Science and Relativism

Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science

Author: Larry Laudan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226469492

Category: Philosophy

Page: 180

View: 6618

DOWNLOAD NOW »
In recent years, many members of the intellectual community have embraced a radical relativism regarding knowledge in general and scientific knowledge in particular, holding that Kuhn, Quine, and Feyerabend have knocked the traditional picture of scientific knowledge into a cocked hat. Is philosophy of science, or mistaken impressions of it, responsible for the rise of relativism? In this book, Laudan offers a trenchant, wide-ranging critique of cognitive relativism and a thorough introduction to major issues in the philosophy of knowledge.

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 4527

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.

Schizophrenia and Its Treatment

Where Is the Progress?

Author: Matthew M. Kurtz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199974446

Category: Schizophrenia

Page: 240

View: 8617

DOWNLOAD NOW »
This volume aims to explain why, despite profound advances in psychological science and neuroscientific analyses of schizophrenia, outcomes for the disorder have changed little over the past 100 years. More specifically, the book provides a critical analysis of the limiting role on treatment development of diagnostic classifications and views of the disorder as caused by a core pathology, and instead promotes the idea of individually tailored, multimodal treatment for distinct disorder features (e.g., positive symptoms, cognitive deficits). Each of these features of schizophrenia may or may not be present in different individuals with the same diagnosis. These features may also bear little functional relationship to one another. This aim is achieved through a critical integration of contemporary psychological scientific and neuroscientific analyses of schizophrenia, as well as research on psychological and somatic treatments. Historical perspectives on diagnosis and treatment are considered as well.

Philosophy of Pseudoscience

Reconsidering the Demarcation Problem

Author: Massimo Pigliucci,Maarten Boudry

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022605182X

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 5229

DOWNLOAD NOW »
What sets the practice of rigorously tested, sound science apart from pseudoscience? In this volume, the contributors seek to answer this question, known to philosophers of science as “the demarcation problem.” This issue has a long history in philosophy, stretching as far back as the early twentieth century and the work of Karl Popper. But by the late 1980s, scholars in the field began to treat the demarcation problem as impossible to solve and futile to ponder. However, the essays that Massimo Pigliucci and Maarten Boudry have assembled in this volume make a rousing case for the unequivocal importance of reflecting on the separation between pseudoscience and sound science. Moreover, the demarcation problem is not a purely theoretical dilemma of mere academic interest: it affects parents’ decisions to vaccinate children and governments’ willingness to adopt policies that prevent climate change. Pseudoscience often mimics science, using the superficial language and trappings of actual scientific research to seem more respectable. Even a well-informed public can be taken in by such questionable theories dressed up as science. Pseudoscientific beliefs compete with sound science on the health pages of newspapers for media coverage and in laboratories for research funding. Now more than ever the ability to separate genuine scientific findings from spurious ones is vital, and The Philosophy of Pseudoscience provides ground for philosophers, sociologists, historians, and laypeople to make decisions about what science is or isn’t.

World Politics

Progress and its Limits

Author: James Mayall

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745625904

Category: Political Science

Page: 184

View: 9196

DOWNLOAD NOW »
At the end of the Cold War, there was much talk of a new world order in which the sovereign state would be held to democratic account, fundamental rights would be respected, and conflict would be replaced by cooperation based on the rule of law. At the start of the new millenium most of this optimism has evaporated. This book examines why it is so difficult to improve standards of international behaviour and explores the pre-conditions for any realistic attempt to do so. It discusses three major issues that have dominated international debate over the past decade: the tension between sovereignty and national self-determination; the problems associated with the attempt to spread democracy around the world; and the desirability of external intervention in ethnic and religious conflicts. Rejecting both the unfounded optimism of the early 1990s and the cynical pessimism of more recent years, Professor Mayall points to the strong elements of continuity in international life. He concludes that international society is unlikely to be successfully reformed if governments continue to will progressive ends whilst evading responsibility for their actions.

Innovation and Its Discontents

How Our Broken Patent System is Endangering Innovation and Progress, and What to Do About It

Author: Adam B. Jaffe,Josh Lerner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400837342

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 4040

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The United States patent system has become sand rather than lubricant in the wheels of American progress. Such is the premise behind this provocative and timely book by two of the nation's leading experts on patents and economic innovation. Innovation and Its Discontents tells the story of how recent changes in patenting--an institutional process that was created to nurture innovation--have wreaked havoc on innovators, businesses, and economic productivity. Jaffe and Lerner, who have spent the past two decades studying the patent system, show how legal changes initiated in the 1980s converted the system from a stimulator of innovation to a creator of litigation and uncertainty that threatens the innovation process itself. In one telling vignette, Jaffe and Lerner cite a patent litigation campaign brought by a a semi-conductor chip designer that claims control of an entire category of computer memory chips. The firm's claims are based on a modest 15-year old invention, whose scope and influenced were broadened by secretly manipulating an industry-wide cooperative standard-setting body. Such cases are largely the result of two changes in the patent climate, Jaffe and Lerner contend. First, new laws have made it easier for businesses and inventors to secure patents on products of all kinds, and second, the laws have tilted the table to favor patent holders, no matter how tenuous their claims. After analyzing the economic incentives created by the current policies, Jaffe and Lerner suggest a three-pronged solution for restoring the patent system: create incentives to motivate parties who have information about the novelty of a patent; provide multiple levels of patent review; and replace juries with judges and special masters to preside over certain aspects of infringement cases. Well-argued and engagingly written, Innovation and Its Discontents offers a fresh approach for enhancing both the nation's creativity and its economic growth.

Game Theory and Water Resources

Critical Review of Its Contributions, Progress and Remaining Challenges

Author: Margaret Hogarth,Ariel Dinar

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781680830163

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 160

View: 5699

DOWNLOAD NOW »
The use of game theory (GT) in water resources by different disciplinary professions including, but not limited to, engineers, international relations experts, economists, and geographers, is vast and impressive. The objective of Game Theory and Water Resources is to collect this vast literature, catalogue it, and provide present and future practitioners of game theory in water resources with a source of information that can be useful for their research. The authors assume that readers of this monograph have the basic skills in game theory, and have kept explanations of game theory concepts to a minimum. Game Theory and Water Resources introduces the topics and moves onto reporting the historical trends observed in the accumulation of GT publications on water between 1942 and 2013. Section 3 describes the developments in Cooperative GT-methodologies to water issues, whose applications ruled the GT applications during the period 1950-1990. Section 4 reviews the development of Non-Cooperative GT (NCGT) methodologies to various water issues. Section 5 provides a comprehensive review of GT surveys that have been published in the literature. Section 6 reviews Game Theory applications by sub-sector -- the authors identify 11 sub-sectors and review the applications of GT approaches to each of them. The monograph ends with a conclusion and identification of remaining problems to be addressed in the future.

Conjectures and Refutations

The Growth of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karl Popper

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135971374

Category: Philosophy

Page: 608

View: 462

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Conjectures and Refutations is one of Karl Popper's most wide-ranging and popular works, notable not only for its acute insight into the way scientific knowledge grows, but also for applying those insights to politics and to history. It provides one of the clearest and most accessible statements of the fundamental idea that guided his work: not only our knowledge, but our aims and our standards, grow through an unending process of trial and error.

Enlightenment Now

The Case for Reason, Science, Humanism, and Progress

Author: Steven Pinker

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0525427570

Category: Psychology

Page: 556

View: 6187

DOWNLOAD NOW »
An assessment of the human condition in the twenty-first century presents data demonstrating that life quality, health, prosperity, safety, peace, knowledge, and happiness are on the rise throughout the world because of the Enlightenment ideal of using reason and science.

Progress and Its Discontents

Author: Gabriel A. Almond

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520054479

Category: Social Science

Page: 565

View: 7920

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Events of the past two decades have challenged many of the fundamental beliefs, institutions, and values of modern western culture--the culture of "progress." Are science and technology really progressive and beneficial? Have they led to the enhancement of welfare, greater hapiness, and moral immprovement? I s the continued growth of material productivity possible? Desirable? Are the institutions of progress viable? Progress and Its Discontents assembles the views on progress of some of America's leading humanists, scientists, and social scientists. Citing disappointed expectations of progress in spheres from science to morals and politics, and the many problems created or left untouched by progress, the editors conclude that the term no longer refers to "an inevitable sequence of improvements" but rather to "an aspiration and compelling obligation."

Progress and Challenges in Precision Medicine

Author: Mukesh Verma,Debmalya Barh

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128095024

Category: Medical

Page: 344

View: 959

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Progress and Challenges in Precision Medicine presents an insightful overview to the myriad factors of personalized and precision medicine. The availability of the human genome, large amounts of data on individual genetic variations, environmental interactions, influence of lifestyle, and cutting-edge tools and technologies for big-data analysis have led to the age of personalized and precision medicine. Bringing together a global range of experts on precision medicine, this book collects previously scattered information into one concise volume which covers the most important developments so far in precision medicine and also suggests the most likely avenues for future development. The book includes clinical information, informatics, public policy implications, and information on case studies. It is a useful reference and background work for students, researchers, and clinicians working in the biomedical and medical fields, as well as policymakers in the health sciences. Provides an overview of the growing field of precision medicine Contains chapters from geographically diverse experts in their field Explores important aspects of precision medicine, including applications, ethics, and development

The Progress Principle

Using Small Wins to Ignite Joy, Engagement, and Creativity at Work

Author: Teresa Amabile,Steven Kramer

Publisher: Harvard Business Press

ISBN: 1422142736

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 4737

DOWNLOAD NOW »
What really sets the best managers above the rest? It’s their power to build a cadre of employees who have great inner work lives—consistently positive emotions; strong motivation; and favorable perceptions of the organization, their work, and their colleagues. The worst managers undermine inner work life, often unwittingly. As Teresa Amabile and Steven Kramer explain in The Progress Principle, seemingly mundane workday events can make or break employees’ inner work lives. But it’s forward momentum in meaningful work—progress—that creates the best inner work lives. Through rigorous analysis of nearly 12,000 diary entries provided by 238 employees in 7 companies, the authors explain how managers can foster progress and enhance inner work life every day. The book shows how to remove obstacles to progress, including meaningless tasks and toxic relationships. It also explains how to activate two forces that enable progress: (1) catalysts—events that directly facilitate project work, such as clear goals and autonomy—and (2) nourishers—interpersonal events that uplift workers, including encouragement and demonstrations of respect and collegiality. Brimming with honest examples from the companies studied, The Progress Principle equips aspiring and seasoned leaders alike with the insights they need to maximize their people’s performance.

Developing Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease

Progress and Challenges

Author: Michael S. Wolfe

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128021640

Category: Medical

Page: 676

View: 4814

DOWNLOAD NOW »
Developing Therapeutics for Alzheimer's Disease: Progress and Challenges provides a thorough overview of the latest advances toward the development of therapeutics for Alzheimer’s disease, along with the major hurdles that still must be overcome and potential solutions to these problems. Despite the lack of progress toward developing therapeutics that can slow or stop the progression of this disease, important discoveries have been made and many promising approaches are advancing in preclinical studies and clinical trials. This book outlines the special challenges related to specific targets and approaches, while presenting a realistic, comprehensive and balanced view of drug discovery and development in this area. Written by international leaders in the field, the book assesses prospects for the emergence of effective agents and allows readers to better understand the challenges, failures, and future potential for research in Alzheimer’s disease. This book is a valuable resource to academic scientists carrying out translational research in Alzheimer’s disease, industrial scientists engaged in Alzheimer's drug discovery, executives in biopharmaceutical companies making strategic decisions regarding the direction of internal research and potential outside partnerships, and graduate-level students pursuing courses on Alzheimer's therapeutics. Provides a realistic but promising assessment of the potential of various therapeutic approaches to Alzheimer’s disease Focuses primarily on neuroprotective agents and cognitive enhancers, as well as approaches to targeting the amyloid B-peptide, tau and Apolipoprotein E Discusses alternative approaches, preclinical and clinical development issues, related biomarkers and diagnostics, and prevention and nonpharmacological approaches

Prime Numbers and Computer Methods for Factorization

Author: Hans Riesel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817682989

Category: Mathematics

Page: 464

View: 6771

DOWNLOAD NOW »
From the original hard cover edition: In the modern age of almost universal computer usage, practically every individual in a technologically developed society has routine access to the most up-to-date cryptographic technology that exists, the so-called RSA public-key cryptosystem. A major component of this system is the factorization of large numbers into their primes. Thus an ancient number-theory concept now plays a crucial role in communication among millions of people who may have little or no knowledge of even elementary mathematics. Hans Riesel’s highly successful first edition of this book has now been enlarged and updated with the goal of satisfying the needs of researchers, students, practitioners of cryptography, and non-scientific readers with a mathematical inclination. It includes important advances in computational prime number theory and in factorization as well as re-computed and enlarged tables, accompanied by new tables reflecting current research by both the author and his coworkers and by independent researchers. The book treats four fundamental problems: the number of primes below a given limit, the approximate number of primes, the recognition of primes and the factorization of large numbers. The author provides explicit algorithms and computer programs, and has attempted to discuss as many of the classically important results as possible, as well as the most recent discoveries. The programs include are written in PASCAL to allow readers to translate the programs into the language of their own computers. The independent structure of each chapter of the book makes it highly readable for a wide variety of mathematicians, students of applied number theory, and others interested in both study and research in number theory and cryptography. ​

Radial Basis Function Neural Networks with Sequential Learning

MRAN and Its Applications

Author: N. Sundararajan,P. Saratchandran,Ying Wei Lu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810237714

Category: Science

Page: 214

View: 9268

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A review of radial basis founction (RBF) neural networks. A novel sequential learning algorithm for minimal resource allocation neural networks (MRAN). MRAN for function approximation & pattern classification problems; MRAN for nonlinear dynamic systems; MRAN for communication channel equalization; Concluding remarks; A outline source code for MRAN in MATLAB; Bibliography; Index.

The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress

Author: Alexander M. Bickel

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300022391

Category: History

Page: 210

View: 3732

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A history of the Warren Court and its impact on the political and legal system. Best known for its treatment of the Brown v. Board of Education decision, which Bickel believed was headed for obsolescence and abandonment. Based on the Oliver Wendell Holmes Lectures at Harvard Law School in 1969.

The Beginning of Infinity

Explanations that Transform The World

Author: David Deutsch

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141969695

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 8579

DOWNLOAD NOW »
A bold and all-embracing exploration of the nature and progress of knowledge from one of today's great thinkers. Throughout history, mankind has struggled to understand life's mysteries, from the mundane to the seemingly miraculous. In this important new book, David Deutsch, an award-winning pioneer in the field of quantum computation, argues that explanations have a fundamental place in the universe. They have unlimited scope and power to cause change, and the quest to improve them is the basic regulating principle not only of science but of all successful human endeavor. This stream of ever improving explanations has infinite reach, according to Deutsch: we are subject only to the laws of physics, and they impose no upper boundary to what we can eventually understand, control, and achieve. In his previous book, The Fabric of Reality, Deutsch describe the four deepest strands of existing knowledge-the theories of evolution, quantum physics, knowledge, and computation-arguing jointly they reveal a unified fabric of reality. In this new book, he applies that worldview to a wide range of issues and unsolved problems, from creativity and free will to the origin and future of the human species. Filled with startling new conclusions about human choice, optimism, scientific explanation, and the evolution of culture, The Beginning of Infinity is a groundbreaking book that will become a classic of its kind.