Principles of Physical Cosmology

Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691019338

Category: Science

Page: 718

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During the last twenty years, dramatic improvements in methods of observing astrophysical phenomena from the ground and in space have added to our knowledge of what the universe is like now and what it was like in the past, going back to the hot big bang. In this overview of today's physical cosmology, P.J.E. Peebles shows how observation has combined with theoretical elements to establish the subject as a mature science, while he also discusses the most notable recent attempts to understand the origin and structure of the universe. A successor to Peebles's classic volume Physical Cosmology (Princeton, 1971), the book is a comprehensive overview addressed not only to students but also to scientists active in fields outside cosmology. The first chapter of the work presents the elements of physical cosmology, including the history of the discovery of the expanding universe. The second, on the cosmological tests that measure the geometry of spacetime, discusses general relativity theory as the basis for the tests, and then surveys the broad variety of ways the tests can be applied with the new generations of telescopes and detectors. The third chapter deals with the origin of galaxies and the large-scale structure of the universe, and reviews ideas about how the evolution of the universe might be traced back to very early epochs when structure originated. Each section of these chapters begins with an introduction that can be understood with no special knowledge beyond undergraduate physics, and then progresses to more specialized topics. P.J.E. Peebles is Albert Einstein Professor of Science at Princeton University. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the Royal Society.

Physical Cosmology

Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400868777

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 6912

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Man's view of the universe is widening today, as it did once before in the early days of big telescopes and photographic plates. Modern man, by means of radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray astronomy, can penetrate the universe to depths never before explored. P.J.E. Peebles has written a pioneering work in this newly defined area of investigation. Intended to bridge the chasm between classical textbooks on cosmology and modern developments, Physical Cosmology serves as a guide to current points of debate in a rapidly changing field. Originally published in 1972. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

Cosmological Physics

Author: J. A. Peacock

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521422703

Category: Science

Page: 682

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An eagerly-awaited, comprehensive and authoritative introduction to contemporary cosmology; for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

How Did the First Stars and Galaxies Form?

Author: Abraham Loeb

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400834068

Category: Science

Page: 216

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Though astrophysicists have developed a theoretical framework for understanding how the first stars and galaxies formed, only now are we able to begin testing those theories with actual observations of the very distant, early universe. We are entering a new and exciting era of discovery that will advance the frontiers of knowledge, and this book couldn't be more timely. It covers all the basic concepts in cosmology, drawing on insights from an astronomer who has pioneered much of this research over the past two decades. Abraham Loeb starts from first principles, tracing the theoretical foundations of cosmology and carefully explaining the physics behind them. Topics include the gravitational growth of perturbations in an expanding universe, the abundance and properties of dark matter halos and galaxies, reionization, the observational methods used to detect the earliest galaxies and probe the diffuse gas between them--and much more. Cosmology seeks to solve the fundamental mystery of our cosmic origins. This book offers a succinct and accessible primer at a time when breathtaking technological advances promise a wealth of new observational data on the first stars and galaxies. Provides a concise introduction to cosmology Covers all the basic concepts Gives an overview of the gravitational growth of perturbations in an expanding universe Explains the process of reionization Describes the observational methods used to detect the earliest galaxies

Relativity, Gravitation and Cosmology

A Basic Introduction

Author: Ta-Pei Cheng

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199573638

Category: Science

Page: 435

View: 1554

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This book provides an introduction to Einstein's general theory of relativity. A "physics-first" approach is adopted so that interesting applications come before the more difficult task of solving the Einstein equation. The book includes extensive coverage of cosmology, and is designed to allow readers to study the subject alone.

The First Galaxies in the Universe

Author: Abraham Loeb,Steven R. Furlanetto

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691144923

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 7383

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This book provides a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to one of the most exciting frontiers in astrophysics today: the quest to understand how the oldest and most distant galaxies in our universe first formed. Until now, most research on this question has been theoretical, but the next few years will bring about a new generation of large telescopes that promise to supply a flood of data about the infant universe during its first billion years after the big bang. This book bridges the gap between theory and observation. It is an invaluable reference for students and researchers on early galaxies. The First Galaxies in the Universe starts from basic physical principles before moving on to more advanced material. Topics include the gravitational growth of structure, the intergalactic medium, the formation and evolution of the first stars and black holes, feedback and galaxy evolution, reionization, 21-cm cosmology, and more. Provides a comprehensive introduction to this exciting frontier in astrophysics Begins from first principles Covers advanced topics such as the first stars and 21-cm cosmology Prepares students for research using the next generation of large telescopes Discusses many open questions to be explored in the coming decade

Fashion, Faith, and Fantasy in the New Physics of the Universe

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400880289

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 1875

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What can fashionable ideas, blind faith, or pure fantasy possibly have to do with the scientific quest to understand the universe? Surely, theoretical physicists are immune to mere trends, dogmatic beliefs, or flights of fancy? In fact, acclaimed physicist and bestselling author Roger Penrose argues that researchers working at the extreme frontiers of physics are just as susceptible to these forces as anyone else. In this provocative book, he argues that fashion, faith, and fantasy, while sometimes productive and even essential in physics, may be leading today's researchers astray in three of the field's most important areas—string theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology. Arguing that string theory has veered away from physical reality by positing six extra hidden dimensions, Penrose cautions that the fashionable nature of a theory can cloud our judgment of its plausibility. In the case of quantum mechanics, its stunning success in explaining the atomic universe has led to an uncritical faith that it must also apply to reasonably massive objects, and Penrose responds by suggesting possible changes in quantum theory. Turning to cosmology, he argues that most of the current fantastical ideas about the origins of the universe cannot be true, but that an even wilder reality may lie behind them. Finally, Penrose describes how fashion, faith, and fantasy have ironically also shaped his own work, from twistor theory, a possible alternative to string theory that is beginning to acquire a fashionable status, to "conformal cyclic cosmology," an idea so fantastic that it could be called "conformal crazy cosmology." The result is an important critique of some of the most significant developments in physics today from one of its most eminent figures.

The New Cosmology

Author: Matthew Colless

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814481629

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 2332

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This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to modern cosmology from an astrophysical viewpoint. Key features of the book are: breadth of topics covered, from quantum cosmology to recent observational advances; up-to-the-minute inclusion of many recent results, e.g. from the WMAP satellite; the level of the work, suited to both students and professionals in the field. Contents: The Expanding and Accelerating Universe (B P Schmidt)Inflation and the Cosmic Microwave Background (C H Lineweaver)The Large-Scale Structure of the Universe (M Colless)The Formation and Evolution of Galaxies (G Kauffmann)The Physics of Galaxy Formation (M A Dopita)Dark Matter in Galaxies (K C Freeman)Neutral Hydrogen in the Universe (F H Briggs)Gravitational Lensing: Cosmological Measures (R L Webster & C M Trott)Particle Physics and Cosmology (J Ellis) Readership: Researchers, graduate students and academics. Keywords:Cosmology;Astrophysics;Astronomy

The Large-scale Structure of the Universe

Author: Phillip James Edwin Peebles

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691082400

Category: Science

Page: 422

View: 831

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Opinions on the large-scale structure of the early universe range widely from primeval chaos to a well-ordered mass distribution. P.J.E. Peebles argues that the evolution proceeded from a nearly uniform initial state to a progressively more irregular and clumpy universe. The discussion centers on the largest known structures, the clusters of galaxies, the empirical evidence of the nature of the clustering, and the theories of how the clustering evolves in an expanding universe. In Chapter One the author provides an historical introduction to the subject. Chapter Two contains a survey of methods used to deal with the Newtonian approximation to the theory of the evolution of the mass distribution. Recent progress in the use of statistical measures of the clustering is described in Chapter Three. Chapters Four and Five return to techniques for dealing with cosmic evolution, in the statistical measures of clustering and under general relativity theory. Lastly, in Chapter Six Professor Peebles assesses the progress in attempts to link theory and observation to arrive at a well established physical picture of the nature and evolution of the universe.

Neutrino Physics

Author: Kai Zuber

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420033875

Category: Science

Page: 454

View: 1234

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Neutrino physics remains one of the most exciting fields of fundamental physics today. The neutrino's position at the intersection of particle physics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics ensures continuing interest in the subject. Major activities at accelerators like Fermilab, KEK and CERN, in addition to underground facilities like Gran Sasso, Kamioka and Sudbury, continue to enhance our understanding of the origins and properties of neutrinos, and their implications for the Standard Model and cosmology. Neutrino Physics provides an up to date and comprehensive introduction to the subject as well as an invaluable resource for researchers in physics and astrophysics. Starting with a brief historical overview the author proceeds to review fundamental neutrino properties, the neutrino mass question, and their place within and beyond the Standard Model. The final chapters examine the role of neutrinos in modern astroparticle physics, cosmology and the dark matter problem. The book concludes with a summary of the current status of neutrino physics and the implications of recent results. Written to be accessible to readers from different backgrounds in nuclear, particle or astrophysics and with a detailed reference list, this title will be essential for any researcher or advanced student who needs to understand modern neutrino physics.

Cosmology and Gravitation

Xth Brazilian School of Cosmology and Gravitation; 25th Anniversary (1977-2002), Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,

Author: Mario Novello,Santiago E. Bergliaffa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780735401310

Category: Science

Page: 305

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This volume contains a series of topical lectures in general relativity, cosmology, astrophysics, and field theory, with contributions from theorists and experimentalists.

Conversations on Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Cosmos

Author: Eugene N. Parker

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400847435

Category: Science

Page: 200

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Today's standard textbooks treat the theoretical structure of electric and magnetic fields, but their emphasis is on electromagnetic radiation and static-electric and magnetic fields. In this book, Eugene Parker provides advanced graduate students and researchers with a much-needed complement to existing texts, one that discusses the dynamic electromagnetism of the cosmos--that is, the vast magnetic fields that are carried bodily in the swirling ionized gases of stars and galaxies and throughout intergalactic space. Parker is arguably the world's leading authority on solar wind and the effects of magnetic fields in the heliosphere, and his originality of thought and distinctive approach to physics are very much in evidence here. Seeking to enrich discussions in standard texts and correct misconceptions about the dynamics of these large-scale fields, Parker engages readers in a series of "conversations" that are at times anecdotal and even entertaining without ever sacrificing theoretical rigor. The dynamics he describes represents the Maxwell stresses of the magnetic field working against the pressure and inertia of the bulk motion of ionized gases, characterized in terms of the magnetic field and gas velocity. Parker shows how this dynamic interaction cannot be fully expressed in terms of the electric current and electric field. Conversations on Electric and Magnetic Fields in the Cosmos goes back to basics to explain why classical hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics are inescapable, even in the deepest reaches of space.

Concepts of Mass in Contemporary Physics and Philosophy

Author: Max Jammer

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400823789

Category: Science

Page: 176

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The concept of mass is one of the most fundamental notions in physics, comparable in importance only to those of space and time. But in contrast to the latter, which are the subject of innumerable physical and philosophical studies, the concept of mass has been but rarely investigated. Here Max Jammer, a leading philosopher and historian of physics, provides a concise but comprehensive, coherent, and self-contained study of the concept of mass as it is defined, interpreted, and applied in contemporary physics and as it is critically examined in the modern philosophy of science. With its focus on theories proposed after the mid-1950s, the book is the first of its kind, covering the most recent experimental and theoretical investigations into the nature of mass and its role in modern physics, from the realm of elementary particles to the cosmology of galaxies. The book begins with an analysis of the persistent difficulties of defining inertial mass in a noncircular manner and discusses the related question of whether mass is an observational or a theoretical concept. It then studies the notion of mass in special relativity and the delicate problem of whether the relativistic rest mass is the only legitimate notion of mass and whether it is identical with the classical (Newtonian) mass. This is followed by a critical analysis of the different derivations of the famous mass-energy relationship E = mc2 and its conflicting interpretations. Jammer then devotes a chapter to the distinction between inertial and gravitational mass and to the various versions of the so-called equivalence principle with which Newton initiated his Principia but which also became the starting point of Einstein's general relativity, which supersedes Newtonian physics. The book concludes with a presentation of recently proposed global and local dynamical theories of the origin and nature of mass. Destined to become a much-consulted reference for philosophers and physicists, this book is also written for the nonprofessional general reader interested in the foundations of physics.

The Dawning of Gauge Theory

Author: Lochlainn O'Raifeartaigh

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691029771

Category: Science

Page: 249

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During the course of this century, gauge invariance has slowly emerged from being an incidental symmetry of electromagnetism to being a fundamental geometrical principle underlying the four known fundamental physical interactions. The development has been in two stages. In the first stage (1916-1956) the geometrical significance of gauge-invariance gradually came to be appreciated and the original abelian gauge-invariance of electromagnetism was generalized to non-abelian gauge invariance. In the second stage (1960-1975) it was found that, contrary to first appearances, the non-abelian gauge-theories provided exactly the framework that was needed to describe the nuclear interactions (both weak and strong) and thus provided a universal framework for describing all known fundamental interactions. In this work, Lochlainn O'Raifeartaigh describes the former phase. O'Raifeartaigh first illustrates how gravitational theory and quantum mechanics played crucial roles in the reassessment of gauge theory as a geometric principle and as a framework for describing both electromagnetism and gravitation. He then describes how the abelian electromagnetic gauge-theory was generalized to its present non-abelian form. The development is illustrated by including a selection of relevant articles, many of them appearing here for the first time in English, notably by Weyl, Schrodinger, Klein, and London in the pre-war years, and by Pauli, Shaw, Yang-Mills, and Utiyama after the war. The articles illustrate that the reassessment of gauge-theory, due in a large measure to Weyl, constituted a major philosophical as well as technical advance.

Cosmology

Author: Steven Weinberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198526822

Category: Nature

Page: 593

View: 7668

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This is a uniquely comprehensive and detailed treatment of the theoretical and observational foundations of modern cosmology, by a Nobel Laureate in Physics. It gives up-to-date and self contained accounts of the theories and observations that have made the past few decades a golden age of cosmology.

The Quantum World

Author: J. C. Polkinghorne

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691023885

Category: Science

Page: 100

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In paperback for the first time, this compact volume presents quantum mechanics for the general reader. It offers a lucid description of the intellectual challenges and disagreements in the study of the behavior of atomic and sub-atomic particles--a field that has completely changed our view of the physical world, but that is still the subject of unresolved debate about its own fundamental interpretation. The work is accessible to those with no background in higher mathematics, but will also interest readers who have a more specialized knowledge of scientific topics. The author has spent most of his working life as a theoretical elementary particle physicist and from 1968 to 1979 was Professor of Mathematical Physics at the University of Cambridge. In 1979 he resigned to train for the ministry of the Church of England, and he is now an ordained priest. Here he describes a theory that has been spectacularly successful in predicting the behavior of objects the size of atoms and smaller but that has aroused conflicting views about the nature of reality and the degree of independence between the world around us and ourselves as observers.

Essential Radio Astronomy

Author: James J. Condon,Scott M. Ransom

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400881161

Category: Science

Page: 376

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Essential Radio Astronomy is the only textbook on the subject specifically designed for a one-semester introductory course for advanced undergraduates or graduate students in astronomy and astrophysics. It starts from first principles in order to fill gaps in students' backgrounds, make teaching easier for professors who are not expert radio astronomers, and provide a useful reference to the essential equations used by practitioners. This unique textbook reflects the fact that students of multiwavelength astronomy typically can afford to spend only one semester studying the observational techniques particular to each wavelength band. Essential Radio Astronomy presents only the most crucial concepts—succinctly and accessibly. It covers the general principles behind radio telescopes, receivers, and digital backends without getting bogged down in engineering details. Emphasizing the physical processes in radio sources, the book's approach is shaped by the view that radio astrophysics owes more to thermodynamics than electromagnetism. Proven in the classroom and generously illustrated throughout, Essential Radio Astronomy is an invaluable resource for students and researchers alike. The only textbook specifically designed for a one-semester course in radio astronomy Starts from first principles Makes teaching easier for astronomy professors who are not expert radio astronomers Emphasizes the physical processes in radio sources Covers the principles behind radio telescopes and receivers Provides the essential equations and fundamental constants used by practitioners Supplementary website includes lecture notes, problem sets, exams, and links to interactive demonstrations An online illustration package is available to professors

Modern Classical Physics

Optics, Fluids, Plasmas, Elasticity, Relativity, and Statistical Physics

Author: Kip S. Thorne,Roger D. Blandford

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140084889X

Category: Science

Page: 1552

View: 3805

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This first-year, graduate-level text and reference book covers the fundamental concepts and twenty-first-century applications of six major areas of classical physics that every masters- or PhD-level physicist should be exposed to, but often isn't: statistical physics, optics (waves of all sorts), elastodynamics, fluid mechanics, plasma physics, and special and general relativity and cosmology. Growing out of a full-year course that the eminent researchers Kip Thorne and Roger Blandford taught at Caltech for almost three decades, this book is designed to broaden the training of physicists. Its six main topical sections are also designed so they can be used in separate courses, and the book provides an invaluable reference for researchers. Presents all the major fields of classical physics except three prerequisites: classical mechanics, electromagnetism, and elementary thermodynamics Elucidates the interconnections between diverse fields and explains their shared concepts and tools Focuses on fundamental concepts and modern, real-world applications Takes applications from fundamental, experimental, and applied physics; astrophysics and cosmology; geophysics, oceanography, and meteorology; biophysics and chemical physics; engineering and optical science and technology; and information science and technology Emphasizes the quantum roots of classical physics and how to use quantum techniques to elucidate classical concepts or simplify classical calculations Features hundreds of color figures, some five hundred exercises, extensive cross-references, and a detailed index An online illustration package is available to professors

Biophysics

Searching for Principles

Author: William Bialek

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845572

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 3516

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Interactions between the fields of physics and biology reach back over a century, and some of the most significant developments in biology--from the discovery of DNA's structure to imaging of the human brain--have involved collaboration across this disciplinary boundary. For a new generation of physicists, the phenomena of life pose exciting challenges to physics itself, and biophysics has emerged as an important subfield of this discipline. Here, William Bialek provides the first graduate-level introduction to biophysics aimed at physics students. Bialek begins by exploring how photon counting in vision offers important lessons about the opportunities for quantitative, physics-style experiments on diverse biological phenomena. He draws from these lessons three general physical principles--the importance of noise, the need to understand the extraordinary performance of living systems without appealing to finely tuned parameters, and the critical role of the representation and flow of information in the business of life. Bialek then applies these principles to a broad range of phenomena, including the control of gene expression, perception and memory, protein folding, the mechanics of the inner ear, the dynamics of biochemical reactions, and pattern formation in developing embryos. Featuring numerous problems and exercises throughout, Biophysics emphasizes the unifying power of abstract physical principles to motivate new and novel experiments on biological systems. Covers a range of biological phenomena from the physicist's perspective Features 200 problems Draws on statistical mechanics, quantum mechanics, and related mathematical concepts Includes an annotated bibliography and detailed appendixes Instructor's manual (available only to teachers)