The Diamond Formula

Diamond Synthesis--a Gemmological Perspective

Author: Amanda S. Barnard

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 9780750642446

Category: Reference

Page: 166

View: 5113

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'The Diamond Formula' offers the diamond industry and all interested parties a comprehensive text on synthetic diamonds, joining together the research, achievements, theories, experimental and analytical data by recognized experts in the field, while encompassing a gemmological interpretation. The book offers the average gemmologist, gemmological (or mineralogical) student, or interested party, a concise and easy to decipher overview of the synthesis of diamonds to date. Each of the elements and various topics have at some time been the subject of a lengthy and detailed text in their own right and references are used to ensure that the reader can follow up these leads. The text begins with the history of diamond synthesis, and the theories on which much of the early work was based, before discussing the principles on which the modern processes rely. The following chapters cover the advent of success, commercial applications, synthetic diamond products, producers, gemmological properties and identification of synthetic diamonds. The final section discusses briefly diamond synthesis by CVD and application for this technology. Comprehensive text for a wide market Easy to decipher overview of the synthesis of diamonds Detailed reference section for follow up work

Synthetic, Imitation, and Treated Gemstones

Author: Michael O'Donoghue

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780750631730

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 203

View: 3294

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The book describes a wide range of gem and ornamental materials, species by species, opening up the secrets they sometimes conceal. The book reveals when gemstones can be artificially manufactured, when they can be synthesized or cleverly imitated by other materials - like glass - and when their colour has been enhanced, permanently or for a short time, by the hand of man. Readers are told and shown what the tell-tale features are and learn that while nothing is quite what it seems there are ways in which they can spot give-away signs without needing to consult a laboratory. The book is ideal for the jeweller, the auction house expert, the gemmologist and the mineralogist who will find a new slant on the materials that begin a somewhat less glamorous life as rough specimens.

Handbook of Crystal Growth

Fundamentals

Author: Tatau Nishinaga

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444593764

Category: Science

Page: 1214

View: 3444

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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space

Drills

Science and Technology of Advanced Operations

Author: Viktor P. Astakhov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466584351

Category: Science

Page: 888

View: 2582

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In a presentation that balances theory and practice, Drills: Science and Technology of Advanced Operations details the basic concepts, terminology, and essentials of drilling. The book addresses important issues in drilling operations, and provides help with the design of such operations. It debunks many old notions and beliefs while introducing scientifically and technically sound concepts with detailed explanations. The book presents a nine-step drilling tool failure analysis methodology that includes part autopsy and tool reconstruction procedure. A special feature of the book is the presentation of special mechanisms of carbide (e.g. cobalt leaching) and polycrystalline (PCD) tool wear and failure presented and correlated with the tool design, manufacturing, and implementation practice. The author also introduces the system approach to the design of the drilling system formulating the coherency law. Using this law as the guideline, he shows how to formulate the requirement to the components of such a system, pointing out that the drilling tool is the key component to be improved. Teaching how to achieve this improvement, the book provides the comprehensive scientific and engineering foundations for drilling tool design, manufacturing, and applications of high-performance tools. It includes detailed explanations of the design features, tool manufacturing and implementation practices, metrology of drilling and drilling tools, and the tool failure analysis. It gives you the information needed for proper manufacturing and selection of a tool material for any given application.

Great Lives from History: John Ericsson - Irving Langmuir

Author: Alvin K. Benson

Publisher: Salem PressInc

ISBN: 9781587655241

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 1376

View: 6978

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Provides in-depth critical essays on important men and women in all areas of achievement, from around the world and throughout history, and includes 409 essays covering 413 individual inventors (including 27 women).--From publisher's note, p. vii.

The New Alchemists

Breaking Through the Barriers of High Pressure

Author: Robert M. Hazen

Publisher: Crown Publishing Group (NY)

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 2829

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Looks at such discoveries as a sand experiment that sheds light on dinosaur extinctiom, how everyday gases become dense metals inside large planets, and how almost any carbon-rich mineral can be transformed into diamonds

Gemstones of the World

Author: Walter Schumann

Publisher: Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.

ISBN: 9781402768293

Category: Nature

Page: 319

View: 6051

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Provides detailed information regarding the physical characteristics and unique traits of more than 1,800 precious and semiprecious stones, as well as discussing gemstone structure, production, name origin, and symbolism.

Learning CFEngine 3

Automated system administration for sites of any size

Author: Diego Zamboni

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1449334547

Category: Computers

Page: 250

View: 1581

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Get up to speed on CFEngine 3, the open source configuration management software that enables you to automate everything from one-server shops to enterprise computer networks. This hands-on introduction shows you how to use CFEngine 3 to implement and manage and your IT infrastructure in a sustainable, scalable, and efficient manner. Through numerous examples, you’ll learn how to use CFEngine to perform tasks such as user management, software installation, and security. You’ll also learn how to focus on higher-level issues of design, implementation and maintenance, knowing that CFEngine is handling the lower-level details for you automatically. Discover how far you can go with system automation, using CFEngine Become familiar with the software’s principles, components, and policy structure Configure CFEngine step-by-step to perform routine tasks on your system Specify custom machine configuration without making changes by hand Get tricks and patterns that you can use in your own CFEngine policies Maintain separate CFEngine environments for development, testing, production, or other uses

A Book of Precious Stones

The Identification of Gems and Gem Minerals, and an Account of Their Scientific, Commercial, Artistic, and Historical Aspects

Author: Julius Wodiska

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Precious stones

Page: 365

View: 7642

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The Global Diamond Industry

Economics and Development

Author: Roman Grynberg,Letsema Mbayi

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137537612

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 304

View: 1685

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The Global Diamond Industry: Economics and Development brings together a collection of papers covering various aspects of the diamond industry including economics, law, history, sociology and development across two volumes.

Cognition & Strategy

Author: Giovanni Gavetti,William Ocasio

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 1784419451

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 600

View: 3167

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This volume has two goals. First, it intends to attract a representative sample of the most significant empirical and theoretical developments in the field of cognition and strategy. Second, it intends to take stock of these developments by proposing a preliminary synthesis of the disparate advances in this field.

Digital Modeling of Material Appearance

Author: Julie Dorsey,Holly Rushmeier,François Sillion

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080556710

Category: Computers

Page: 336

View: 2332

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Computer graphics systems are capable of generating stunningly realistic images of objects that have never physically existed. In order for computers to create these accurately detailed images, digital models of appearance must include robust data to give viewers a credible visual impression of the depicted materials. In particular, digital models demonstrating the nuances of how materials interact with light are essential to this capability. Digital Modeling of Material Appearance is the first comprehensive work on the digital modeling of material appearance: it explains how models from physics and engineering are combined with keen observation skills for use in computer graphics rendering. Written by the foremost experts in appearance modeling and rendering, this book is for practitioners who want a general framework for understanding material modeling tools, and also for researchers pursuing the development of new modeling techniques. The text is not a "how to" guide for a particular software system. Instead, it provides a thorough discussion of foundations and detailed coverage of key advances. Practitioners and researchers in applications such as architecture, theater, product development, cultural heritage documentation, visual simulation and training, as well as traditional digital application areas such as feature film, television, and computer games, will benefit from this much needed resource. ABOUT THE AUTHORS Julie Dorsey and Holly Rushmeier are professors in the Computer Science Department at Yale University and co-directors of the Yale Computer Graphics Group. François Sillion is a senior researcher with INRIA (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et Automatique), and director of its Grenoble Rhône-Alpes research center. First comprehensive treatment of the digital modeling of material appearance Provides a foundation for modeling appearance, based on the physics of how light interacts with materials, how people perceive appearance, and the implications of rendering appearance on a digital computer An invaluable, one-stop resource for practitioners and researchers in a variety of fields dealing with the digital modeling of material appearance