Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415267526

Category: Philosophy

Page: 64

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Although written fairly early in his career, in 1939, Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions is considered to be one of Jean-Paul Sartre's most important pieces of writing. It not only anticipates but argues many of the ideas to be found in his famous Being and Nothingness. By subjecting the emotion theories of his day to critical analysis, Sartre opened up the world of psychology to new and creative ways of interpreting feelings. Emotions are intentional and strategic ways of coping with difficult situations. We choose to utilize them, we control them, and not the other way around, as has been posited elsewhere. Emotions are not fixed; they have no essence and indeed are subject to rapid fluctuations and about-turns. For its witty approach alone, Sartre's Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions can be enjoyed at length. It is a dazzling journey to one of the more intriguing theories of our time.

The Imagination

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 041577618X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 183

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Translated by Kenneth Williford and David Rudrauf.

The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134028660

Category: Philosophy

Page: 782

View: 8620

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Featuring seminal work in the philosophies of mathematics and language, this comprehensive and assiduously edited collection also makes available his provocative and controversial views on religion and international relations.

Simulation Theory

A psychological and philosophical consideration

Author: Tim Short

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 131759813X

Category: Psychology

Page: 180

View: 2323

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Theory of Mind (ToM) is the term used for our ability to predict and explain the behaviour of ourselves and others. Accounts of this theory have so far fallen into two competing types: Simulation Theory and ‘Theory Theory’. In contrast with Theory Theory, Simulation Theory argues that we predict behaviour not by employing a model of people, but by replicating others’ thoughts and feelings. This book presents a novel defence of Simulation Theory, reviewing the major challenges against it and positing the theory as the most effective method for exploring how we know each other and ourselves. Drawing on key research in the field, chapters reopen the debates surrounding Theory of Mind and cover a variety of topics including schizophrenia with implications for experimental social psychology. In the past, one of the greatest criticisms against Simulation Theory is that it cannot explain systematic error in Theory of Mind. This book explores the rapidly developing heuristics and biases programme, pioneered by Kahneman and Tversky, to suggest that a novel bias mismatch defence available to Simulation Theory explains these systematic errors. Simulation Theory: A psychological and philosophical consideration will appeal to a range of researchers and academics, including psychologists from the fields of cognitive, social and developmental psychology, as well as philosophers, psychotherapists and practitioners looking for further research on Theory of Mind. The book will also be of relevance to those interested in autism, since it offers a new approach to Theory of Mind which explains central symptoms in autistic subjects.

Emotions in Conflict

Inhibitors and Facilitators of Peace Making

Author: Eran Halperin

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317913965

Category: Political Science

Page: 246

View: 9441

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Social and political psychologists have attempted to reveal the reasons why individuals and societies that acknowledge that peace would improve their personal and collective well-being, and are aware of the required actions needed to promote it, are simply incapable of making this step forward. Some social psychologists have advocated the idea that certain societal beliefs and collective memories about the nature of the opponent, the in-group, the history, and the current state of the conflict distort the perceptions of society members and prevent them from identifying opportunities for peace. But these cognitive barriers capture only part of the picture. Could identifying the role of discrete emotions in conflicts and conflict resolution potentially provide a wide platform for developing pinpoint conflict resolution interventions? Using a vast array of primary sources, critical literature analysis, and firsthand personal experiences in various conflict zones (Middle East, Cyprus, Bosnia, and Northern Ireland), Eran Halperin introduces a new perspective on psychological barriers to peace. Halperin focuses on various emotional mechanisms that hamper peace processes, even when parties face real opportunities for conflict resolution. More specifically, he explores how hatred, anger, fear, angst, hope, despair, empathy, guilt, and shame, combined with various emotion regulation strategies, provide emotions-based explanations for people's attitudinal and behavioral reactions to peace-related events during the ongoing process of conflict resolution. Written in a clear and accessible style, Emotions in Conflict offers a thought-provoking and pioneering insight into the role discrete intergroup emotions play in impeding, as well as facilitating, peace processes in intractable conflicts. This book is essential reading for those who study intractable conflicts and their resolutions, and those who are interested in the ‘real-world’ implication of recent theories and findings on emotion and emotion regulation.

Epistemology

A Contemporary Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge

Author: Robert Audi

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136934464

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 7135

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Epistemology, or “the theory of knowledge,” is concerned with how we know what we know, what justifies us in believing what we believe, and what standards of evidence we should use in seeking truths about the world and human experience. This comprehensive introduction to the field of epistemology explains the concepts and theories central to understanding knowledge. Along with covering the traditional topics of the discipline in detail, Epistemology explores emerging areas of research. The third edition features new sections on such topics as the nature of intuition, the skeptical challenge of rational disagreement, and “the value problem” – the range of questions concerning why knowledge and justified true belief have value beyond that of merely true belief. Updated and expanded, Epistemology remains a superb introduction to one of the most fundamental fields of philosophy. Special features of the third edition of Epistemology include: a comprehensive survey of basic concepts, major theories, and emerging research in the field enhanced treatment of key topics such as contextualism, perception (including perceptual content), scientific hypotheses, self-evidence and the a priori, testimony, understanding, and virtue epistemology expanded discussion of the relation between epistemology and related fields, especially philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and ethics increased clarity and ease of understanding for an undergraduate audience an updated list of key literature and annotated bibliography.

Nietzsche's Constructivism

A Metaphysics of Material Objects

Author: Justin Remhof

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315410036

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

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Like Kant, the German Idealists, and many neo-Kantian philosophers before him, Nietzsche was persistently concerned with metaphysical questions about the nature of objects. His texts often address questions concerning the existence and non-existence of objects, the relation of objects to human minds, and how different views of objects impact commitments in many areas of philosophy—not just metaphysics, but also language, epistemology, science, logic and mathematics, and even ethics. In this book, Remhof presents a systematic and comprehensive analysis of Nietzsche’s material object metaphysics. He argues that Nietzsche embraces the controversial constructivist view that all concrete objects are socially constructed. Reading Nietzsche as a constructivist, Remhof contends, provides fresh insight into Nietzsche’s views on truth, science, naturalism, and nihilism. The book also investigates how Nietzsche’s view of objects compares with views offered by influential American pragmatists and explores the implications of Nietzsche’s constructivism for debates in contemporary material object metaphysics. Nietzsche’s Constructivism is a highly original and timely contribution to the steadily growing literature on Nietzsche’s thought.

Experiencing Phenomenology

An Introduction

Author: Joel Smith

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317241614

Category: Philosophy

Page: 238

View: 2662

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Phenomenology is the general study of the structure of experience, from thought and perception, to self-consciousness, bodily-awareness, and emotion. It is both a fundamental area of philosophy and a major methodological approach within the human sciences. Experiencing Phenomenology is an outstanding introduction to phenomenology. Approaching fundamental phenomenological questions from a critical, systematic perspective whilst paying careful attention to classic phenomenological texts, the book possesses a clarity and breadth that will be welcomed by students coming to the subject for the first time. Accessibly written, each chapter relates classic phenomenological discussions to contemporary issues and debates in philosophy. The following key topics are introduced and explained: the methodological foundations of phenomenology intentionality as the ‘mark of the mental’ and the problem of non-existent objects perceptual experience, including our awareness of things, properties, and events the experience of body, self, and others imaginative and emotional experience detailed discussions of classical phenomenological texts, including: Brentano's Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Husserl's Logical Investigations, Cartesian Meditations, and On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time Heidegger’s History of The Concept of Time, and Being and Time Stein's On the Problem of Empathy Sartre's Transcendence of the Ego, Sketch for a Theory of the Emotions, and The Imaginary Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception. Also included is a glossary of key terms and suggestions for further reading, making this book an ideal starting point for anyone new to the study of phenomenology, not only in Philosophy but related disciplines such as Psychology and Sociology.

Donald Winnicott Today

Author: Jan Abram

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136254854

Category: Psychology

Page: 512

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What in Winnicott’s theoretical matrix was truly revolutionary for psychoanalysis? In this book, the editor and contributors provide a rare in-depth analysis of his original work, and highlight the specifics of his contribution to the concept of early psychic development which revolutionised the theory and practice of psychoanalysis. Including re-publications of selected Winnicott papers to set the scene for the themes and explorations in subsequent chapters, the book examines how Winnicott expanded Freud’s work, and how his discourse with Melanie Klein sharpened his thought and clinical innovations. Divided into 3 sections, it covers: Introductory overviews on the evolution of Winnicott’s theoretical matrix Personal perspectives from eminent psychoanalysts on how Winnicott’s originality inspired their own work Further recent examinations and extensions including new findings from the archives Drawing on her own extensive knowledge of Winnicott and the expertise of the distinguished contributors, Jan Abram shows us how Winnicott’s contribution constitutes a major psychoanalytic advance to the concept of subjectivity. As such, it will be an inspiration to experienced psychoanalysts, psychotherapists and all those interested in human nature and emotional development.

The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind

Author: Julian Kiverstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315530155

Category: Philosophy

Page: 590

View: 9138

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The idea that humans are by nature social and political animals can be traced back to Aristotle. More recently, it has also generated great interest and controversy in related disciplines such as anthropology, biology, psychology, neuroscience and even economics. What is it about humans that enabled them to construct a social reality of unrivalled complexity? Is there something distinctive about the human mind that explains how social lives are organised around conventions, norms, and institutions? The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind is an outstanding reference source to the key topics and debates in this exciting subject and is the first collection of its kind. An international team of contributors present perspectives from diverse areas of research in philosophy, drawing on comparative and developmental psychology, evolutionary anthropology, cognitive neuroscience, and behavioural economics. The thirty-two original chapters are divided into five parts: The evolution of the social mind: including the social intelligence hypothesis, co- evolution of culture and cognition, ethnic cognition, and cooperation; Developmental and comparative perspectives: including primate and infant understanding of mind, shared intentionality, and moral cognition; Mechanisms of the moral mind: including norm compliance, social emotion, and implicit attitudes; Naturalistic approaches to shared and collective intentionality: including joint action, team reasoning and group thinking, and social kinds; Social forms of selfhood and mindedness: including moral identity, empathy and shared emotion, normativity and intentionality. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of mind and psychology, The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the Social Mind is also suitable for those in related disciplines such as social psychology, cognitive neuroscience, economics and sociology.

The Making of a Psychoanalyst

Studies in Emotional Education

Author: Claudia Luiz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315411954

Category: Psychology

Page: 192

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In this unique and uplifting work, Dr. Claudia Luiz reveals why psychoanalysis is more relevant than ever, perhaps the only discipline currently suitable to help solve the mystery of our emotional challenges. In gripping stories about people struggling with depression, anxiety, sexual dysfunction, attention deficit disorder (ADD) and more, Luiz brings us right into each treatment where we discover how psychoanalysts today prepare their patient’s mind for self-discovery. Following each story, absorbing commentaries acquaint the reader with the theories of the mind that currently guide treatment, and the innovative clinical techniques that are revolutionizing the field, including how Luiz learned to integrate her own emotions as therapeutic instruments for diagnosis and cure. The Making of a Psychoanalyst is an ideal book for psychoanalysts and psychotherapists in practice and in training, mental health professionals working in social care, and students interested in the evolution of an undying discipline that embodies personal narrative. Anyone interested in knowing how two human beings interact with each other to effect profound change will want to read this book.

A Meeting of Minds

Mutuality in Psychoanalysis

Author: Lewis Aron

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135061041

Category: Psychology

Page: 304

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In this richly nuanced assessment of the various dimensions of mutuality in psychoanalysis, Aron shows that the relational approach to psychoanalysis is a powerful guide to issues of technique and therapeutic strategy. From his reappraisal of the concepts of interaction and enactment, to his examination of the issue of analyst self-disclosure, to his concluding remarks on the relational import of the analyst's ethics and values, Aron squarely accepts the clinical responsibilities attendant to a postmodern critique of psychoanalytic foundations.

Experiencing Identity

Author: Ian Craib

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 0857026062

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 4351

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`I recommend this book to all readers interested in thinking about the self; I am sure that anyone who reads it will come away with some new ideas' - Therapeutic Communities This critical and comprehensive examination of the relation of theory and identity discusses definitions of identity in classical social theory, modern social theory and psychoanalysis. The introduction is a critique of existing sociological accounts of identity, arguing that these are incurably cognitive, treating the people that they study as incapable of experiencing an internal life or internal space. The book then considers the implications of this in social theory and human practice.

Art Therapy for Psychosis

Theory and Practice

Author: Katherine Killick

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317648021

Category: Psychology

Page: 210

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Art Therapy for Psychosis presents innovative theoretical and clinical approaches to psychosis that have developed in the work of expert clinicians from around the world. It draws on insights that have emerged from decades of clinical practice to explain why and how specialised forms of art therapy constitute a particularly appropriate psychotherapeutic approach to psychosis. The contributors present a diverse range of current theoretical perspectives on the subject, derived from the fields of neuroscience, phenomenology and cognitive analytic theory, as well as from different schools of psychoanalysis. Collectively, they offer insights into the specific potentials of art therapy as a psychotherapeutic approach to psychosis, and describe some of the specialised approaches developed with individuals and with groups over the past 20 years. Throughout the book, the meaning and relevance of art-making as a medium for holding and containing unbearable, unthinkable and unspeakable experiences within the psychotherapeutic setting becomes apparent. Several of the chapters present detailed illustrated case studies which show how making visual images with an appropriately trained art psychotherapist can be a first step on the path into meaningful relatedness. This book offers fresh insights into the nature of psychosis, the challenges encountered by clinicians attempting to work psychotherapeutically with people in psychotic states in different settings, and the potentials of art therapy as an effective treatment approach. It will be essential reading for mental health professionals who work with psychosis, including psychiatrists, psychoanalysts, psychotherapists and arts therapists, and those in training. Full colour versions of the illustrations can be viewed at http://isps.org/index.php/publications/book-series/publication-photos Please see p. ix of the book for details of how to access them.

Existential Psychoanalysis

Author: Jean-Paul Sartre

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453228586

Category: Philosophy

Page: 214

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Sartre’s Existential Psychoanalysis contemplates existentialism as it pertains to modern psychology In Existential Psychoanalysis, Sartre looks at existentialism through the lens of modern psychology, with a particular interest in Freud’s theory of determinism. By framing the “human situation” around an existentialist psychoanalysis, the French philosopher contradicts Freud by claiming that humans are in full control of their choices, behaviors, and decisions—blatantly disagreeing with Freud’s idea of the unconscious libido. By marrying philosophy with psychology and arguing against another famous thinker (Freud), Sartre asks the reader to rethink the typical definition of existentialist theory.

The Sovereignty of Good

Author: Iris Murdoch

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113457570X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 128

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Iris Murdoch was one of the great philosophers and novelists of the twentieth century and The Sovereignty of Good is her most important and enduring philosophical work. She argues that philosophy has focused, mistakenly, on what it is right to do rather than good to be and that only by restoring the notion of ‘vision’ to moral thinking can this distortion be corrected. This brilliant work shows why Iris Murdoch remains essential reading: a vivid and uncompromising style, a commitment to forceful argument, and a courage to go against the grain. With a foreword by Mary Midgley.

Feminist Interpretations of Benedict Spinoza

Author: Moira Gatens

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271035161

Category: Philosophy

Page: 239

View: 9772

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"A collection of essays on the metaphysical, political, theological, ethical and psychological writings of Spinoza. Examines the ways in which his philosophy presents a resource for the re-conceptualization of friendship, sexuality, politics and ethics in contemporary life"--Provided by publisher.

The Importance of Suffering

The Value and Meaning of Emotional Discontent

Author: James Davies

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136489983

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 8448

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In this book James Davies considers emotional suffering as part and parcel of what it means to live and develop as a human being, rather than as a mental health problem requiring only psychiatric, antidepressant or cognitive treatment. This book therefore offers a new perspective on emotional discontent and discusses how we can engage with it clinically, personally and socially to uncover its productive value. The Importance of Suffering explores a relational theory of understanding emotional suffering suggesting that suffering, does not spring from one dimension of our lives, but is often the outcome of how we relate to the world internally – in terms of our personal biology, habits and values, and externally – in terms of our society, culture and the world around us. Davies suggests that suffering is a healthy call-to-change and shouldn't be chemically anesthetised or avoided. The book challenges conventional thinking by arguing that if we understand and manage suffering more holistically, it can facilitate individual and social transformation in powerful and surprising ways. The Importance of Suffering offers new ways to think about, and therefore understand suffering. It will appeal to anyone who works with suffering in a professional context including professionals, trainees and academics in the fields of counselling, psychotherapy, psychoanalysis, psychiatry and clinical psychology.

When Bad Things Happen to Other People

Author: John Portmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134001711

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 1040

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Although many of us deny it, it is not uncommon to feel pleasure over the suffering of others, particularly when we feel that suffering has been deserved. The German word for this concept-Schadenfreude-has become universal in its expression of this feeling. Drawing on the teachings of history's most prominent philosophers, John Portmann explores the concept of Schadenfreude in this rigorous, comprehensive, and absorbing study.

Becoming a Person Through Psychoanalysis

Author: Neville Symington

Publisher: Karnac Books

ISBN: 1780495005

Category: Psychology

Page: 384

View: 1748

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What Neville Symington is attempting to do in this book is to trace the pathway along which he has travelled to become a person. This has run side by side with trying to become an analyst. The author has made landmark discoveries when reading philosophy, sociology, history, and literature. Learning to paint, learning to fly a plane, and also the study of art and of aviation theory have opened up new vistas. This account is only a sketch. The completed picture will never materialize. It is therefore autobiographical but only in a partial sense. It is always emphasized that one's own personal experience of being psychoanalysed is by far the most significant part of a psychoanalyst's education.