Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic

An Introduction for Programmers

Author: Richard Bornat

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198530277

Category: Mathematics

Page: 243

View: 5173

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Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic is a lively and entertaining introduction to formal logic providing an excellent insight into how a simple logic works. This book concentrates on using logic as a tool: making and using formal proofs and disproofs of particular logical claims. The logic it uses - natural deduction - is very simple and shows how large mathematical universes can be built on small foundations. Aimed at undergraduates and graduates in computerscience, logic, mathematics, and philosophy, the text includes reference to...

Programming in Martin-Löf's type theory

an introduction

Author: Bengt Nordström,Kent Petersson,Jan M. Smith

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 221

View: 6968

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In recent years, several formalisms for program construction have appeared. One such formalism is the type theory developed by Per Martin-Lof. Well suited as a theory for program construction, it makes possible the expression of both specifications and programs within the same formalism. Furthermore, the proof rules can be used to derive a correct program from a specification as well as to verify that a given program has a certain property. This book contains a thorough introduction to type theory, with information on polymorphic sets, subsets, monomorphic sets, and a full set of helpful examples.

Formal Languages in Logic

A Philosophical and Cognitive Analysis

Author: Catarina Dutilh Novaes

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113978952X

Category: Philosophy

Page: N.A

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Formal languages are widely regarded as being above all mathematical objects and as producing a greater level of precision and technical complexity in logical investigations because of this. Yet defining formal languages exclusively in this way offers only a partial and limited explanation of the impact which their use (and the uses of formalisms more generally elsewhere) actually has. In this book, Catarina Dutilh Novaes adopts a much wider conception of formal languages so as to investigate more broadly what exactly is going on when theorists put these tools to use. She looks at the history and philosophy of formal languages and focuses on the cognitive impact of formal languages on human reasoning, drawing on their historical development, psychology, cognitive science and philosophy. Her wide-ranging study will be valuable for both students and researchers in philosophy, logic, psychology and cognitive and computer science.

A First Course in Logic

An Introduction to Model Theory, Proof Theory, Computability, and Complexity

Author: Shawn Hedman

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198529811

Category: Mathematics

Page: 431

View: 2519

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"The ability to reason and think in a logical manner forms the basis of learning for most mathematics, computer science, philosophy and logic students. Based on the author's teaching notes at the University of Maryland and aimed at a broad audience, thistext covers the fundamental topics in classical logic in a clear, thorough and accurate style that is accessible to all the above. Covering propositional logic, first-order logic, and second-order logic, as well as proof theory, computability theory, andmodel theory, the text also contains numerous carefully graded exercises and is ideal for a first or refresher course."--BOOK JACKET.

Logic Matters

Author: P. T. Geach,B. Geach

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520038479

Category: Philosophy

Page: 335

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"This is a significant and ofren rather demanding collection of essays. It is an anthology purring together the uncollected works of an important twentieth-century philosopher. Many of the articles treat one or another of the more important issues considered by analytic philosophers during the last quarter-century. Of significant importance to philosophers interested in researching the many topics contained in Logic Matters is the inclusion in this anthology of a rather extensive eight-page name-topic index."--Thomist "The papers are arranged by topic: Historical Essays, Traditional Logic, Theory of Reference and Syntax, Intentionality, Quotation and Semantics, Set Theory, Identity Theory, Assertion, Imperatives and Practical Reasoning, Logic in Metaphysics and Theology. The broad range of issues that have engaged Geach's complex and systematic reasoning is impressive. In addition to classical logic, topics in ethics, ontology, and even the logic of religious dogmas are tackled .... the work in this collection is more brilliant and ingenious than it is difficult and demanding."--Philosophy of Science "Geach displays his mastery of applying logical techniques and concepts to philosophical questions. Compared with most works in philosophical logic this book is remarkable for its range of topics. Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Russell, Wittgenstein, and Quine all figure prominently. Geach's style is remarkably lively considering the rightly argued matter. Although some of the articles treat rather technical questions in mathematical logic, most are accessible to philosophers with modest backgrounds in logic." --Choice

The Problems of Philosophy

Author: Bertrand Russell

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048612116X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 128

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Accessible, thought-provoking study by Nobel Prize-winner considers distinction between appearance and reality, existence and nature of matter, idealism, inductive logic, intuitive knowledge, many other stimulating subjects.

Concrete Semantics

With Isabelle/HOL

Author: Tobias Nipkow,Gerwin Klein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319105426

Category: Computers

Page: 298

View: 2388

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Part I of this book is a practical introduction to working with the Isabelle proof assistant. It teaches you how to write functional programs and inductive definitions and how to prove properties about them in Isabelle’s structured proof language. Part II is an introduction to the semantics of imperative languages with an emphasis on applications like compilers and program analysers. The distinguishing feature is that all the mathematics has been formalised in Isabelle and much of it is executable. Part I focusses on the details of proofs in Isabelle; Part II can be read even without familiarity with Isabelle’s proof language, all proofs are described in detail but informally. The book teaches the reader the art of precise logical reasoning and the practical use of a proof assistant as a surgical tool for formal proofs about computer science artefacts. In this sense it represents a formal approach to computer science, not just semantics. The Isabelle formalisation, including the proofs and accompanying slides, are freely available online, and the book is suitable for graduate students, advanced undergraduate students, and researchers in theoretical computer science and logic.

What is a Logical System?

Author: Dov M. Gabbay

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198538596

Category: History

Page: 454

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Collection of papers addressing this fundamental question - what is a logical system? The world famous contributors present a spectrum of views on the answer.

Computer-Aided Reasoning

An Approach

Author: Matt Kaufmann,Panagiotis Manolios,J Strother Moore

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9780792377443

Category: Computers

Page: 270

View: 8670

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Computer-Aided Reasoning: An Approach is a textbook introduction to computer-aided reasoning. It can be used in graduate and upper-division undergraduate courses on software engineering or formal methods. It is also suitable in conjunction with other books in courses on hardware design, discrete mathematics, or theory, especially courses stressing formalism, rigor, or mechanized support. It is also appropriate for courses on artificial intelligence or automated reasoning and as a reference for business and industry. Current hardware and software systems are often very complex and the trend is towards increased complexity. Many of these systems are of critical importance; therefore making sure that they behave as expected is also of critical importance. By modeling computing systems mathematically, we obtain models that we can prove behave correctly. The complexity of computing systems makes such proofs very long, complicated, and error-prone. To further increase confidence in our reasoning, we can use a computer program to check our proofs and even to automate some of their construction. In this book we present: A practical functional programming language closely related to Common Lisp which is used to define functions (which can model computing systems) and to make assertions about defined functions; A formal logic in which defined functions correspond to axioms; the logic is first-order, includes induction, and allows us to prove theorems about the functions; The computer-aided reasoning system ACL2, which includes the programming language, the logic, and mechanical support for the proof process. The ACL2 system has been successfully applied to projects of commercial interest, including microprocessor, modeling, hardware verification, microcode verification, and software verification. This book gives a methodology for modeling computing systems formally and for reasoning about those models with mechanized assistance. The practicality of computer-aided reasoning is further demonstrated in the companion book, Computer-Aided Reasoning: ACL2 Case Studies. Approximately 140 exercises are distributed throughout the book. Additional material is freely available from the ACL2 home page on the Web, including solutions to the exercises, additional exercises, case studies from the companion book, research papers, and the ACL2 system with detailed documentation.

Mathematical Logic

Author: Ian Chiswell,Wilfrid Hodges

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198571003

Category: Mathematics

Page: 250

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Assuming no previous study in logic, this informal yet rigorous text covers the material of a standard undergraduate first course in mathematical logic, using natural deduction and leading up to the completeness theorem for first-order logic. At each stage of the text, the reader is given an intuition based on standard mathematical practice, which is subsequently developed with clean formal mathematics. Alongside the practical examples, readers learn what can and can't becalculated; for example the correctness of a derivation proving a given sequent can be tested mechanically, but there is no general mechanical test for the existence of a derivation proving the given sequent. The undecidability results are proved rigorously in an optional final chapter, assumingMatiyasevich's theorem characterising the computably enumerable relations. Rigorous proofs of the adequacy and completeness proofs of the relevant logics are provided, with careful attention to the languages involved. Optional sections discuss the classification of mathematical structures by first-order theories; the required theory of cardinality is developed from scratch. Throughout the book there are notes on historical aspects of the material, and connections with linguistics andcomputer science, and the discussion of syntax and semantics is influenced by modern linguistic approaches. Two basic themes in recent cognitive science studies of actual human reasoning are also introduced. Including extensive exercises and selected solutions, this text is ideal for students in Logic,Mathematics, Philosophy, and Computer Science.

The Proof is in the Pudding

The Changing Nature of Mathematical Proof

Author: Steven G. Krantz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387487441

Category: Mathematics

Page: 264

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This text explores the many transformations that the mathematical proof has undergone from its inception to its versatile, present-day use, considering the advent of high-speed computing machines. Though there are many truths to be discovered in this book, by the end it is clear that there is no formalized approach or standard method of discovery to date. Most of the proofs are discussed in detail with figures and equations accompanying them, allowing both the professional mathematician and those less familiar with mathematics to derive the same joy from reading this book.

Logic for computer science

Author: Steve Reeves,Michael Clarke

Publisher: Addison Wesley Publishing Company

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 260

View: 1886

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An understanding of logic is essential to computer science. This book provides a highly accessible account of the logical basis required for reasoning about computer programs and applying logic in fields like artificial intelligence. The text contains extended examples, algorithms, and programs written in Standard ML and Prolog. No prior knowledge of either language is required. The book contains a clear account of classical first-order logic, one of the basic tools for program verification, as well as an introductory survey of modal and temporal logics and possible world semantics. An introduction to intuitionistic logic as a basis for an important style of program specification is also featured in the book.

The Argument of Mathematics

Author: Andrew Aberdein,Ian J Dove

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400765347

Category: Philosophy

Page: 393

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Written by experts in the field, this volume presents a comprehensive investigation into the relationship between argumentation theory and the philosophy of mathematical practice. Argumentation theory studies reasoning and argument, and especially those aspects not addressed, or not addressed well, by formal deduction. The philosophy of mathematical practice diverges from mainstream philosophy of mathematics in the emphasis it places on what the majority of working mathematicians actually do, rather than on mathematical foundations. The book begins by first challenging the assumption that there is no role for informal logic in mathematics. Next, it details the usefulness of argumentation theory in the understanding of mathematical practice, offering an impressively diverse set of examples, covering the history of mathematics, mathematics education and, perhaps surprisingly, formal proof verification. From there, the book demonstrates that mathematics also offers a valuable testbed for argumentation theory. Coverage concludes by defending attention to mathematical argumentation as the basis for new perspectives on the philosophy of mathematics. ​

A Course in Mathematical Logic

Author: Yu.I. Manin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475743858

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

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1. This book is above all addressed to mathematicians. It is intended to be a textbook of mathematical logic on a sophisticated level, presenting the reader with several of the most significant discoveries of the last ten or fifteen years. These include: the independence of the continuum hypothe sis, the Diophantine nature of enumerable sets, the impossibility of finding an algorithmic solution for one or two old problems. All the necessary preliminary material, including predicate logic and the fundamentals of recursive function theory, is presented systematically and with complete proofs. We only assume that the reader is familiar with "naive" set theoretic arguments. In this book mathematical logic is presented both as a part of mathe matics and as the result of its self-perception. Thus, the substance of the book consists of difficult proofs of subtle theorems, and the spirit of the book consists of attempts to explain what these theorems say about the mathematical way of thought. Foundational problems are for the most part passed over in silence. Most likely, logic is capable of justifying mathematics to no greater extent than biology is capable of justifying life. 2. The first two chapters are devoted to predicate logic. The presenta tion here is fairly standard, except that semantics occupies a very domi nant position, truth is introduced before deducibility, and models of speech in formal languages precede the systematic study of syntax.

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Author: Keith Stenning,Michiel van Lambalgen

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262293536

Category: Medical

Page: 422

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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.

Logic in Computer Science

Modelling and Reasoning about Systems

Author: Michael Huth,Mark Ryan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 113945305X

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

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Recent years have seen the development of powerful tools for verifying hardware and software systems, as companies worldwide realise the need for improved means of validating their products. There is increasing demand for training in basic methods in formal reasoning so that students can gain proficiency in logic-based verification methods. The second edition of this successful textbook addresses both those requirements, by continuing to provide a clear introduction to formal reasoning which is both relevant to the needs of modern computer science and rigorous enough for practical application. Improvements to the first edition have been made throughout, with extra and expanded sections on SAT solvers, existential/universal second-order logic, micro-models, programming by contract and total correctness. The coverage of model-checking has been substantially updated. Further exercises have been added. Internet support for the book includes worked solutions for all exercises for teachers, and model solutions to some exercises for students.