The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198505525

Category: Science

Page: 331

View: 4797

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A classic textbook providing a clear and comprehensive introduction to the topic of crystallography and diffraction for undregraduate and beginning graduate students and lecturers in physics, chemistry, materials and earth sciences. For this second edition the existing material has been throughly updated.

The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019156771X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 4870

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This book provides a clear introduction to topics which are essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which are otherwise only covered in specialised and mathematically detailed texts. It shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination, it develops the concepts of crystal symmetry, point and space groups by way of two dimensional examples of patterns and tilings, it explains the concept of the reciprocal lattice in simple terms and shows its importance in an understanding of light, X-ray and electron diffraction. Practical examples of the applications of these techniques are described and also the importance of diffraction in the performance of optical instruments. The book is also of value to the general reader since it shows, by biographical and historical references, how the subject has developed and thereby indicates some of the excitement of scientific discovery.

Basic crystallography

Author: J.-J. Rousseau

Publisher: John Wiley & Son Ltd

ISBN: 9780471970484

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 8113

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Basic Crystallography J. -J. Rousseau Department of Physics, University of Maine, Le Mans, France Translated from the French by A. James, University of Picardie, France Basic Crystallography deals with the basic principles of geometrical crystallography which are introduced through the study of lattices, symmetry operations and the enumeration and construction of point groups and space groups. Stereographic projection is used to enable students to visualise crystallographic structures in real space. The author devotes the second part of the book to X-ray crystallography, showing how different diffraction directions depend on the lattice and how spot intensities are related to the unit-cell. To give students an understanding of the principles of structural determination, the classical techniques of diffraction and methods of interpreting spectra are examined. To tackle the more challenging aspects of the subject, help is given to the student in the form of exercises with answers and a computer disk accompanies the book allowing readers to work through exercises and plot their own crystallographic data. Written primarily for final year undergraduate students of physics, chemistry, materials science and geometry the book will also be useful for engineering students.

Symmetry in Crystallography

Understanding the International Tables

Author: Paolo Radaelli

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199550654

Category: Mathematics

Page: 126

View: 2002

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A fresh approach to teaching crystallographic symmetry. Rather than being swamped by heavy algebraic notation, the reader is taken through a series of simple and beautiful examples from the visual arts, and taught how to analyse them employing the 'pictorial' diagrams used in the International Tables of Crystallography.

X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research

From Fundamentals to Applications

Author: Myeongkyu Lee

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1315361973

Category: Science

Page: 302

View: 7877

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X-ray diffraction is a useful and powerful analysis technique for characterizing crystalline materials commonly employed in MSE, physics, and chemistry. This informative new book describes the principles of X-ray diffraction and its applications to materials characterization. It consists of three parts. The first deals with elementary crystallography and optics, which is essential for understanding the theory of X-ray diffraction discussed in the second section of the book. Part 2 describes how the X-ray diffraction can be applied for characterizing such various forms of materials as thin films, single crystals, and powders. The third section of the book covers applications of X-ray diffraction. The book presents a number of examples to help readers better comprehend the subject. X-Ray Diffraction for Materials Research: From Fundamentals to Applications also • provides background knowledge of diffraction to enable nonspecialists to become familiar with the topics • covers the practical applications as well as the underlying principle of X-ray diffraction • presents appropriate examples with answers to help readers understand the contents more easily • includes thin film characterization by X-ray diffraction with relevant experimental techniques • presents a huge number of elaborately drawn graphics to help illustrate the content The book will help readers (students and researchers in materials science, physics, and chemistry) understand crystallography and crystal structures, interference and diffraction, structural analysis of bulk materials, characterization of thin films, and nondestructive measurement of internal stress and phase transition. Diffraction is an optical phenomenon and thus can be better understood when it is explained with an optical approach, which has been neglected in other books. This book helps to fill that gap, providing information to convey the concept of X-ray diffraction and how it can be applied to the materials analysis. This book will be a valuable reference book for researchers in the field and will work well as a good introductory book of X-ray diffraction for students in materials science, physics, and chemistry.

Electron Crystallography

Electron Microscopy and Electron Diffraction

Author: Xiaodong Zou,Sven Hovmöller,Peter Oleynikov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199580200

Category: Science

Page: 332

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Includes bibliographical references and index.

Fundamentals of Crystallography

Author: Carmelo Giacovazzo

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198555780

Category: Crystallography

Page: 654

View: 4200

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Offers a rigorous treatment of the theory of crystallography and detailed descriptions of experimental applications in a wide range of sciences, including computational aspects, protein crystallography and crystal physics.

Introduction to Crystallography

Author: Donald E. Sands

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486678399

Category: Science

Page: 165

View: 9313

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Concise explanation of the logical development of basic crystallographic concepts. Extensive discussion of crystals and lattices, symmetry, crystal systems and geometry, x-ray diffraction, determination of atomic positions, and more. Well-chosen selection of problems, with answers. Ideal for crystallography course or as supplement to physical chemistry courses. 114 illustrations. 1969 edition.

Structure of Materials

An Introduction to Crystallography, Diffraction and Symmetry

Author: Marc De Graef,Michael E. McHenry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521651514

Category: Science

Page: 844

View: 5595

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Highly illustrated, self-contained textbook covering the fundamentals of crystallography, symmetry and diffraction, providing a full appreciation of material structure for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses within materials science and engineering. Includes over 430 illustrations and 400 homework problems. Solutions, data files for crystal structures, and appendices, available from www.cambridge.org/9780521651516.

Basic Concepts of X-Ray Diffraction

Author: Emil Zolotoyabko

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527681183

Category: Science

Page: 312

View: 7588

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Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials. Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of M?ssbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques. Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

Basic Elements of Crystallography, Second Edition

Author: Nevill Gonzalez Szwacki,Teresa Szwacka

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9814613584

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 2234

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This textbook is a complete and clear introduction to the field of crystallography. It includes an extensive discussion on the 14 Bravais lattices and their reciprocals, the basic concepts of point- and space-group symmetry, the crystal structure of elements and binary compounds, and much more. The purpose of this textbook is to illustrate rather than describe "using many words" the structure of materials. Even readers who are completely unfamiliar with the topic, but still interested in learning how the atoms are arranged in crystal structures, will find this book immensely useful. Each chapter is accompanied by exercises designed to encourage students to explore the different crystal structures they are learning about. The solutions to the exercises are also provided at the end of the book.

X-Ray Diffraction

Author: B. E. Warren

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141616

Category: Science

Page: 400

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Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.

Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers

Diffraction Analysis of Ordered and Disordered Crystals

Author: Claudio De Rosa,Finizia Auriemma

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118690796

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 480

View: 3864

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Provides the tools needed to master and apply the fundamentals of polymer crystallography Using core concepts in physics, chemistry, polymer science and engineering, this book sheds new light on the complex field of polymer crystallography, enabling readers to evaluate polymer crystallization data and determine the best methods to use for their investigations. The authors set forth a variety of tested and proven methods for analyzing ordered and disordered structures in polymer crystals, including X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, and microscopy. In addition to the basics, the book explores several advanced and emerging topics in the field such as symmetry breaking, frustration, and the principle of density-driven phase formation. Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers introduces two new concepts in crystallinity and crystals in synthetic polymers. First, crystallinity in polymeric materials is compatible with the absence of true three-dimensional long-range order. Second, the disorder may be described as a structural feature, using the methods of X-ray scattering and electron diffraction analysis. The book begins by introducing the basic principles and methods for building structural models for the conformation of polymer crystal chains. Next, it covers: Packing of macromolecules in polymer crystals Methods for extracting structural parameters from diffraction data Defects and disorder in polymer crystals Analytical methods for diffuse scattering from disordered polymer structures Crystal habit Influence of crystal defects and structural disorder on the physical and mechanical properties of polymeric materials Crystals and Crystallinity in Polymers examines all the possible types of structural disorder generally present in polymer crystals and describes the influence of each kind of disorder on X-ray and electron diffraction patterns. Its comprehensive, expert coverage makes it possible for readers to learn and apply the fundamentals of polymer crystallography to solve a broad range of problems.

Basic Concepts of Crystallography

Author: Emil Zolotoyabko

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: 9783527330096

Category: Science

Page: 276

View: 9775

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Written by an experienced university teacher, this textbook is based on the author's lectures, and is designed to answer students' questions rather than delving into obscure details. The well-balanced approach gives precedence to a visual, intuitive understanding, with only as much math as is necessary. The author covers the topic of symmetry in crystals from basic elements to physical properties, backed by numerous clear-cut illustrations and easy-to-read crystallographic tables. The result is a compact and self-contained treatment suitable for crystallography courses in physics, chemistry, materials science and biology - irrespective of the academic background.

X-Ray Diffraction Crystallography

Introduction, Examples and Solved Problems

Author: Yoshio Waseda,Eiichiro Matsubara,Kozo Shinoda

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642166358

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 8587

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X-ray diffraction crystallography for powder samples is a well-established and widely used method. It is applied to materials characterization to reveal the atomic scale structure of various substances in a variety of states. The book deals with fundamental properties of X-rays, geometry analysis of crystals, X-ray scattering and diffraction in polycrystalline samples and its application to the determination of the crystal structure. The reciprocal lattice and integrated diffraction intensity from crystals and symmetry analysis of crystals are explained. To learn the method of X-ray diffraction crystallography well and to be able to cope with the given subject, a certain number of exercises is presented in the book to calculate specific values for typical examples. This is particularly important for beginners in X-ray diffraction crystallography. One aim of this book is to offer guidance to solving the problems of 90 typical substances. For further convenience, 100 supplementary exercises are also provided with solutions. Some essential points with basic equations are summarized in each chapter, together with some relevant physical constants and the atomic scattering factors of the elements.

Crystallography Made Crystal Clear

A Guide for Users of Macromolecular Models

Author: Gale Rhodes

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323137784

Category: Science

Page: 202

View: 9395

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Crystallography Made Crystal Clear is designed to meet the need for an X-ray analysis that is between brief textbook sections and complete treatments. The book provides non-crystallographers with an intellectually satisfying explanation of the principles of how protein models are gleaned from X-ray analysis. The understanding of these concepts will foster wise use of the models, including the recognition of the strengths and weaknesses of pictures or computer graphics. Since proteins comprise the majority of the mass of macromolecules in cells and carry out biologically important tasks, the book will be of interest to biologists. Provides accessible descriptions of principles of x-ray crystallography, built on simple foundations for anyone with a basic science background Leads the reader through clear, thorough, unintimidating explanations of the mathematics behind crystallography Explains how to read crystallography papers in research journals If you use computer-generated models of proteins or nucleic acids for: Studying molecular interactions Designing ligands, inhibitors, or drugs Engineering new protein functions Interpreting chemical, kinetic, thermodynamic, or spectroscopic data Studying protein folding Teaching macromolecule structure,and if you want to read new structure papers intelligently; become a wiser user of macromolecular models; and want to introduce undergraduates to the important subject of x-ray crystallography, then this book is for you.

Crystallography

Author: Christian Bök

Publisher: Coach House Books

ISBN: 9781552451199

Category: Science

Page: 157

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Crystallography is the mineral science whose name means 'lucid writing.' Long out of print, but now available again in an elegant revised edition, this extraordinary work of avant-garde literature explores the boundary between science and poetry, suggesting that to write with clarity in either discipline involves the most intense thought, much like an act of 'lucid dreaming.' The book reveals that, within the sediment of everyday language, poems are the crystalline formations. -- Back cover.

Principles of Protein X-ray Crystallography

Author: Jan Drenth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475730926

Category: Science

Page: 341

View: 8075

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New textbooks at all levels of chemistry appear with great regularity. Some fields such as basic biochemistry, organic reaction mechanisms, and chemical thermodynamics are well represented by many excellent texts, and new or revised editions are published sufficiently often to keep up with progress in research. However, some areas of chemistry, especially many of those taught at the graduate level, suffer from a real lack of up to-date textbooks. The most serious needs occur in fields that are rapidly changing. Textbooks in these subjects usually have to be written by scientists actually involved in the research that is advancing the field. It is not often easy to persuade such individuals to set time aside to help spread the knowledge they have accumulated. Our goal, in this series, is to pinpoint areas of chemistry where recent progress has outpaced what is covered in any available textbooks, and then seek out and persuade experts in these fields to produce relatively concise but instructive intro ductions to their fields. These should serve the needs of one-semester or one-quarter graduate courses in chemistry and biochemistry. In some cases, the availability of texts in active research areas should help stimulate the creation of new courses. Charles R. Cantor v Preface to the Second Edition Since the publication of the previous edition in 1994, X-ray crystallography of proteins has advanced by improvements in existing techniques and by addition of new techniques.

X-Ray Diffraction

A Practical Approach

Author: C. Suryanarayana,M. Grant Norton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1489901485

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 273

View: 8548

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In this, the only book available to combine both theoretical and practical aspects of x-ray diffraction, the authors emphasize a "hands on" approach through experiments and examples based on actual laboratory data. Part I presents the basics of x-ray diffraction and explains its use in obtaining structural and chemical information. In Part II, eight experimental modules enable the students to gain an appreciation for what information can be obtained by x-ray diffraction and how to interpret it. Examples from all classes of materials -- metals, ceramics, semiconductors, and polymers -- are included. Diffraction patterns and Bragg angles are provided for students without diffractometers. 192 illustrations.

Structure Determination by X-ray Crystallography

Analysis by X-rays and Neutrons

Author: Mark Ladd,Rex Palmer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 146143954X

Category: Science

Page: 756

View: 9621

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The advances in and applications of x-ray and neutron crystallography form the essence of this new edition of this classic textbook, while maintaining the overall plan of the book that has been well received in the academic community since the first edition in 1977. X-ray crystallography is a universal tool for studying molecular structure, and the complementary nature of neutron diffraction crystallography permits the location of atomic species in crystals which are not easily revealed by X-ray techniques alone, such as hydrogen atoms or other light atoms in the presence of heavier atoms. Thus, a chapter discussing the practice of neutron diffraction techniques, with examples, broadens the scope of the text in a highly desirable way. As with previous editions, the book contains problems to illustrate the work of each chapter, and detailed solutions are provided. Mathematical procedures related to the material of the main body of the book are not discussed in detail, but are quoted where needed with references to standard mathematical texts. To address the computational aspect of crystallography, the suite of computer programs from the fourth edition has been revised and expanded. The programs enable the reader to participate fully in many of the aspects of x-ray crystallography discussed in the book. In particular, the program system XRAY* is interactive, and enables the reader to follow through, at the monitor screen, the computational techniques involved in single-crystal structure determination, albeit in two dimensions, with the data sets provided. Exercises for students can be found in the book, and solutions are available to instructors.