Scientific Knowledge

Basic Issues in the Philosophy of Science

Author: Janet A. Kourany

Publisher: Cengage Learning


Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 2818

Containing 31 readings reflecting the dynamism of the field, this book provides readers with the most current and relevant readings available on issues in the philosophy of science. All of the readings have been selected based on their clarity and coverage of the prevailing debates in the philosophy of science--from logical positivism to anit-realism. The book assumes no specialized training in formal logic or scientific methods and therefore can be appreciated by a wide range of readers.

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971307

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 2531

Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Scientific Knowledge and Sociological Theory

Author: Barry Barnes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135029016

Category: Reference

Page: 208

View: 1546

Originally published in 1974. Scientific Knowledge and Sociological Theory centres on the problem of explaining the manifest variety and contrast in the beliefs about nature held in different groups and societies. It maintains that the sociologist should treat all beliefs symmetrically and must investigate and account for allegedly "correct" or "scientific" beliefs just as he would "incorrect" or "unscientific" ones. From this basic position a study of scientific beliefs is constructed. The sociological interest of such beliefs is illustrated and a sociological perspective upon scientific change is developed.

The Nature of Scientific Knowledge

An Explanatory Approach

Author: Kevin McCain

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319334050

Category: Science

Page: 277

View: 4545

This book offers a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the epistemology of science. It not only introduces readers to the general epistemological discussion of the nature of knowledge, but also provides key insights into the particular nuances of scientific knowledge. No prior knowledge of philosophy or science is assumed by The Nature of Scientific Knowledge. Nevertheless, the reader is taken on a journey through several core concepts of epistemology and philosophy of science that not only explores the characteristics of the scientific knowledge of individuals but also the way that the development of scientific knowledge is a particularly social endeavor. The topics covered in this book are of keen interest to students of epistemology and philosophy of science as well as science educators interested in the nature of scientific knowledge. In fact, as a result of its clear and engaging approach to understanding scientific knowledge The Nature of Scientific Knowledge is a book that anyone interested in scientific knowledge, knowledge in general, and any of a myriad of related concepts would be well advised to study closely.

Scientific Knowledge

A Sociological Analysis

Author: Barry Barnes,David Bloor,John Henry

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 9780485114041

Category: Political Science

Page: 230

View: 4693

A systematic account of the importance of sociology for the understanding of scientific knowledge. Applying sociological analysis to specific historical case studies, the work attempts to show how the sociological approach is an essential complement to interpretations of scientific knowledge from other disciplines, and a necessary contribution to obtaining a scientific understanding of science. This book should be of interest to students in the social sciences and the history and philosophy of science, and to academics interested in knowledge, epistemology, the history of ideas and the "new" sociology of science.>

Putting Science in Its Place

Geographies of Scientific Knowledge

Author: David N. Livingstone

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226487243

Category: Science

Page: 244

View: 3852

We are accustomed to thinking of science and its findings as universal. After all, one atom of carbon plus two of oxygen yields carbon dioxide in Amazonia as well as in Alaska; a scientist in Bombay can use the same materials and techniques to challenge the work of a scientist in New York; and of course the laws of gravity apply worldwide. Why, then, should the spaces where science is done matter at all? David N. Livingstone here puts that question to the test with his fascinating study of how science bears the marks of its place of production. Putting Science in Its Place establishes the fundamental importance of geography in both the generation and the consumption of scientific knowledge, using historical examples of the many places where science has been practiced. Livingstone first turns his attention to some of the specific sites where science has been made—the laboratory, museum, and botanical garden, to name some of the more conventional locales, but also places like the coffeehouse and cathedral, ship's deck and asylum, even the human body itself. In each case, he reveals just how the space of inquiry has conditioned the investigations carried out there. He then describes how, on a regional scale, provincial cultures have shaped scientific endeavor and how, in turn, scientific practices have been instrumental in forming local identities. Widening his inquiry, Livingstone points gently to the fundamental instability of scientific meaning, based on case studies of how scientific theories have been received in different locales. Putting Science in Its Place powerfully concludes by examining the remarkable mobility of science and the seemingly effortless way it moves around the globe. From the reception of Darwin in the land of the Maori to the giraffe that walked from Marseilles to Paris, Livingstone shows that place does matter, even in the world of science.

Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems

Author: N.A

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412833783

Category: Education

Page: 449

View: 1082

Science is continually confronted by new and difficult social and ethical problems. Some of these problems have arisen from the transformation of the academic science of the prewar period into the industrialized science of the present. Traditional theories of science are now widely recognized as obsolete. In Scientific Knowledge and Its Social Problems (originally published in 1971), Jerome R. Ravetz analyzes the work of science as the creation and investigation of problems. He demonstrates the role of choice and value judgment, and the inevitability of error, in scientific research. Ravetz's new introductory essay is a masterful statement of how our understanding of science has evolved over the last two decades.

Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Patrick Murray

Publisher: Humanity Books

ISBN: 9781573924986

Category: Political Science

Page: 299

View: 5148

This close textual study treats a neglected topic in the voluminous literature on Marx. Both supporters and opponents of Marx have long assumed that he was a positivist; however, the author states, Marx did not adopt this conventional nineteenth-century view of science. Schooled by Hegel, Marx developed an eye for the practical, historical rootedness of the concepts and the values of science. The depth of Marx's inquiries into the nature of scientific knowledge places him in the company of philosopher-scientists such as Aristotle and Descartes, and his theory of scientific knowledge tacitly underlies the construction of his masterwork, Capital, making it unexpectedly dense: much turns on a word, a distinction, a beginning. Often Marx's understanding of his methodological innovations. Through a close reading of Marx's few writings on method and a careful analysis of the opening chapters of Capital, this book exposes this demanding quality of Marx's texts and helps in meeting those demands.

Judging Science

Scientific Knowledge and the Federal Courts

Author: Kenneth R. Foster,Peter W. Huber

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262561204

Category: Law

Page: 333

View: 3730

Attempting to reconcile the law's need for workable rules of evidence with the views of scientific validity and reliability.

Legitimizing Scientific Knowledge

An Introduction to Steve Fuller's Social Epistemology

Author: Francis Remedios

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739106679

Category: Philosophy

Page: 143

View: 8970

The result is a carefully argued, in-depth analysis of the work of a very important philosopher of science."--BOOK JACKET.

Braiding Sweetgrass

Indigenous Wisdom, Scientific Knowledge and the Teachings of Plants

Author: Robin Wall Kimmerer

Publisher: Milkweed Editions

ISBN: 1571318712

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 5522

As a botanist, Robin Wall Kimmerer has been trained to ask questions of nature with the tools of science. As a member of the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, she embraces the notion that plants and animals are our oldest teachers. In Braiding Sweetgrass, Kimmerer brings these two lenses of knowledge together to take us on “a journey that is every bit as mythic as it is scientific, as sacred as it is historical, as clever as it is wise” (Elizabeth Gilbert). Drawing on her life as an indigenous scientist, and as a woman, Kimmerer shows how other living beings—asters and goldenrod, strawberries and squash, salamanders, algae, and sweetgrass—offer us gifts and lessons, even if we've forgotten how to hear their voices. In reflections that range from the creation of Turtle Island to the forces that threaten its flourishing today, she circles toward a central argument: that the awakening of ecological consciousness requires the acknowledgment and celebration of our reciprocal relationship with the rest of the living world. For only when we can hear the languages of other beings will we be capable of understanding the generosity of the earth, and learn to give our own gifts in return.

Cognitive Semantics and Scientific Knowledge

Case Studies in the Cognitive Science of Science

Author: András Kertész

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027238900

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 259

View: 4112

The book focuses on the question of how and to what extent cognitive semantic approaches can contribute to the new field of the cognitive science of science. The argumentation is based on a series of instructive case studies which are intended to test the prospects and limits of the metascientific application of both holistic and modular cognitive semantics. The case studies show that, while cognitive semantic research is able to solve problems which have traditionally been the domain of the philosophy of science, it also encounters serious limits. The prospects and the limits thus revealed suggest new research topics which in future can be tackled by cognitive semantic approaches to the cognitive science of science.

The Science of Empire

Scientific Knowledge, Civilization, and Colonial Rule in India

Author: Zaheer Baber

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791429198

Category: History

Page: 298

View: 9463

Investigates the complex social processes involved in the introduction and institutionalization of Western science in colonial India.

The Reflexive Thesis

Wrighting Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Malcolm Ashmore

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226029689

Category: Philosophy

Page: 287

View: 2164

This unusually innovative book treats reflexivity, not as a philosophical conundrum, but as a practical issue that arises in the course of scholarly research and argument. In order to demonstrate the concrete and consequential nature of reflexivity, Malcolm Ashmore concentrates on an area in which reflexive "problems" are acute: the sociology of scientific knowledge. At the forefront of recent radical changes in our understanding of science, this increasingly influential mode of analysis specializes in rigorous deconstructions of the research practices and textual products of the scientific enterprise. Through a series of detailed examinations of the practices and products of the sociology of scientific knowledge, Ashmore turns its own claims and findings back onto itself and opens up a whole new era of exploration beyond the common fear of reflexive self-destruction.

Scientific Knowledge

Discovery of Nature Or Mental Construction?

Author: Harry Settanni

Publisher: University Press of Amer


Category: Philosophy

Page: 34

View: 1503

This book defends the constructivist view of science, namely, the view that scientific theories are mental constructions in the mind of the scientist, rather than the realist view that scientific theories are accounts of what nature itself is like. To prove this point, evolution theory is contrasted with "creation science" as two paradigms or extremely divergent theories, each of which, as a mental construct, explains the data or facts of the natural world equally well. Contents: Realism vs. Constructivism; Meaning and Reference in the Natural Sciences; The Role of Paradigm in the Creationism Controversy; Science As Mental Construction.

The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge

A view from the limit

Author: Vincent F. Hendricks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940159676X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 367

View: 4736

This is this, this ain't something else, this is this -Robert De Niro, Deerhunter his book may to some extent be viewed as the continuation of my T Doctoral thesis Epistemology, Methodology and Reliability. The dissertation was, first of all, a methodological study of the reliable performance of the AGM-axioms (Alchourr6n, Gardenfors and Makin son) of belief revision. Second of all the dissertation included the first steps toward an epistemology for the limiting convergence of knowledge for scientific inquiry methods of both discovery and assessment. The idea of methodological reliability as a desirable property of a scientific method was introduced to me while I was a visiting Ph. D. -student at the Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University in Pitts burgh, Pennsylvania, USA in 1995-96. Here I became acquainted with formal learning theory. Learning theory provides a variety of formal tools for investigating a number of important issues within epistemology, methodology and the philosophy of science. Especially with respect to the problem of induc tion, but not exclusively. The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge-a view from the limit utilizes a few concepts from formal learning theory to study problems in modal logic and epistemology. It should be duely noted that this book has virtually nothing to do with formal learning theory or inductive learning problems.