The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age

Author: Anthony Harding,Harry Fokkens

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191007331

Category: Social Science

Page: 750

View: 3029

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The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age is a wide-ranging survey of a crucial period in prehistory during which many social, economic, and technological changes took place. Written by expert specialists in the field, the book provides coverage both of the themes that characterize the period, and of the specific developments that took place in the various countries of Europe. After an introduction and a discussion of chronology, successive chapters deal with settlement studies, burial analysis, hoards and hoarding, monumentality, rock art, cosmology, gender, and trade, as well as a series of articles on specific technologies and crafts (such as transport, metals, glass, salt, textiles, and weighing). The second half of the book covers each country in turn. From Ireland to Russia, Scandinavia to Sicily, every area is considered, and up to date information on important recent finds is discussed in detail. The book is the first to consider the whole of the European Bronze Age in both geographical and thematic terms, and will be the standard book on the subject for the foreseeable future.

European Societies in the Bronze Age

Author: A. F. Harding

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521367295

Category: Social Science

Page: 552

View: 4093

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The European Bronze Age, roughly 2500 to 750 BC, was the last fully prehistoric period and crucial to the formation of the Europe emerging in the later first millennium BC. This book provides a detailed account of its material culture, comparing and contrasting evidence from different geographical zones, and drawing out the essential characteristics of the period. It looks at settlement, burial, economy, technology, trade and transport, warfare, and social and religious life. The result is a comprehensive study that will interest specialists and students, and be accessible to non-specialists.

The Bronze Age in Europe

An Introduction to the Prehistory of Europe c.2000-700 B.C.

Author: J. M. Coles,A. F. Harding

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317606000

Category: Social Science

Page: 622

View: 7361

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This book provides an account of the development of European culture and society during the Bronze Age, the time span between c. 2000 and 700 BC. It was a period of remarkable innovation, seen for instance in the development and growth of metallurgy as a major industry, the spread of trading contacts, the origins of urbanism and the beginnings of social stratification. The study is divided chronologically into two, the earlier and later Bronze Age, giving a clear picture of the nature of the radical changes which occurred in the period as a whole. The geographical area covered, from the Atlantic shores across Europe into the Soviet Union and from northern Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, is too vast to be taken as one unit, and has been broken down into five regions; each is discussed in terms of settlement form, burial practices, ritual and religious sites, material culture, economic and social background, and trading patterns. The book describes and develops common themes that link together the different areas and cultural groups, rather than taking the typographical approach often adopted by Bronze Age specialists, and uses the results of radiocarbon dating to establish an objective chronology for the period. The text is generously illustrated and fully documented with radiocarbon dating tables and extensive bibliography. Our understanding of Bronze Age Europe is still increasing, but no other book of this scope had been written before this, in 1979. It is a major study of its time of interest to anyone looking beyond popular accounts of the day.

The End of the Bronze Age

Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. 1200 B.C.

Author: Robert Drews

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691025919

Category: History

Page: 252

View: 5689

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The Bronze Age came to a close early in the twelfth century B.C. with one of the worst calamities in history: over a period of several decades, destruction descended upon key cities throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, bringing to an end the Levantine, Hittite, Trojan, and Mycenaean kingdoms and plunging some lands into a dark age that would last more than four hundred years. In his attempt to account for this destruction, Robert Drews rejects the traditional explanations - earthquakes, migrations, drought, systems collapse - and proposes a military one instead. Combining fascinating archaeological facts with vivid descriptions of military tactics, Drews presents the transition from chariot to infantry warfare as the primary cause of the Great Kingdoms' downfall. Late in the thirteenth century B.C. the barbarians who until then had been little cause for concern to the Great Kingdoms, and who had served the kings as mercenary "runners" in support of the chariots, awoke to the fact that en masse they could destroy a chariot army. There followed an orgy of slaughter, looting, and destruction. From the ashes arose the city-states of Greece and the tribal confederacy of Israel, communities that depended on massed formations of infantrymen. In making these arguments, the author uses textual and archaeological evidence to reconstruct what actually happened in the Bronze Age chariot battles, as well as the combat that characterized the Catastrophe.

Expansions

Competition and Conquest in Europe Since the Bronze Age

Author: N.A

Publisher: ReykjavíkurAkademían

ISBN: 9979992212

Category: Civilization, Western

Page: 371

View: 1111

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The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age

Author: Harry Fokkens,Anthony Harding

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199572860

Category: History

Page: 979

View: 1861

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The Oxford Handbook of the European Bronze Age is a wide-ranging survey of a crucial period in prehistory during which many social, economic, and technological changes took place. Written by expert specialists in the field, the book provides coverage both of the themes that characterize the period, and of the specific developments that took place in the various countries of Europe. After an introduction and a discussion of chronology, successive chapters deal with settlement studies, burial analysis, hoards and hoarding, monumentality, rock art, cosmology, gender, and trade, as well as a series of articles on specific technologies and crafts (such as transport, metals, glass, salt, textiles, and weighing). The second half of the book covers each country in turn. From Ireland to Russia, Scandinavia to Sicily, every area is considered, and up to date information on important recent finds is discussed in detail. The book is the first to consider the whole of the European Bronze Age in both geographical and thematic terms, and will be the standard book on the subject for the foreseeable future.

Between the Aegean and the Baltic Seas

Prehistory Across Borders

Author: Ioanna Galanaki,Helena Tomas,Yannis Galanakis,Robert Laffineur

Publisher: Peeters Pub & Booksellers

ISBN: 9781935488200

Category: History

Page: 493

View: 3804

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Preface and Acknowledgments List of abbreviations KEYNOTE LECTURE; Joseph MARAN; Seaborne Contacts between the Aegean, the Balkans and the Central Mediterranean in the 3rd Millennium BC: The Unfolding of the Mediterranean World THEORETICAL ISSUES; Kristian KRISTIANSEN and Thomas LARSSON; Contacts and Travels during the 2nd Millennium BC. Warriors on the Move;; Birgitta EDER; The Power of Seals: Palaces, Peripheries and Territorial Control in the Mycenaean World;; Anthony F. HARDING; Interconnections between the Aegean and Continental Europe in the Bronze and Early Iron Ages: Moving beyond Scepticism;; Staa BABIC; Translation Zones or Gateway Communities Revisited: The Case of Trebenite and Sindos;; Stefanie A.H. KENNELL; Schliemann's Comparative Approach to European Prehistory: The Personal Element EARLY ENCOUNTERS; Vassiliki ADRYMI-SISMANI; Le site chalcolithique de Microthebes au carrefour du monde egeen et des Balkans du Nord;; Jorg RAMBACH; Olympia and Andravida-Lechaina: Two Bronze Age Sites in the Northwest Peloponnese; with Far-reaching Overseas Cultural Connections;; Volker HEYD; When the West Meets the East: The Eastern Periphery of the Bell Beaker Phenomenon; and its Relation with the Aegean Early Bronze Age;; Jacqueline BALEN and Sanjin MIHELIC; Silver Axes from Stari Jankovci and the Problem of Finds of Precious Metals during the Early Bronze Age in Continental Croatia;; Cristina ENACHESCU; The Cernavoda III-Boleraz Phenomenon: Eneolithic, Kupferzeit, Jungsteinzeit or Early Bronze Age; Viktoria KISS; Contacts along the Danube: A Boat Model from the Early Bronze Age RECENT FIELDWORK; Michael GALATY; There Are Prehistoric Cities Up There: The Bronze and Iron Ages in Northern Albania;; Gilles TOUCHAIS et Petrika LERA; L'Albanie meridionale et le monde egeen a l'age du Bronze: problemes chronologiques et rapports culturels;; Bernhard HANSEL; Agaische Siedlungsstrukturen in Monkodonja/Istrien?;; Biba TERAN; Cultural Connections between Caput Adriae and the Aegean in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age;; Anastasia CHRYSOSTOMOU und Anastasia GEORGIADOU; Siedlungen und Nekropolen der spaten Bronze- und fruhen Eisenzeit in Almopia und aussere Einflusse BURIAL, IDEOLOGY AND SOCIETY; Sylvie MULLER-CELKA; L'origine balkanique des tumuli helladiques (HA-HM): reflexions sur l'etat de la question;; Elisabetta BORGNA and Paola CASSOLA GUIDA; At the Fringe of the Tumulus Culture: Bronze Age Tumuli of North-Eastern Italy between Europe and the Aegean;; Lorenc BEJKO; Expression of Identities in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age Southeastern Albania;; Zlatko VIDESKI; Mycenaean Influences in the Fyro Macedonia Identified in the Late Bronze Age Cemeteries;; Reinhard JUNG; Woher kamen die Brandbestattungsriten der spatbronzezeitlichen Agais?;; Nona PALINCAS; Contacts With the Aegean and Their Social Impact in the Late Bronze Age in the Lower Danube;; Skender ALIU; Les bijoux de la periode du bronze recent et de la periode du fer ancien dans la region de Kolonja;; Mariya Ivanova; Things Unfound: Patterns of Warfare in the Early Bronze Age Aegean and Thrace;; Konstantinos KALOGEROPOULOS; Miniature Clay Anthropomorphic Representations in Greece and Europe through the Late Mycenaean Period: Similarities and Differences;; Hrvoje POTREBICA; Aegean Concepts in the Eastern Hallstatt Culture? INTERACTION; Soultana Maria VALAMOTI; Food Across Borders: A Consideration of the Neolithic and Bronze Age; Archaeobotanical Evidence from Northern Greece;; Barbara HOREJS; Macedonia: Mediator or Buffer Zone between Cultural Spheres?;; Neculai BOLOHAN; New Stories about Buffer Territories in the Balkans;; Daria LONJAK DIZDAR; A Contribution to Understanding the Relations (or Lack of Relations) between the Croatian Danube Region; and the Aegean at the Beginning of the Second Millennium BC;; S?awomir KADROW; North of the Carpathians - The Outskirts of the Aegean World?;; Magnus ARTURSSON and Franco NICOLIS; Cultural Relations between the Mediterranean and the Baltic Seas during the Bronze Age?; The Evidence from Northern Italy and Southern Scandinavia;; Kristina MIHOVILIC; Istrian Contacts with the Aegean throughout the Early Iron Age AMBER ROUTE;; Aleksandar PALAVESTRA; Was there an Amber Route?;; Jan BOUZEK; The Amber Route, Apollo and the Hyperboreans;; Janusz CZEBRESZUK; Amber between the Baltic and the Aegean in the Third and Second Millennia BC; (An Outline of Major Issues);; Katarzyna SLUSARSKA; Some Remarks on the Possibility that there existed an Eastern Branch; in the System of Amber Routes in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages;; Massimo CULTRARO; Evidence of Amber in Bronze Age Sicily: Local Sources and the Balkan-Mycenaean Connection LITHICS, WEAPONS, BEADS AND BONE ARTIFACTS; Ivan GATSOV and Lia KARIMALI; Lithic Assemblages of the Northeastern and Southern Aegean during the Bronze Age: A Comparison;; Eleni ANDRIKOU; New Evidence on Mycenaean Bronze Corselets from Thebes in Boeotia; and the Bronze Age Sequence of Corselets in Greece and Europe; Wolfgang DAVID; Gold and Bone Artefacts as Evidence of Mutual Contact between the Aegean; the Carpathian Basin and Southern Germany in the Second Millennium BC;; Georg NIGHTINGALE; Lefkandi. An Important Node in the International Exchange Network; of Jewellery and Personal Adornment METALS; Constantinos PASCHALIDIS; Euboea at the Crossroads of the Metal Trade: The Aegean and the Black Sea; in the Late Bronze Age;; Krassimir LESHTAKOV; The Eastern Balkans in the Aegean Economic System during the LBA.; Ox-Hide and Bun Ingots in Bulgarian Lands;; Evangelia PAPADOPOULOU; Western Greece and the North in the Late Bronze Age: The Evidence of Metalwork and Objects of Exotic Material POTTERY; Marta GUZOWSKA and Assaf YASUR-LANDAU; Handmade Burnished Ware in the Levant;; Clarissa BELARDELLI and Marco BETTELLI; Different Technological Levels of Pottery Production: Barbarian and Grey Ware; between the Aegean and Europe in the Late Bronze Age;; Aleksandra PAPAZOVSKA SANEV; Matt-Painted Pottery from the Iron Age in the FYR Macedonia.

Human Mobility and Technological Transfer in the Prehistoric Mediterranean

Author: Evangelia Kiriatzi,Carl Knappett

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316798925

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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The diverse forms of regional connectivity in the ancient world have recently become an important focus for those interested in the deep history of globalisation. This volume represents a significant contribution to this new trend as it engages thematically with a wide range of connectivities in the later prehistory of the Mediterranean, from the later Neolithic of northern Greece to the Levantine Iron Age, and with diverse forms of materiality, from pottery and metal to stone and glass. With theoretical overviews from leading thinkers in prehistoric mobilities, and commentaries from top specialists in neighbouring domains, the volume integrates detailed case studies within a comparative framework. The result is a thorough treatment of many of the key issues of regional interaction and technological diversity facing archaeologists working across diverse places and periods. As this book presents key case studies for human and technological mobility across the eastern Mediterranean in later prehistory, it will be of interest primarily to Mediterranean archaeologists, though also to historians and anthropologists.

Warfare in Northern Europe Before the Romans

Evidence from Archaeology

Author: Julie Rosemary Wileman

Publisher: Pen and Sword

ISBN: 1781593256

Category: History

Page: 190

View: 9013

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This book traces the developments in the defences, weaponry and armour of the northern 'barbarians' from the earliest traces of stone age aggression to the sophisticated warfare of the tribes who met the Romans in battle. It uses evidence from monuments such as the great hillforts of the Bronze and Iron Ages, including Maiden Castle in Dorset and Alesia in France, as well as the amazing archaeological finds seen in museums and collections across northern Europe. Period by period, the ways in which the peoples of Britain, Ireland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Scandinavia developed defensive and offensive strategies are brought together for those interested in both military history and in the development of our societies and countryside. Evidence from many countries is used to shed light on the centuries before written records _ and to redress the balance of our understanding which has often been too heavily influenced by Roman propaganda!??As featured in Essence Magazine.

Empires of the Silk Road

A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present

Author: Christopher I. Beckwith

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400829941

Category: History

Page: 512

View: 8071

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The first complete history of Central Eurasia from ancient times to the present day, Empires of the Silk Road represents a fundamental rethinking of the origins, history, and significance of this major world region. Christopher Beckwith describes the rise and fall of the great Central Eurasian empires, including those of the Scythians, Attila the Hun, the Turks and Tibetans, and Genghis Khan and the Mongols. In addition, he explains why the heartland of Central Eurasia led the world economically, scientifically, and artistically for many centuries despite invasions by Persians, Greeks, Arabs, Chinese, and others. In retelling the story of the Old World from the perspective of Central Eurasia, Beckwith provides a new understanding of the internal and external dynamics of the Central Eurasian states and shows how their people repeatedly revolutionized Eurasian civilization. Beckwith recounts the Indo-Europeans' migration out of Central Eurasia, their mixture with local peoples, and the resulting development of the Graeco-Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations; he details the basis for the thriving economy of premodern Central Eurasia, the economy's disintegration following the region's partition by the Chinese and Russians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and the damaging of Central Eurasian culture by Modernism; and he discusses the significance for world history of the partial reemergence of Central Eurasian nations after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Empires of the Silk Road places Central Eurasia within a world historical framework and demonstrates why the region is central to understanding the history of civilization.

European Prehistory

A Survey

Author: Sarunas Milisauskas

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441966339

Category: Social Science

Page: 493

View: 493

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European Prehistory: A Survey traces humans from their earliest appearance on the continent to the Rise of the Roman Empire, drawing on archaeological research from all over Europe. It includes the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages. Throughout these periods, the major developments are explored using a wide range of archaeological data that emphasizes aspects of agricultural practices, gender, mortuary practices, population genetics, ritual, settlement patterns, technology, trade, and warfare. Using new methods and theories, recent discoveries and arguments are presented and previous discoveries reevaluated. This work includes chapters on European geography and the chronology of European prehistory. A new chapter has been added on the historical development of European archaeology. The remaining chapters have been contributed by archaeologists specializing in different periods. The second edition of European Prehistory: A Survey is enhanced by a glossary, three indices and a comprehensive bibliography, as well as an extensive collection of maps, chronological tables and photographs.

Britain B.C.

life in Britain and Ireland before the Romans

Author: Francis Pryor

Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 488

View: 3029

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How Ancient Europeans Saw the World

Vision, Patterns, and the Shaping of the Mind in Prehistoric Times

Author: Peter S. Wells

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400844770

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 3153

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The peoples who inhabited Europe during the two millennia before the Roman conquests had established urban centers, large-scale production of goods such as pottery and iron tools, a money economy, and elaborate rituals and ceremonies. Yet as Peter Wells argues here, the visual world of these late prehistoric communities was profoundly different from those of ancient Rome's literate civilization and today's industrialized societies. Drawing on startling new research in neuroscience and cognitive psychology, Wells reconstructs how the peoples of pre-Roman Europe saw the world and their place in it. He sheds new light on how they communicated their thoughts, feelings, and visual perceptions through the everyday tools they shaped, the pottery and metal ornaments they decorated, and the arrangements of objects they made in their ritual places--and how these forms and patterns in turn shaped their experience. How Ancient Europeans Saw the World offers a completely new approach to the study of Bronze Age and Iron Age Europe, and represents a major challenge to existing views about prehistoric cultures. The book demonstrates why we cannot interpret the structures that Europe's pre-Roman inhabitants built in the landscape, the ways they arranged their settlements and burial sites, or the complex patterning of their art on the basis of what these things look like to us. Rather, we must view these objects and visual patterns as they were meant to be seen by the ancient peoples who fashioned them.

The Bronze Age

Author: V. Gordon Childe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107626927

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 5773

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Originally published in 1930, this book provides a detailed account of the Bronze Age, and includes illustrative figures and a comprehensive bibliography.

Ireland in Prehistory

Author: George Eogan,Mr George Eogan,Michael Herity

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134522711

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 499

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The authors examine Irish prehistory from the economic, sociological and artistic viewpoints enabling the reader to comprehend the vast amount of archaeological work accomplished in Ireland over the last twenty years.

The Uniqueness of Western Civilization

Author: Ricardo Duchesne

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004192484

Category: History

Page: 527

View: 714

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After challenging the multicultural effort to “provincialize” the history of Western civilization, this book argues that the roots of the West’s exceptional creativity should be traced back to the uniquely aristocratic warlike culture of Indo-European speakers.

Europe Before Rome

A Site-by-Site Tour of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages

Author: T. Douglas Price

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199914702

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 4496

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Europe before Rome uses the extraordinary archaeology of prehistoric Europe to explore questions about the origins and evolution of human society