Reliability and Validity Assessment

Author: Edward G. Carmines,Richard A. Zeller

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1452207712

Category: Social Science

Page: 72

View: 9981

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This guide explains how social scientists can evaluate the reliability and validity of empirical measurements, discussing the three basic types of validity: criterion related, content, and construct. In addition, the paper shows how reliability is assessed by the retest method, alternative-forms procedure, split-halves approach, and internal consistency method.

Introduction to Survey Sampling

Author: Graham Kalton,KALTON

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803921269

Category: Mathematics

Page: 96

View: 1061

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Reviews sampling methods used in surveys: simple random sampling, systematic sampling, stratification, cluster and multi-stage sampling, sampling with probability proportional to size, two-phase sampling, replicated sampling, panel designs, and non-probability sampling. Kalton discusses issues of practical implementation, including frame problems and non-response, and gives examples of sample designs for a national face-to-face interview survey and for a telephone survey. He also treats the use of weights in survey analysis, the computation of sampling errors with complex sampling designs, and the determination of sample size.

Regression Diagnostics

An Introduction

Author: John Fox

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803939714

Category: Mathematics

Page: 92

View: 7525

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With Regression Diagnostics, researchers now have an accessible explanation of the techniques needed for exploring problems that compromise a regression analysis and for determining whether certain assumptions appear reasonable. The book covers such topics as the problem of collinearity in multiple regression, dealing with outlying and influential data, non-normality of errors, non-constant error variance and the problems and opportunities presented by discrete data. In addition, sophisticated diagnostics based on maximum-likelihood methods, scores tests, and constructed variables are introduced.

Basic content analysis

Author: Robert Philip Weber

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 96

View: 2327

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This second edition of Basic Content Analysis is completely updated and offers a concise introduction to content analysis methods from a social science perspective. It includes new computer applications, new studies and an additional chapter on problems and issues that can arise when carrying out content analysis in four major areas: measurement, indication, representation and interpretation.

Analysis of Variance

Author: Gudmund R. Iversen,Helmut Norpoth

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803930018

Category: Mathematics

Page: 94

View: 2374

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The second edition of this book provides a conceptual understanding of analysis of variance. It outlines methods for analysing variance that are used to study the effect of one or more nominal variables on a dependent, interval level variable. The book presumes only elementary background in significance testing and data analysis.

Survey Questions

Handcrafting the Standardized Questionnaire

Author: Jean M. Converse,Stanley Presser

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803927438

Category: Reference

Page: 80

View: 3916

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Survey Questions is a highly readable guide to the principles of writing survey questions. The authors review recent research on survey questions, consider the lore of professional experience and finally present those findings which have the strongest implications on writing these questions.

Scale Development

Theory and Applications

Author: Robert F. DeVellis

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1412980445

Category: Social Science

Page: 205

View: 4937

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A best-seller in its previous editions, Scale Development: Theory and Applications, Third Edition has been extensively updated and revised to address changes in the field and topics that have grown in importance. Widely adopted for graduate courses in departments such as Psychology, Public Health, Marketing, Nursing, and Education, this book will prove beneficial to applied researchers across the social sciences.

Governing for Prosperity

Author: Bruce Bueno de Mesquita,Hilton L. Root

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300080186

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 1839

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How do political institutions help promote prosperity in some countries and poverty in others? What can be done to encourage leaders to govern not for patronage but for economic growth? In this book, such distinguished political economists as Douglass North, Robert Barro, and Stephen Haber answer these questions, providing a solution to one of the most important policy puzzles of the new century: how to govern for prosperity. The authors begin from a premise that political leaders are self-interested politicians rather than benign agents of the people they lead. When leaders depend on only a few backers to stay in power, they dole out privileges to those people, thereby dissipating their country's total resources and national growth potential. On the other hand, leaders who need large coalitions to stay in office implement policies that generally foster growth and political competition over ideas. The result is that those who promote policies that lead to stagnation tend to stay in office for a long time, and those who produce prosperity tend to lose their jobs. Analyzing countries in North and South America and Asia, the authors discuss the range of political regimes that permit or even encourage leaders to rule by mismanaging their nation's resources. And they show that nations must forge institutions that allow all social groups to participate in and benefit from the economy as well as force political leaders to be responsible for policy outcomes.

Measurement Theory and Applications for the Social Sciences

Author: Deborah L. Bandalos

Publisher: Guilford Publications

ISBN: 1462532136

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 661

View: 4510

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Which types of validity evidence should be considered when determining whether a scale is appropriate for a given measurement situation? What about reliability evidence? Using clear explanations illustrated by examples from across the social and behavioral sciences, this engaging text prepares students to make effective decisions about the selection, administration, scoring, interpretation, and development of measurement instruments. Coverage includes the essential measurement topics of scale development, item writing and analysis, and reliability and validity, as well as more advanced topics such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory, diagnostic classification models, test bias and fairness, standard setting, and equating. End-of-chapter exercises (with answers) emphasize both computations and conceptual understanding to encourage readers to think critically about the material.

Nonparametric Simple Regression

Smoothing Scatterplots

Author: John Fox

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761915850

Category: Mathematics

Page: 83

View: 8182

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John Fox introduces readers to the techniques of kernel estimation, additive nonparametric regression, and the ways nonparametric regression can be employed to select transformations of the data preceding a linear least-squares fit.

Quasi-experimentation

design & analysis issues for field settings

Author: Thomas D. Cook,Donald Thomas Campbell

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 405

View: 6422

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Data Analysis

An Introduction

Author: Michael Lewis-Beck

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803957725

Category: Medical

Page: 77

View: 1522

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This accessible introduction to data analysis focuses on the interpretation of statistical results, in particular those which come from nonexperimental social research. It will provide social science researchers with the tools necessary to select and evaluate statistical tests appropriate for their research question. Using a consistent data-set throughout the book to illustrate the various analytic techniques, Michael Lewis-Beck covers topics such as univariate statistics, measures of association, the statistical significance of the relationship between two variables, simple regression in which the dependent variable is influenced by a single independent variable, and multiple regression.

Realistic Evaluation

Author: Ray Pawson,Nicholas Tilley

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 144623388X

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8085

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Realistic Evaluation shows how program evaluation needs to be, and can be bettered. It presents a profound yet highly readable critique of current evaluation practice, and goes on to introduce a `manifesto' and `handbook' for a fresh approach. The main body of this book is devoted to the articulation of a new evaluation paradigm, which promises greater validity and utility from the findings of evaluation studies. The authors call this new approach `realistic evaluation'. The name reflects the paradigm's foundation in scientific realist philosophy, its commitment to the idea that programmes deal with real problems rather than mere social constructions, and its primary intention, which is to inform realistic developments in policy making that benefit programme participants and the public. Ray Pawson and Nicholas Tilley argue with passion that scientific evaluation requires a careful blend of theory and method, quality and quantity, ambition and realism. The book offers a complete blueprint for evaluation activities, running from design to data collection and analysis to the cumulation of findings across programmes and onto the realization of research into policy. The argument is developed using practical examples throughout and is grounded in the major fields of programme evaluation. This book will be essential reading for all those involved in the evaluation process especially those researchers, students and practitioners in the core disciplines of sociology, social policy, criminology, health and education. `This book is a must for those engaged in the field, providing a fully illustrated text on evaluation with numerous examples from the criminal justice system. Unusually, it offers something for the academic, practitioner and student alike. I found Pawson and Tilley's latest work on evaluation an enjoyable and informative read. For myself their "realistic evaluation" clarified and formalised a jumbled set of ideas I had already been developing. Although not everyone will agree with the methodology proposed by the authors, this book is a valuable read as it will cause most of us at least to review our methodological stance' - International Journal of Police Science and Management `This is an engaging book with a strong sense of voice and communicative task. The voice is sometimes strident, but always clear. Its communicative qualities are evident equally in its structure: lots of signposting for the reader within and across chapters' - Language Teaching Research `This provocative, elegant and highly insightful book focuses on the effective incorporation of actual practice into the formulation of evaluation methodology. What a pleasure to read sentences like: "The research act involves "learning" a stakeholder's theories, formalizing them, and "teaching" them back to that informant who is then in a position to comment upon, clarify and further refine the key ideas". Pawson and Tilley have given us a wise, witty and persuasive account of how real practitioner experience might be encouraged to intrude on (and modify) researchers' concepts about program processes and outcomes. This holds important promise for achieving something that is devoutly to be wished: closer interaction among at least some researchers and some policy makers' - Eleanor Chelimsky, Past-President of the American Evaluation Association `This is a sustained methodological argument by two wordly-wise social scientists. Unashamedly intellectual, theoretically ambitious yet with a clear but bounded conception of evaluation. It is articulate, occasionally eloquent and always iconoclastic, whilst eschewing "paradigm wars". The Pawson and Tilley "realist" call to arms threatens to take no prisoners among experimentalists, constructivists or pluralists. It is the kind of book that clarifies your thoughts, even when you disagree with everything they say' - Elliot Stern, The Tavistock Institute

Research Designs

Author: Paul E. Spector

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803917095

Category: Psychology

Page: 80

View: 5092

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Research Designs is a clear, compact introduction to the principles of experimental and non-experimental design especially written for social scientists and their students. Spector covers major designs including: single group designs; pre-test/post-test designs; factorial designs, hierarchical designs; multivariate designs; the Solomon four group design; panel designs; and designs with concomitant variables.

Scaling Procedures

Issues and Applications

Author: Richard G. Netemeyer,William O. Bearden,Subhash Sharma

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 150632018X

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2359

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Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications examines the issues involved in developing and validating multi-item self-report scales of latent constructs. Distinguished researchers and award-winning educators Richard G. Netemeyer, William O. Bearden, and Subhash Sharma present a four-step approach for multi-indicator scale development. With these steps, the authors include relevant empirical examples and a review of the concepts of dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Scaling Procedures: Issues and Applications supplies cutting-edge strategies for developing and refining measures. Providing concise chapter introductions and summaries, as well as numerous tables, figures, and exhibits, the authors present recommended steps and overlapping activities in a logical, sequential progression.

Key Concepts in Social Research

Author: Geoff Payne,Judy Payne

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446233898

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 9357

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`This clearly written and user-friendly book is ideal for students or researchers who wish to get a basic, but solid grasp of a topic and see how it fits with other topics. By following the links a student can easily and efficiently build up a clear conceptual map of social research' - Malcolm Williams, Reader in Sociology, Cardiff University `This is a really useful book, written in an accessible manner for students beginning their study of social research methods. It is helpful both as an introductory text and as a reference guide for more advanced students. Most of the key topics in methods and methodology are covered and it will be suitable as a recommended text on a wide variety of courses' - Clive Seale, Brunel University At last, an authoritative, crystal-clear introduction to research methods which really takes account of the needs of students for accessible, focused information to help with undergraduate essays and exams. The key concepts discussed here are based on a review of teaching syllabi and the authors' experience of many years of teaching. Topics range over qualitative and quantitative approaches and combine practical considerations with philosophical issues. They include several new topics, like internet and phone polling, internet searches, and visual methods. Each section is free-standing, can be tackled in order, but with links to other sections to enable students to cross-reference and build up a wider understanding of central research methods. To facilitate comprehension and aid study, each section begins with a definition. It is followed by a summary of key points with key words and guides to further reading and up-to-date examples. The book is a major addition to undergraduate reading lists. It is reliable, allows for easy transference to essays and exams and easy to use, and exceptionally clearly written for student consumption. The book answers the needs of all those who find research methods daunting, and for those who have dreamt of an ideal introduction to the subject.

Validity and Validation

Author: Catherine S. Taylor

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199359245

Category: Psychology

Page: 224

View: 7925

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The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Validity and Validation is an introduction to validity theory and to the methods used to obtain evidence for the validity of research and assessment results. The book pulls together the best thinking from educational and psychological research and assessment over the past 50 years. It briefly describes validity theory's roots in the philosophy of science. It highlights the ways these philosophical perspectives influence concepts of internal and external validity in research methodology, as well as concepts of validity and reliability in educational and psychological tests and measurements. Each chapter provides multiple examples (e.g., research designs and examples of output) to help the readers see how validation work is done in practice, from the ways we design research studies to the ways we interpret research results. Of particular importance is the practical focus on validation of scores from tests and other measures. The book also addresses strategies for investigating the validity of inferences we make about examinees using scores from assessments, as well as how to investigate score uses, the value implications of score interpretations, and the social consequences of score use. With this foundation, the book presents strategies for minimizing threats for validity as well as quantitative and qualitative methods for gathering evidence for the validity of scores.

The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods

Author: Pertti Alasuutari,Leonard Bickman,Julia Brannen

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1473971268

Category: Social Science

Page: 648

View: 5912

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The SAGE Handbook of Social Research Methods is a must for every social-science researcher. It charts the new and evolving terrain of social research methodology, covering qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods in one volume. The Handbook includes chapters on each phase of the research process: research design, methods of data collection, and the processes of analyzing and interpreting data. The volume maintains that there is much more to research than learning skills and techniques; methodology involves the fit between theory, research questions research design and analysis. The book also includes several chapters that describe historical and current directions in social research, debating crucial subjects such as qualitative versus quantitative paradigms, how to judge the credibility of types of research, and the increasingly topical issue of research ethics. The Handbook serves as an invaluable resource for approaching research with an open mind. This volume maps the field of social research methods using an approach that will prove valuable for both students and researchers.

Summated Rating Scale Construction

An Introduction

Author: Paul E. Spector

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803943414

Category: Psychology

Page: 72

View: 3276

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The goal for any social scientist doing a survey is to develop a rating on some attitude, value or opinion - a summated rating scale. Aimed at helping researchers construct more effective scales, Spector shows how to determine the number of items necessary, the appropriate amount of response categories and the most productive wording of items, how to sort good items from bad (including item-remainder coefficients and Cronbach′s alpha) and how to validate a scale, including dimensional validity from factor analysis. Written in a user-friendly manner, the book concludes with a step-by-step account of how to develop a summated rating scale based on classical test theory.