographers interested in future advances in the study of hydrogen bonding and their implications for crystal engineering and structural biology, this is a must-read book ' Acta Crystallographica'It is a real pleasure to read the book' Crystallography News'This book is an important monograph for those working on the related structural chemistry of the weak hydrogen bond' MoleculesThe weak or non-conventional hydrogen bond has been the subject of intense scrutiny over recent years. Now available in paperback, this highly acclaimed book provides a critical assessment on this interesting and occasionally controverstial interaction type.

Biomolecular Spectroscopy: Advances from Integrating Experiments and Theory

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0124165974

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3512

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Published continuously since 1944, Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology has been a continuous, essential resource for protein chemists. Covering reviews of methodology and research in all aspects of protein chemistry, including purification/expression, proteomics, modeling and structural determination and design, each volume brings forth new information about protocols and analysis of proteins while presenting the most recent findings from leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics. Covers reviews of methodology and research in all aspects of protein chemistry Brings forth new information about protocols and analysis of proteins while presenting the most recent findings from leading experts in a broad range of protein-related topics

Inside the Photon

A Journey to Health

Author: Tony Fleming,Elizabeth Bauer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814241407

Category: Medical

Page: 312

View: 6550

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Over the past decade biophotonics has appeared as a new department within the academic structure across the globe. With experimental work going back for more than a century, application of the scientific method has shown the importance of biophotonics within biological and medical practice. At the same time, a new mathematical description of physics and biophysics has emerged. Self-Field Theory (SFT) describes the role of photon as a binding agent between an electron and a proton within atomic structures. SFT is being rapidly accepted by the physics community as a distinct physical theory. This is now an alternative view, in addition to classical electromagnetics and the quantum theories, that forms the basis of a chemical bond. Atomic chemistry underpins biochemistry, the pharmaceutical approach to medical therapy, and has been a staple of biological and medical knowledge over the 20th century. The biophoton within SFT provides another layer of structural organization that sits underneath atomic chemistry. This book is the first to describe SFTs role within biophotonics and as such provides a theory of biophotonics capable of describing a wide range of experimental biophotonic phenomena. Inside the Photon: A Journey towards Health describes the newly discovered layer of biophotonics underlying all atomic chemistry and biochemistry. As with the variety of snowflakes, the range in biological species within flora for instance is dependent on this biophotonic layer of interaction within atomic and biomolecular structures. A new range of energies that can be balanced only within the biophotonic states are responsible for these innumerable varieties of biological species. The phonon, the quantum of acoustic, or vibrational, energy is also described and given status alongside the photon. Hence the ‘biophonon’ sits aside the biophoton as an element within biological structures. Sounds can create structure in the same way biophotons can use structure to communicate. Therapies such as homeopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicines are given fresh impetus including putative understanding of mechanism. Mitosis is understood via the cell cycle and how electric, acoustic, and magnetic fields can induce changes at the biophotonic level. The possibility arises of medical therapy without invasive surgery and without the side effects of drug-based therapies.

Molecules, Cells, and Disease

An Introduction to the Biology of Disease

Author: J.L. VanLancker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146139418X

Category: Medical

Page: 311

View: 3266

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In tracing their origin and their fate, the beginning and the end of their environment, humans have often been guided by curiosity. Such concern has helped man to discover, among other things, the structure of the universe from star to atom and the evolution of life from unicellular organism to human being. The study of disease is unique. Although it may have been in spired by the curiosity of a few, it has always been the concern of all, because preventing or curing disease has meant survival not only of individuals, but of entire nations, not only of humans, but of fellow living creatures. If greed, force, religion, and language have been major causes of wars, diseases, more than arms, have often decided the outcome of battles and thereby have woven the pattern of history. For millennia, a large fraction of the human race believed that disease expressed the wrath of God(s) against individuals or societies. Therefore, only priests or priestesses, kings, and queens were endowed with the power of healing. In the West, Hippocrates is credited for exorcising this concept of disease and for objectively describing and cataloguing them. The contributions of Greek physicians to Western medicine made possible more accurate diagnoses and prognoses.

Brilliant Blunders

From Darwin to Einstein - Colossal Mistakes by Great Scientists That Changed Our Understanding of Life and the Universe

Author: Mario Livio

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1439192367

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 341

View: 6069

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Draws on the careers of five renowned scientists including Charles Darwin, William Thomson, Linus Pauling, Fred Hoyle and Albert Einstein to reveal the important roles of their mistakes in advancing science, from Pauling's error in his model of DNA molecule structure to Hoyle's dismissal of the "Big Bang" theory.

An Introduction to Crystal Chemistry

Author: R. C. Evans

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521093675

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 411

View: 8418

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First published in 1964, as the second edition of a 1939 original, this well-known textbook presents the fundamental principles of crystal chemistry at a level that was suitable for undergraduate students of chemistry, physics, metallurgy, mineralogy and related subjects at the time of its publication. The first part deals with the general principles of crystal architecture in terms of predominant types of binding forces between the atoms themselves. There are chapters on atomic structure, and the ionic, covalent, metallic and van der Waals bonds. The second part contains a discussion of systematic crystal chemistry in which the physical and chemical properties of crystalline substances are related to their structures.

Problems in Structural Inorganic Chemistry

Author: Wai-Kee Li,Yu-San Cheung,Kendrew Kin Wah Mak,Thomas Chung Wai Mak

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191633054

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 5297

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This book consists of over 300 problems (and their solutions) in structural inorganic chemistry at the senior undergraduate and beginning graduate level. The topics covered comprise Atomic and Molecular Electronic States, Atomic Orbitals, Hybrid Orbitals, Molecular Symmetry, Molecular Geometry and Bonding, Crystal Field Theory, Molecular Orbital Theory, Vibrational Spectroscopy, and Crystal Structure. The central theme running through these topics is symmetry, molecular or crystalline. The problems collected in this volume originate in examination papers and take-home assignments that have been part of the teaching of the book's two senior authors' at The Chinese University of Hong Kong over the past four decades. The authors' courses include Chemical Bonding, Elementary Quantum Chemistry, Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, X-Ray Crystallography, etc. The problems have been tested by generations of students taking these courses.

Molecules and the Chemical Bond

An Introduction to Conceptual Valence Bond Theory

Author: Henry A. Bent

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN: 1490714073

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 366

View: 6606

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MOLECULES and the Chemical Bond is about understanding Schrdingers equation, for chemical systems. In his famous Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman quotes Paul Dirac on what it means to understand an equation. I understand what an equation means, said Dirac, if I have a way of figuring out the characteristics of its solutions without actually solving it. That hits the nail on the head! Its precisely what Conceptual Valence Bond Theory does for Schrdingers equation. A physical understanding of an equation, adds Feynman, is a completely unmathematical, imprecise, and inexact thing, but absolutely necessary for a physicist. It unfolds in MCB in two stages, described by Newton as a stage of Analysis (a union of observations and inductions) and a stage of Synthesis (use of inductions, accepted as first principles, to explain observations). The books chief vehicle for creating an intuitive understanding of solutions of Schrdingers equation is the worlds largest and to the authors knowledge, virtually only library of line drawings of exclusive orbital models of chemical species electron density profiles. By focussing attention on fundamental physical principles and by avoiding use of atomic orbitals and, thereby, mathematical complexities associated with Schrdingers equation (the only source of atomic orbitals), the books essays provide a scientifically sound, student-friendly introduction to modern valence theory. Repetition of fundamental ideas, here and there, is intended to make individual essays understandable and interesting, each by itself, so that readers may examine them in any order, in leisurely walks, so to speak, in the big garden that is valence theory, picking bouquets to their liking.

Chemical Bonding at Surfaces and Interfaces

Author: Anders Nilsson,Lars G.M. Pettersson,Jens Norskov

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080551913

Category: Science

Page: 532

View: 6107

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Molecular surface science has made enormous progress in the past 30 years. The development can be characterized by a revolution in fundamental knowledge obtained from simple model systems and by an explosion in the number of experimental techniques. The last 10 years has seen an equally rapid development of quantum mechanical modeling of surface processes using Density Functional Theory (DFT). Chemical Bonding at Surfaces and Interfaces focuses on phenomena and concepts rather than on experimental or theoretical techniques. The aim is to provide the common basis for describing the interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces and this to be used very broadly in science and technology. The book begins with an overview of structural information on surface adsorbates and discusses the structure of a number of important chemisorption systems. Chapter 2 describes in detail the chemical bond between atoms or molecules and a metal surface in the observed surface structures. A detailed description of experimental information on the dynamics of bond-formation and bond-breaking at surfaces make up Chapter 3. Followed by an in-depth analysis of aspects of heterogeneous catalysis based on the d-band model. In Chapter 5 adsorption and chemistry on the enormously important Si and Ge semiconductor surfaces are covered. In the remaining two Chapters the book moves on from solid-gas interfaces and looks at solid-liquid interface processes. In the final chapter an overview is given of the environmentally important chemical processes occurring on mineral and oxide surfaces in contact with water and electrolytes. Gives examples of how modern theoretical DFT techniques can be used to design heterogeneous catalysts This book suits the rapid introduction of methods and concepts from surface science into a broad range of scientific disciplines where the interaction between a solid and the surrounding gas or liquid phase is an essential component Shows how insight into chemical bonding at surfaces can be applied to a range of scientific problems in heterogeneous catalysis, electrochemistry, environmental science and semiconductor processing Provides both the fundamental perspective and an overview of chemical bonding in terms of structure, electronic structure and dynamics of bond rearrangements at surfaces

Practical Approaches to Biological Inorganic Chemistry

Author: Robert R. Crichton,Ricardo O. Louro

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444563598

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 8609

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The book reviews the use of spectroscopic and related methods to investigate the complex structures and mechanisms of biological inorganic systems that contain metals. Each chapter presents an overview of the technique including relevant theory, clearly explains what it is and how it works and then presents how the technique is actually used to evaluate biological structures. Practical examples and problems are included to illustrate each technique and to aid understanding. Designed for students and researchers who want to learn both the basics, and more advanced aspects of bioinorganic chemistry. Many colour illustrations enable easier visualization of molecular mechanisms and structures Worked examples and problems are included to illustrate and test the reader’s understanding of each technique Written by a multi-author team who use and teach the most important techniques used today to analyse complex biological structures

Pauling's Legacy

Modern Modelling of the Chemical Bond

Author: Z.B. Maksic,W.J. Orville-Thomas

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080538525

Category: Science

Page: 759

View: 3935

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Theory and experiment in chemistry today provide a wealth of data, but such data have no meaning unless they are correctly interpreted by sound and transparent physical models. Linus Pauling was a grandmaster in the modelling of molecular properties. Indeed, many of his models have served chemistry for decades and that has been his lasting legacy for chemists all over the world. The aim of this book is to put such simple models into the language of modern quantum chemistry, thus providing a deeper justification for many of Pauling's ideas and concepts. However, it should be stressed that many contributions to this work, written by some of the world's most prominent theoretical chemists, do not merely follow Pauling's footprints. By taking his example, they made bold leaps forward to overcome the limitations of the old models, thereby opening new scientific vistas. This book is an important contribution to the chemical literature. It is an almost obligatory textbook for postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers in physical chemistry, chemical physics and advanced physical organic chemistry.