The French Revolution

Rethinking the Debate

Author: Gwynne Lewis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134937415

Category: History

Page: 144

View: 6381

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First Published in 2004. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Rethinking the French Revolution

Marxism and the Revisionist Challenge

Author: George C. Comninel

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9780860918905

Category: History

Page: 225

View: 652

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Historians generally—and Marxists in particular—have presented the revolution of 1789 as a bourgeois revolution: one which marked the ascendance of the bourgeois as a class, the defeat of a feudal aristocracy, and the triumph of capitalism. Recent revisionist accounts, however, have raised convincing arguments against the idea of the bourgeois class revolution, and the model on which it is based. In this provocative study, George Comninel surveys existing interpretations of the French Revolution and the methodological issues these raise for historians. He argues that the weaknesses of Marxist scholarship originate in Marx's own method, which has led historians to fall back on abstract conceptions of the transition from feudalism to capitalism. Comninel reasserts the principles of historical materialism that found their mature expression in Das Kapital; and outlines an interpretation which concludes that, while the revolution unified the nation and centralized the French state, it did not create a capitalist society.

The Political Economy of Virtue

Luxury, Patriotism, and the Origins of the French Revolution

Author: John Shovlin

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801474187

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 265

View: 8366

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Political economy, John Shovlin asserts, can illuminate the social and economic contexts out of which a revolutionary impulse developed in France. Beyond the role of political economy in political life, massive public engagement with problems of economic order mediated an enduring cultural transformation. Economic activity was reimagined as a patriotic pursuit, and economic agents—farmers, merchants, and manufacturers—came to be viewed as potential citizens. Drawing on hundreds of political economic tracts published in France between the 1740s and the early nineteenth century, Shovlin shows how mid-level French elites (magistrates, clerics, lawyers, soldiers, landed gentlemen) sought to balance their interests and values with the need to regenerate a nation that had seemingly entered a period of decline. In their view, France's moral, political, and economic power depended not simply on expanding the national wealth but also on reviving civic spirit. The "political economy of virtue" held that luxury was the cause of the nation's economic and moral degeneration. When the monarchy failed to reform its political economic structures in the 1760s and 1770s, mid-level elites sought to eliminate the stranglehold of the plutocracy. Shovlin argues that the Revolution grew out of a debate on how to establish a commercial society capable of fostering both wealth and virtue, and the revolutionaries sought to create such a society by destroying the institutions that channeled modern wealth into the hands of courtiers and financiers.

Inventing the French Revolution `

Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century

Author: Keith Michael Baker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521385787

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 5899

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In this volume, Keith Baker, arguably the leading expert writing in English on the ideological origins of the French Revolution, collects together a range of his essays on this subject published in journals in recent years. The essays include historiographical studies of the treatment of the topic by French and other historians as well as important case studies on the political vocabularies characteristic of the ancien régime and the revolutionary periods. The result is a substantial and unified set of studies on one of the central themes in modern European history.

The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution

Author: Alfred Cobban

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316583945

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 4317

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Alfred Cobban's The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution is one of the acknowledged classics of post-war historiography. This 'revisionist' analysis of the French Revolution caused a furore on first publication in 1964, challenging as it did established orthodoxies during the crucial period of the Cold War. Cobban saw the French Revolution as central to the 'grand narrative of modern history', but provided a salutary corrective to many celebrated social explanations, determinist and otherwise, of its origins and development. A generation later this concise but powerful intervention was reissued in this 1999 edition with an introduction by Gwynne Lewis, providing students with both a context for Cobban's own arguments, and assessing the course of Revolutionary studies in the wake of The Social Interpretation. This book remains a handbook of revisionism for Anglo-Saxon scholars, and is essential reading for all students of French history at undergraduate level and above.

Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution

Twentieth Anniversary Edition, With a New Preface

Author: Lynn Hunt

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520931041

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 8564

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When this book was published in 1984, it reframed the debate on the French Revolution, shifting the discussion from the Revolution's role in wider, extrinsic processes (such as modernization, capitalist development, and the rise of twentieth-century totalitarian regimes) to its central political significance: the discovery of the potential of political action to consciously transform society by molding character, culture, and social relations. In a new preface to this twentieth-anniversary edition, Hunt reconsiders her work in the light of the past twenty years' scholarship.

War and Revolution

Rethinking the Twentieth Century

Author: Domenico Losurdo

Publisher: Verso Books

ISBN: 1781686173

Category: History

Page: 368

View: 9212

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War and Revolution identifies and takes to task a reactionary trend among contemporary historians, one that’s grown increasingly apparent in recent years. It’s a revisionist tendency discernible in the work of authors such as Ernst Nolte, who traces the impetus behind the Holocaust to the excesses of the Russian Revolution; or François Furet, who links the Stalinist purges to an “illness” originating with the French Revolution. The intention of these revisionists is to eradicate the revolutionary tradition. Their true motives have little to do with the quest for a greater understanding of the past, but lie in the climate of the present day and the ideological needs of the political classes, as is most clearly seen now in the work of the Anglophone imperial revivalists Paul Johnson and Niall Ferguson. In this vigorous riposte to those who would denigrate the history of emancipatory struggle, Losurdo captivates the reader with a tour de force account of modern revolt, providing a new perspective on the English, American, French and twentieth-century revolutions. From the Hardcover edition.

Rethinking the French New Right

Alternatives to Modernity

Author: Tamir Bar-On

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135966265

Category: Political Science

Page: 268

View: 2068

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This book focuses on the philosophy, politics and impact of the 'New Right' which originated in France and has since influenced activism, ideology and policy in a number of European countries. This book explores the idea that revolutionaries do not necessarily need to come from the left, nor use arms in order to overturn liberal democracy. In the post-World War Two era, the extremists of the revolutionary right took three different paths: 1) parliamentary; 2) extra-parliamentary; and 3) metapolitical. The New Right (nouvelle droite – ND in France) took the metapolitical path, but that did not mean it abandoned its revolutionary desire to smash liberal democracy throughout Europe. The book examines four interpretations of the New Right. These interpretations include the following: 1) The New Right as a fascist or quasi-fascist movement; 2) The New Right as a challenge to the traditional right-left dichotomy, which has structured European political debates for more than 200 years; 3) The New Right as an alternative modernist movement, which rejects liberal and socialist narratives of modernity; accepts the technical but not political or cultural effects of modernity; and longs for a pan-European political framework abolishing liberal multiculturalism and privileging ethnic dominance of so-called original Europeans; and 4) The New Right as a variant of political religion and conversionary processes. The book concludes by analysing the positions, cultural and political impact, and relationship to democracy of the New Right. This work will be of great interest to students and scholars of racism, fascism, extremism, European politics, French politics and contemporary political theory.

The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution

Author: David Andress

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019100992X

Category: History

Page: 704

View: 7325

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The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution brings together a sweeping range of expert and innovative contributions to offer engaging and thought-provoking insights into the history and historiography of this epochal event. Each chapter presents the foremost summations of academic thinking on key topics, along with stimulating and provocative interpretations and suggestions for future research directions. Placing core dimensions of the history of the French Revolution in their transnational and global contexts, the contributors demonstrate that revolutionary times demand close analysis of sometimes tiny groups of key political actors - whether the king and his ministers or the besieged leaders of the Jacobin republic - and attention to the deeply local politics of both rural and urban populations. Identities of class, gender and ethnicity are interrogated, but so too are conceptions and practices linked to citizenship, community, order, security, and freedom: each in their way just as central to revolutionary experiences, and equally amenable to critical analysis and reflection. This volume covers the structural and political contexts that build up to give new views on the classic question of the 'origins of revolution'; the different dimensions of personal and social experience that illuminate the political moment of 1789 itself; the goals and dilemmas of the period of constitutional monarchy; the processes of destabilisation and ongoing conflict that ended that experiment; the key issues surrounding the emergence and experience of 'terror'; and the short- and long-term legacies, for both good and ill, of the revolutionary trauma - for France, and for global politics.

The French Revolution

Recent Debates and New Controversies

Author: Gary Kates

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9780415358323

Category: History

Page: 291

View: 8458

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"The volume includes an updated introduction by the editor that contextualizes the historiographical controversies, and articles which include contributions from major figures in the debate, such as Lynn Hunt and Francois Furet. These articles are woven into a sophisticated narrative which covers areas including the intellectual connection and the feminist dimension. This new edition also includes articles discussing colonialism and family legislation, emphasizing approaches that focus on class, gender, and race." "This collection on a crucial turning point in history is presented in a new, student-friendly format and is a perfect reader for anyone studying the French Revolution."--BOOK JACKET.

Stuff and Money in the Time of the French Revolution

Author: Rebecca L. Spang

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674745426

Category: History

Page: N.A

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Rebecca L. Spang, who revolutionized our understanding of the restaurant, has written a new history of money. It is also a new history of the French Revolution, with economics at its heart. In her telling, radicalization was driven by an ever-widening gap between political ideals—including “freedom of money”—and the harsh realities of daily life.

Rethinking the Atlantic World

Europe and America in the Age of Democratic Revolutions

Author: M. Albertone,A. De Francesco,Antonino De Francesco

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230233805

Category: History

Page: 308

View: 8616

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This unique collection of essays provides a re-evaluation of the term 'Atlantic', by placing at the core of the debate on republicanism in the early modern age the link between continental Europe and America, rather than assuming British political culture as having been widely representative of Europe as a whole.

The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France

Author: Suzanne Desan

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520238596

Category: History

Page: 456

View: 9552

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Contrary to arguments that claim the Revolution bound women within a domestic sphere, The Family on Trial maintains that the new civil laws and gender politics offered many women unexpected opportunities to gain power, property, or independence."--Jacket.

The French Revolution, Second Edition

Class War Or Culture Clash?

Author: T. C. W. Blanning

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312175214

Category: History

Page: 87

View: 3307

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Few historical events have inspired so much controversy and debate as the French Revolution. The origins, nature and effects of the Revolution have been the themes of a voluminous literature, especially since the 1950s, and there has been sharp disagreement among historians about them. This book discusses the present state of the controversy and provides detailed suggestions for further reading. Blanning explains the different interpretations advanced by Marxist, revisionist and post-revisionist historians in order to provide students with access to the literature and to help them to form their own views.

The Crowd in the French Revolution

Author: George F. E. Rudé

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780195003703

Category: History

Page: 283

View: 2370

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What kinds of people were in the crowds that stormed the Bastille, marched to Versailles to bring the king and queen back to Paris, overthrew the monarchy in August 1792, or impassively witnessed the downfall of Robespierre on 9 Thermidor? Who led these crowds or mobilized them to action? What did they hope to achieve, and how far were their aims realized? Earlier historians have tended to view the revolutionary crowd as an abstraction--"people" or "mob" according to the writer's prejudice--often even as the personification of good or evil. Professor Rude's book, published originally in 1959, makes a first attempt to bring objectively to life each of the important Parisian crowds between 1787 and 1795. Using police records and other contemporary research materials, the author identifies the social groups represented in them, contrasts the crowds with their political leaders, relates their activities to underlying economic and psychological tensions, and compares the Parisian crowd "patterns" to those of other popular movements in France and Britain during the 18th and early 19th centuries."

The Coming of the French Revolution

Author: Tom Stammers

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351353012

Category: History

Page: 120

View: 3588

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Georges Lefebvre was one of the most highly-regarded historians of the 20th century – and a key reason for the high reputation he enjoys can be found in The Coming of the French Revolution. Lefebvre's key contribution to the debate over what remains arguably one of history's most contentious and significant events in history was to deploy the critical thinking skill of evaluation to reveal weaknesses in existing arguments about the causes of the Revolution, and analytical skills to expose hidden assumptions in them. Rather than seeing events as driven by the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie – which then lost power to the urban workers – as was usual at the time, Lefebvre deployed years of research in regional archives to argue that the Revolution had had a fourth pillar: the peasantry. Painting the upheaval as complex and multi-layered – while still privileging a predominantly economic interpretation – Lefebvre provides a compelling new narrative to explain why the French monarchy collapsed so suddenly in 1789: one that stressed the significance of a ‘popular revolution’ in the rural countryside.

We Now Know

Rethinking Cold War History

Author: John Lewis Gaddis

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 425

View: 3749

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Examines the history of the Cold War, reflecting Soviet, East European, Chinese, American, and West European viewpoints, and offering new insights and solutions to long-standing puzzles

Empire and Revolution

The Political Life of Edmund Burke

Author: Richard Bourke

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400873452

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 1032

View: 2430

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Edmund Burke (1730–97) lived during one of the most extraordinary periods of world history. He grappled with the significance of the British Empire in India, fought for reconciliation with the American colonies, and was a vocal critic of national policy during three European wars. He also advocated reform in Britain and became a central protagonist in the great debate on the French Revolution. Drawing on the complete range of printed and manuscript sources, Empire and Revolution offers a vivid reconstruction of the major concerns of this outstanding statesman, orator, and philosopher. In restoring Burke to his original political and intellectual context, this book overturns the conventional picture of a partisan of tradition against progress and presents a multifaceted portrait of one of the most captivating figures in eighteenth-century life and thought. A boldly ambitious work of scholarship, this book challenges us to rethink the legacy of Burke and the turbulent era in which he played so pivotal a role.

Europe 1783–1914

Author: William Simpson,Martin Jones

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317437233

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 9003

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The third edition of Europe 1783-1914 provides a comprehensive overview of Europe from the outbreak of the French Revolution to the origins of the First World War. William Simpson and Martin Jones combine accounts of the most important countries, notably France, Germany and Russia, with the wider political, economic, social and cultural developments affecting Europe as a whole. These include: A survey of Europe c.1780: the social and economic background, forms of government, and the Enlightenment The impact of the French Revolution and Napoleon on Europe The spread of nationalism: the 1848 Revolutions and the unification of Italy and Germany Changes in the world of ideas: religious belief, romanticism, and cultural achievements in art, literature and music The age of imperialism: the expansion of Europe, Marxism and left-wing movements, international relations, 1870-1914 The reciprocal relationship between Europe and the United States Europe in 1914: shifts in the intellectual climate through the works of Darwin and Freud, scientific discoveries and the impact of new technologies, and changes in society and the position of women. Each chapter features a list of key dates, concise background information and suggestions for further reading, as well as a concluding ‘Topics for Debate’ section which contains relevant contemporary sources and outlines the contrasting views of recent historians on the key issues. The suggestions for further reading have been updated in every chapter by the addition of relevant and significant new books, published up to and including 2014. Extensively illustrated throughout with maps, contemporary cartoons and portraits, Europe 1783–1914 is a clear, detailed and highly accessible analysis of this turbulent and formative period of European history.

The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution

Author: Alfred Cobban

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316583945

Category: History

Page: N.A

View: 5096

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Alfred Cobban's The Social Interpretation of the French Revolution is one of the acknowledged classics of post-war historiography. This 'revisionist' analysis of the French Revolution caused a furore on first publication in 1964, challenging as it did established orthodoxies during the crucial period of the Cold War. Cobban saw the French Revolution as central to the 'grand narrative of modern history', but provided a salutary corrective to many celebrated social explanations, determinist and otherwise, of its origins and development. A generation later this concise but powerful intervention was reissued in this 1999 edition with an introduction by Gwynne Lewis, providing students with both a context for Cobban's own arguments, and assessing the course of Revolutionary studies in the wake of The Social Interpretation. This book remains a handbook of revisionism for Anglo-Saxon scholars, and is essential reading for all students of French history at undergraduate level and above.