Shame and Necessity

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520256433

Category: Philosophy

Page: 254

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We tend to suppose that the ancient Greeks had primitive ideas of the self, of responsibility, freedom, and shame, and that now humanity has advanced from these to a more refined moral consciousness. Bernard Williams's original and radical book questions this picture of Western history. While we are in many ways different from the Greeks, Williams claims that the differences are not to be traced to a shift in these basic conceptions of ethical life. We are more like the ancients than we are prepared to acknowledge, and only when this is understood can we properly grasp our most important differences from them, such as our rejection of slavery. The author is a philosopher, but much of his book is directed to writers such as Homer and the tragedians, whom he discusses as poets and not just as materials for philosophy. At the center of his study is the question of how we can understand Greek tragedy at all, when its world is so far from ours. Williams explains how it is that when the ancients speak, they do not merely tell us about themselves, but about ourselves. In a new foreword A.A. Long explores the impact of this volume in the context of Williams's stunning career.

The Greeks and the Irrational

Author: Eric R. Dodds

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520931275

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 445

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In this philosophy classic, which was first published in 1951, E. R. Dodds takes on the traditional view of Greek culture as a triumph of rationalism. Using the analytical tools of modern anthropology and psychology, Dodds asks, "Why should we attribute to the ancient Greeks an immunity from 'primitive' modes of thought which we do not find in any society open to our direct observation?" Praised by reviewers as "an event in modern Greek scholarship" and "a book which it would be difficult to over-praise," The Greeks and the Irrational was Volume 25 of the Sather Classical Lectures series.

Responsibility and the Moral Sentiments

Author: R. Jay Wallace

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674766228

Category: Philosophy

Page: 275

View: 905

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R. Jay Wallace argues in this book that moral accountability hinges on questions of fairness: When is it fair to hold people morally responsible for what they do? Would it be fair to do so even in a deterministic world? To answer these questions, we need to understand what we are doing when we hold people morally responsible, a stance that Wallace connects with a central class of moral sentiments, those of resentment, indignation, and guilt. To hold someone responsible, he argues, is to be subject to these reactive emotions in one's dealings with that person. Developing this theme with unusual sophistication, he offers a new interpretation of the reactive emotions and traces their role in our practices of blame and moral sanction. With this account in place, Wallace advances a powerful and sustained argument against the common view that accountability requires freedom of will. Instead, he maintains, the fairness of holding people responsible depends on their rational competence: the power to grasp moral reasons and to control their behavior accordingly. He shows how these forms of rational competence are compatible with determinism. At the same time, giving serious consideration to incompatibilist concerns, Wallace develops a compelling diagnosis of the common assumption that freedom is necessary for responsibility. Rigorously argued, eminently readable, this book touches on issues of broad concern to philosophers, legal theorists, political scientists, and anyone with an interest in the nature and limits of responsibility.

World, Mind, and Ethics

Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams

Author: J. E. J. Altham,Ross Harrison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316582396

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 758

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Bernard Williams is one of the most influential figures in ethical theory, where he has set a considerable part of the current agenda. In this collection a distinguished international team of philosophers who have been stimulated by Williams's work give responses to it. The topics covered include equality; consistency; comparisons between science and ethics; integrity; moral reasons; the moral system; and moral knowledge. Williams himself provides a substantial reply, which shows both the directions of his own thought and also his present view of earlier work of his which has been extensively discussed for twenty years (such as that on utilitarianism). This volume will be indispensable reading for all those interested in ethical theory.

Theories of Distributive Justice

Author: John E. Roemer

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674879201

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 342

View: 7166

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John Roemer has written a unique book that critiques economists' conceptions of justice from a philosophical perspective and philosophical theories of distributive justice from an economic one.

The Formation of Hell

Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds

Author: Alan E. Bernstein

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801481314

Category: Religion

Page: 392

View: 9342

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What becomes of the wicked? Hell—exile from God, subjection to fire, worms, and darkness—for centuries the idea has shaped the dread of malefactors, the solace of victims, and the deterrence of believers. Asking just why and how belief in hell arose, Alan E. Bernstein takes us back to those times and offers us a comparative view of the philosophy, poetry, folklore, myth, and theology of that formative age.

Reading Sartre

On Phenomenology and Existentialism

Author: Jonathan Webber

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113691806X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 4312

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Jean-Paul Sartre was one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century. The fourteen original essays in this volume focus on the phenomenological and existentialist writings of the first major phase of his published career, arguing with scholarly precision for their continuing importance to philosophical debate. Aspects of Sartre’s philosophy under discussion in this volume include: consciousness and self-consciousness imagination and aesthetic experience emotions and other feelings embodiment selfhood and the Other freedom, bad faith, and authenticity literary fiction as philosophical writing Reading Sartre: on Phenomenology and Existentialism is an indispensable resource for understanding the nature and importance of Sartre’s philosophy. It is essential reading for students of phenomenology, existentialism, ethics, or aesthetics, and for anyone interested in the roots of contemporary thought in twentieth century philosophy.

Truth and Truthfulness

An Essay in Genealogy

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400825148

Category: Philosophy

Page: 344

View: 8883

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What does it mean to be truthful? What role does truth play in our lives? What do we lose if we reject truthfulness? No philosopher is better suited to answer these questions than Bernard Williams. Writing with his characteristic combination of passion and elegant simplicity, he explores the value of truth and finds it to be both less and more than we might imagine. Modern culture exhibits two attitudes toward truth: suspicion of being deceived (no one wants to be fooled) and skepticism that objective truth exists at all (no one wants to be naive). This tension between a demand for truthfulness and the doubt that there is any truth to be found is not an abstract paradox. It has political consequences and signals a danger that our intellectual activities, particularly in the humanities, may tear themselves to pieces. Williams's approach, in the tradition of Nietzsche's genealogy, blends philosophy, history, and a fictional account of how the human concern with truth might have arisen. Without denying that we should worry about the contingency of much that we take for granted, he defends truth as an intellectual objective and a cultural value. He identifies two basic virtues of truth, Accuracy and Sincerity, the first of which aims at finding out the truth and the second at telling it. He describes different psychological and social forms that these virtues have taken and asks what ideas can make best sense of them today. Truth and Truthfulness presents a powerful challenge to the fashionable belief that truth has no value, but equally to the traditional faith that its value guarantees itself. Bernard Williams shows us that when we lose a sense of the value of truth, we lose a lot both politically and personally, and may well lose everything.

Shame and Guilt

A Psychoanalytic and a Cultural Study

Author: Gerhart Piers,Milton B. Singer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781614277613

Category: Psychology

Page: 98

View: 2296

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2015 Reprint of Original 1953 Edition. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. A psychoanalyst and an anthropologist collaborate in this now-famous formulation. Guilt and shame are feelings resulting from certain childhood experiences. Although the terms appear to have similar meanings and are often used interchangeably, each of the two feelings influences different patterns of behavior and probably contributes to different character types. This book, whose influence and renown have steadily grown since its first publication, is a psychoanalytic and cultural study of shame and guilt. It comprises two essays on the subject. In Part I, Dr. Gerhart Piers, a psychoanalyst, gives concise definitions of these two previously inadequately define terms, and clearly distinguishes between them. He discusses the experiences that can cause guilt or shame in an individual; why some persons develop into guilt-ridden individuals, and others become shame-driven; and the special and sharply different therapeutic considerations that must be given to the person afflicted with guilt or shame. In Part II, Dr. Milton Singer, an anthropologist, applies Dr. Piers' analysis of guilt and shame within the individual to his own study of cultures. The title of the second essay by Singer is "Shame Cultures and Guilt Cultures."

Blame

Its Nature and Norms

Author: D. Justin Coates,Neal A. Tognazzini

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199860823

Category: Philosophy

Page: 318

View: 7807

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What is it to blame someone, and when are would-be blamers in a position to do so? What function does blame serve in our lives, and is it a valuable way of relating to one another? The essays in this volume explore answers to these and related questions.

The Guardians in Action

Plato the Teacher and the Post-Republic Dialogues from Timaeus to Theaetetus

Author: William H. F. Altman

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 1498517870

Category: Philosophy

Page: 497

View: 5543

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If you’ve ever wondered why Plato staged Timaeus as a kind of sequel to Republic, or who its unnamed missing fourth might be; or why he joined Critias to Timaeus, and whether or not that strange dialogue is unfinished; or what we should make of the written critique of writing in Phaedrus, and of that dialogue’s apparent lack of unity; or what is the purpose of the long discussion of the One in the second half of Parmenides, and how it relates to the objections made to the Theory of Forms in its first half; or if the revisionists or unitarians are right about Philebus, and why its Socrates seems less charming than usual, or whether or not Cratylus takes place after Euthyphro, and whether its far-fetched etymologies accomplish any serious philosophical purpose; or why the philosopher Socrates describes in the central digression of Theaetetus is so different from Socrates himself; then you will enjoy reading the continuation of William H. F. Altman’s Plato the Teacher: The Crisis of the Republic (Lexington; 2012), where he considers the pedagogical connections behind “the post-Republic dialogues” from Timaeus to Theaetetus in the context of “the Reading Order of Plato’s dialogues.”

Moral Luck

Philosophical Papers 1973–1980

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107268176

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

View: 6379

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A new volume of philosophical essays by Bernard Williams. The book is a successor to Problems of the Self, but whereas that volume dealt mainly with questions of personal identity, Moral Luck centres on questions of moral philosophy and the theory of rational action. That whole area has of course been strikingly reinvigorated over the last deacde, and philosophers have both broadened and deepened their concerns in a way that now makes much earlier moral and political philosophy look sterile and trivial. Moral Luck contains a number of essays that have contributed influentially to this development. Among the recurring themes are the moral and philosophical limitations of utilitarianism, the notion of integrity, relativism, and problems of moral conflict and rational choice. The work presented here is marked by a high degree of imagination and acuity, and also conveys a strong sense of psychological reality. The volume will be a stimulating source of ideas and arguments for all philosophers and a wide range of other readers.

Making Sense of Humanity

And Other Philosophical Papers 1982-1993

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521478687

Category: Philosophy

Page: 251

View: 8599

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Collection of philosophical papers

On Opera

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300089769

Category: Music

Page: 176

View: 9199

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Bernard Williams, who died in 2003, was one of the most influential moral philosophers of his generation. A lifelong opera lover, his articles and essays, talks for the BBC, contributions to the Grove Dictionary of Opera, and program notes for the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, and the English National Opera, generated a devoted following. This elegant volume brings together these widely scattered and largely unobtainable pieces, including two that have not been previously published. It covers an engaging range of topics from Mozart to Wagner, including sparkling essays on specific operas by those composers as well as Verdi, Puccini, Strauss, Debussy, Janacek, and Tippett. Reflecting Williams's brilliance, passion, and clarity of mind, these essays engage with, and illustrate, the enduring appeal of opera as an art form.

Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline

Author: Bernard Williams

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400827094

Category: Philosophy

Page: 264

View: 5429

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What can--and what can't--philosophy do? What are its ethical risks--and its possible rewards? How does it differ from science? In Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline, Bernard Williams addresses these questions and presents a striking vision of philosophy as fundamentally different from science in its aims and methods even though there is still in philosophy "something that counts as getting it right." Written with his distinctive combination of rigor, imagination, depth, and humanism, the book amply demonstrates why Williams was one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century. Spanning his career from his first publication to one of his last lectures, the book's previously unpublished or uncollected essays address metaphysics, epistemology, and ethics, as well as the scope and limits of philosophy itself. The essays are unified by Williams's constant concern that philosophy maintain contact with the human problems that animate it in the first place. As the book's editor, A. W. Moore, writes in his introduction, the title essay is "a kind of manifesto for Williams's conception of his own life's work." It is where he most directly asks "what philosophy can and cannot contribute to the project of making sense of things"--answering that what philosophy can best help make sense of is "being human." Philosophy as a Humanistic Discipline is one of three posthumous books by Williams to be published by Princeton University Press. In the Beginning Was the Deed: Realism and Moralism in Political Argument was published in the fall of 2005. The Sense of the Past: Essays in the History of Philosophy is being published shortly after the present volume.

A World without Why

Author: Raymond Geuss

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400848482

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 8941

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Wishful thinking is a deeply ingrained human trait that has had a long-term distorting effect on ethical thinking. Many influential ethical views depend on the optimistic assumption that, despite appearances to the contrary, the human and natural world in which we live could, eventually, be made to make sense to us. In A World without Why, Raymond Geuss challenges this assumption. The essays in this collection--several of which are published here for the first time--explore the genesis and historical development of this optimistic configuration in ethical thought and the ways in which it has shown itself to be unfounded and misguided. Discussions of Greco-Roman antiquity and of the philosophies of Socrates, Plato, Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and Adorno play a central role in many of these essays. Geuss also ranges over such topics as the concepts of intelligibility, authority, democracy, and criticism; the role of lying in politics; architecture; the place of theology in ethics; tragedy and comedy; and the struggle between realism and our search for meaning. Characterized by Geuss's wide-ranging interests in literature, philosophy, and history, and by his political commitment and trenchant style, A World without Why raises fundamental questions about the viability not just of specific ethical concepts and theses, but of our most basic assumptions about what ethics could and must be.

Shame and Guilt in Chaucer

Author: Anne McTaggart

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137039523

Category: History

Page: 192

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Explores the representation of emotions as psychological concepts and cultural constructs in Geoffrey Chaucer's narrative poetry. McTaggart argues that Chaucer's main works including The Canterbury Tales are united thematically in their positive view of guilt and in their anxiety about the desire for sacrifice and vengeance that shame can provoke.

Consuming Music Together

Social and Collaborative Aspects of Music Consumption Technologies

Author: Kenton O'Hara,Barry Brown

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402040313

Category: Computers

Page: 311

View: 3938

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Listening to, buying and sharing music is an immensely important part of everyday life. Yet recent technological developments are increasingly changing how we use and consume music. This book collects together the most recent studies of music consumption, and new developments in music technology. It combines the perspectives of both social scientists and technology designers, uncovering how new music technologies are actually being used, along with discussions of new music technologies still in development. With a specific focus on the social nature of music, the book breaks new ground in bringing together discussions of both the social and technological aspects of music use. Chapters cover topics such as the use of the iPod, music technologies which encourage social interaction in public places, and music sharing on the internet. A valuable collection for anyone concerned with the future of music technology, this book will be of particular interest to those designing new music technologies, those working in the music industry, along with students of music and new technology.

Redefining Elizabethan Literature

Author: Georgia Brown

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139455886

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: N.A

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Redefining Elizabethan Literature examines the new definitions of literature and authorship that emerged in one of the most remarkable decades in English literary history, the 1590s. Georgia Brown analyses the period's obsession with shame as both a literary theme and a conscious authorial position. She explores the related obsession of this generation of authors with fragmentary and marginal forms of expression, such as the epyllion, paradoxical encomium, sonnet sequence, and complaint. Combining developments in literary theory with close readings of a wide range of Elizabethan texts, Brown casts light on the wholesale eroticisation of Elizabethan literary culture, the form and meaning of Englishness, the function of gender and sexuality in establishing literary authority, and the contexts of the works of Shakespeare, Marlowe, Spenser and Sidney. This study will be of great interest to scholars of Renaissance literature as well as cultural history and gender studies.

Hegel's Naturalism

Mind, Nature, and the Final Ends of Life

Author: Terry Pinkard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199860807

Category: Philosophy

Page: 240

View: 1510

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Terry Pinkard draws on Hegel's central works as well as his lectures on aesthetics, the history of philosophy, and the philosophy of history in this deeply informed and original exploration of Hegel's naturalism. As Pinkard explains, Hegel's version of naturalism was in fact drawn from Aristotelian naturalism: Hegel fused Aristotle's conception of nature with his insistence that the origin and development of philosophy has empirical physics as its presupposition. As a result, Hegel found that, although modern nature must be understood as a whole to be non-purposive, there is nonetheless a place for Aristotelian purposiveness within such nature. Such a naturalism provides the framework for explaining how we are both natural organisms and also practically minded (self-determining, rationally responsive, reason-giving) beings. In arguing for this point, Hegel shows that the kind of self-division which is characteristic of human agency also provides human agents with an updated version of an Aristotelian final end of life. Pinkard treats this conception of the final end of "being at one with oneself" in two parts. The first part focuses on Hegel's account of agency in naturalist terms and how it is that agency requires such a self-division, while the second part explores how Hegel thinks a historical narration is essential for understanding what this kind of self-division has come to require of itself. In making his case, Hegel argues that both the antinomies of philosophical thought and the essential fragmentation of modern life are all not to be understood as overcome in a higher order unity in the "State." On the contrary, Hegel demonstrates that modern institutions do not resolve such tensions any more than a comprehensive philosophical account can resolve them theoretically. The job of modern practices and institutions (and at a reflective level the task of modern philosophy) is to help us understand and live with precisely the unresolvability of these oppositions. Therefore, Pinkard explains, Hegel is not the totality theorist he has been taken to be, nor is he an "identity thinker," ? la Adorno. He is an anti-totality thinker.