Plain Pottery Traditions of the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East

Production, Use, and Social Significance

Author: Claudia Glatz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315422557

Category: Social Science

Page: 257

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The evolution and proliferation of plain and predominantly wheel-made pottery presents a characteristic feature of the societies of the Near East and Eastern Mediterranean since the fourth millennium B.C. This plain pottery has received little detailed archaeological attention in comparison to aesthetically more pleasing and chronologically sensitive decorated traditions. Yet, their simplicity and standardization suggest they are products of craft specialists, the result of high-volume production, and therefore important in understanding the social systems in early complex societies. This volume-reevaluates the role and significance of plain pottery traditions from both historically specific perspectives and from a comparative point of view;-examines the uses and functions of this pottery in relation to social negotiation and group identity formation;-helps scholars understand cross-regional similarities in development and use.

Overturning Certainties in Near Eastern Archaeology

A Festschrift in Honor of K. Aslihan Yener

Author: Çiğdem Maner,Mara T. Horowitz,Allan S. Gilbert

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004353577

Category: Archaeology

Page: N.A

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This volume, Overturning Certainties in Near Eastern Archaeology, is a festschrift dedicated to Professor K. Aslıhan Yener in honor of over four decades of exemplary research, teaching, fieldwork, and publication. The thirty-five chapters presented by her colleagues includes a broad, interdisciplinary range of studies in archaeology, archaeometry, art history, and epigraphy of the Ancient Near East, especially reflecting Prof Yener's interests in metallurgy, small finds, trade, Anatolia, and the site of Tell Atchana/Alalakh.

The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes

A Comparative Study of Empires in the Ancient Near East and Mediterranean World

Author: Bleda S. Düring,Tesse D. Stek

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107189705

Category: History

Page: 410

View: 4881

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This book examines the poorly understood transformations in rural landscapes and societies that formed the backbone of ancient empires.

Times of Neolithic Transition along the Western Mediterranean

Author: Oreto García Puchol,Domingo Carlos Salazar García

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319529390

Category: Social Science

Page: 421

View: 4450

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The study of the Neolithic transition constitutes a major theme in prehistoric research. The process of economic change, from foraging to farming, involved one of the main transformations in human behavior patterns. This volume focuses on investigating the neolithization process at the periphery of one of the main routes in the expansion of the Neolithic in Europe: the Western Mediterranean region. Recent advances in radiocarbon dating, mathematical and computational models, archaeometric analysis and biomolecular techniques, together with new archaeological discoveries, provide novel insights into this topic. This volume is organized into five sections: · new discoveries and new ideas about the Mediterranean Neolithic · reconstructing times and modeling processes · landscape interaction: farming and herding · dietary subsistence of early farming communities · human dispersal mechanisms and cultural transmission This volume will also provide new empirical data to help readers assess different theoretical frameworks and narratives which underlie the models proposed to explain the expansion of farming from the Middle East into Europe.

Hulled Wheats

Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Hulled Wheats, 21-22 July 1995, Castelvecchio Pascoli, Tuscany, Italy

Author: Stefano Padulosi,Karl Hammer,Joachim Heller

Publisher: Bioversity International

ISBN: 9290432888

Category: Species diversity

Page: 262

View: 7294

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Genetik und Evolutionsforschung - Taxonomie und Nomenklatur - Spelzweizen.

Naukratis

Author: Alexandra Villing,Udo Schlotzhauer

Publisher: British Museum Publications Limited

ISBN: 9780861591626

Category: History

Page: 235

View: 9617

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A collection of 22 essays presenting the latest research on a comprehensive range of questions relating to the Greek presence at the site of Egyptian Naukratis as it is reflected in the pottery from there. The volume includes scientific analysis and is richly illustrated with photographs including colour illustrations, line drawings, maps and tables.

The Archaeology of the Caucasus

From Earliest Settlements to the Iron Age

Author: Antonio Sagona

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107016592

Category: History

Page: 590

View: 5886

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This conspectus brings together in an accessible and systematic manner a dizzy array of archaeological cultures situated between several worlds.

Revolutionizing a World

From Small States to Universalism in the Pre-Islamic Near East

Author: Mark Altaweel,Andrea Squitieri

Publisher: UCL Press

ISBN: 1911576631

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 2983

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This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.

Reinterpreting Chronology and Society at the Mortuary Complex of Jebel Moya (Sudan)

Author: Michael Jonathan Brass

Publisher: Archaeopress Archaeology

ISBN: 9781784914318

Category:

Page: 210

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Jebel Moya (south-central Sudan) is the largest known pastoral cemetery in sub- Saharan Africa with more than 3100 excavated human burials. This research revises our understanding of Jebel Moya and its context. After reviewing previous applications of social complexity theory to mortuary data, new questions are posed for the applicability of such theory to pastoral cemeteries. Reliable radiometric dating of Jebel Moya for the first time by luminescence dates is tied in to an attribute-based approach to discern three distinctive pottery assemblages. Three distinct phases of occupation are recognized: the first two (early fifth millennium BC, and the mid-second to early first millennium BC) from pottery sherds, and the third (first century BC - sixth century AD) with habitation and the vast majority of the mortuary remains. Analytically, new statistical and spatial analyses such as cross-pair correlation function and multidimensional scaling provide information on zones of interaction across the mortuary assemblages. Finally, an analysis of mortuary locales contemporary with phase three (Meroitic and post-Meroitic periods) from the central Sudan and Upper and Lower Nubia are examined to show how changing social, economic and power relations were conceptualized, and to highlight Jebel Moya's potential to serve as a chronological and cultural reference point for future studies in south-central and southern Sudan.

Athenian Potters and Painters III

Author: John Oakley

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782976639

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 9336

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Athenian Potters and Painters III presents a rich mass of new material on Greek vases, including finds from excavations at the Kerameikos in Athens and Despotiko in the Cyclades. Some contributions focus on painters or workshops Ð Paseas, the Robinson Group, and the structure of the figured pottery industry in Athens; others on vase forms Ð plates, phialai, cups, and the change in shapes at the end of the sixth century BC. Context, trade, kalos inscriptions, reception, the fabrication of inscribed paintersÕ names to create a fictitious biography, and the reconstruction of the contents of an Etruscan tomb are also explored. The iconography and iconology of various types of figured scenes on Attic pottery serve as the subject of a wide range of papers Ð chariots, dogs, baskets, heads, departures, an Amazonomachy, Menelaus and Helen, red-figure komasts, symposia, and scenes of pursuit. Among the special vases presented are a black spotlight stamnos and a column krater by the Suessula Painter. Athenian Potters and Painters III, the proceedings of an international conference held at the College of William and Mary in Virginia in 2012, will, like the previous two volumes, become a standard reference work in the study of Greek pottery.

Things that Travelled

Mediterranean Glass in the First Millennium AD

Author: Daniela Rosenow,Matt Phelps,Andrew Meek,Ian Freestone

Publisher: UCL Press

ISBN: 1787351173

Category: Social Science

Page: 362

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Recent research has demonstrated that, in the Roman, Late Antique, Early Islamic and Medieval worlds, glass was traded over long distances, from the Eastern Mediterranean, mainly Egypt and Israel, to Northern Africa, the Western Mediterranean and Northern Europe. Things that Travelled, a collaboration between the UCL Early Glass Technology Research Network, the Association for the History of Glass and the British Museum, aims to build on this knowledge. Covering all aspects of glass production, technology, distribution and trade in Roman, Byzantine and Early Medieval/Early Islamic times, including studies from Britain, Egypt, Cyprus, Italy and many others, the volume combines the strengths of the sciences and cultural studies to offer a new approach to research on ancient glass. By bringing together such a varied mix of contributors, specialising in a range of geographical areas and chronological time frames, this volume also offers a valuable contribution to broader discussions on glass within political, economic, cultural and historical arenas.

From Concepts of the Past to Practical Strategies

The Teaching of Archaeological Field Techniques

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781872843704

Category: Antiquities, Prehistoric

Page: 348

View: 5828

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Although most definitions of archaeology would specify excavation and fieldwork as the core of archaeological enquiry, this book undertakes a comparative assessment of how such techniques are taught to university students in different parts of the world. It is suitable for students of archaeology and heritage management, and historians.

Archaeology 2.0

New Tools for Communication and Collaboration

Author: Eric Christopher Kansa,Sarah Whitcher Kansa,Ethan Watrall

Publisher: Cotsen Institute of Archaeology

ISBN: N.A

Category: Computers

Page: 295

View: 5955

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Outcome of a session held at the 2008 meeting of the Society for American Archaeology (SAA) in Vancouver, British Columbia.

The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean

Author: Eric H. Cline

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019024075X

Category: History

Page: 976

View: 2545

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The Greek Bronze Age, roughly 3000 to 1000 BCE, witnessed the flourishing of the Minoan and Mycenean civilizations, the earliest expansion of trade in the Aegean and wider Mediterranean Sea, the development of artistic techniques in a variety of media, and the evolution of early Greek religious practices and mythology. The period also witnessed a violent conflict in Asia Minor between warring peoples in the region, a conflict commonly believed to be the historical basis for Homer's Trojan War. The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean provides a detailed survey of these fascinating aspects of the period, and many others, in sixty-six newly commissioned articles. Divided into four sections, the handbook begins with Background and Definitions, which contains articles establishing the discipline in its historical, geographical, and chronological settings and in its relation to other disciplines. The second section, Chronology and Geography, contains articles examining the Bronze Age Aegean by chronological period (Early Bronze Age, Middle Bronze Age, Late Bronze Age). Each of the periods are further subdivided geographically, so that individual articles are concerned with Mainland Greece during the Early Bronze Age, Crete during the Early Bronze Age, the Cycladic Islands during the Early Bronze Age, and the same for the Middle Bronze Age, followed by the Late Bronze Age. The third section, Thematic and Specific Topics, includes articles examining thematic topics that cannot be done justice in a strictly chronological/geographical treatment, including religion, state and society, trade, warfare, pottery, writing, and burial customs, as well as specific events, such as the eruption of Santorini and the Trojan War. The fourth section, Specific Sites and Areas, contains articles examining the most important regions and sites in the Bronze Age Aegean, including Mycenae, Tiryns, Pylos, Knossos, Kommos, Rhodes, the northern Aegean, and the Uluburun shipwreck, as well as adjacent areas such as the Levant, Egypt, and the western Mediterranean. Containing new work by an international team of experts, The Oxford Handbook of the Bronze Age Aegean represents the most comprehensive, authoritative, and up-to-date single-volume survey of the field. It will be indispensable for scholars and advanced students alike.

At Empires' Edge : Project Paphlagonia

Regional Survey in North-Central Turkey

Author: Roger Matthews,Claudia Glatz

Publisher: British Inst of Archaeology at

ISBN: 9781898249238

Category: History

Page: 273

View: 1632

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Project Paphlagonia was a multi-period, large-scale programme of regional survey in northcentral Turkey, today the provinces of Ã_ankiri and parts of Karabuek, previously a little explored region. In total, an area of almost 8,500km2 was surveyed between 1997 and 2001, using both extensive and intensive survey techniques. More than 330 sites of archaeological and historical significance were located and recorded. The sites range in date from early prehistoric to Ottoman, and include Palaeolithic camp-sites, Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries, fortified defensive sites of the Hittite and other periods, Phrygian villages and burial tumuli, and a wealth of small towns, villages, farmsteads and hill-top refuges of the Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and early Turkish periods. This volume, to be used in conjunction with the Project Paphlagonia website presents synthetic treatments of all these periods as well as studies of the geology, geomorphology and climatology of the region. Studies of long-term settlement trends and patterns complete this publication of an important and productive programme of archaeological and historical survey.

The Origins of Monsters

Image and Cognition in the First Age of Mechanical Reproduction

Author: David Wengrow

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400848865

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

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It has often been claimed that "monsters"--supernatural creatures with bodies composed from multiple species--play a significant part in the thought and imagery of all people from all times. The Origins of Monsters advances an alternative view. Composite figurations are intriguingly rare and isolated in the art of the prehistoric era. Instead it was with the rise of cities, elites, and cosmopolitan trade networks that "monsters" became widespread features of visual production in the ancient world. Showing how these fantastic images originated and how they were transmitted, David Wengrow identifies patterns in the records of human image-making and embarks on a search for connections between mind and culture. Wengrow asks: Can cognitive science explain the potency of such images? Does evolutionary psychology hold a key to understanding the transmission of symbols? How is our making and perception of images influenced by institutions and technologies? Wengrow considers the work of art in the first age of mechanical reproduction, which he locates in the Middle East, where urban life began. Comparing the development and spread of fantastic imagery across a range of prehistoric and ancient societies, including Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and China, he explores how the visual imagination has been shaped by a complex mixture of historical and universal factors. Examining the reasons behind the dissemination of monstrous imagery in ancient states and empires, The Origins of Monsters sheds light on the relationship between culture and cognition.

The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean

Author: A. Bernard Knapp,Peter van Dommelen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 131619406X

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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The Cambridge Prehistory of the Bronze and Iron Age Mediterranean offers new insights into the material and social practices of many different Mediterranean peoples during the Bronze and Iron Ages, presenting in particular those features that both connect and distinguish them. Contributors discuss in depth a range of topics that motivate and structure Mediterranean archaeology today, including insularity and connectivity; mobility, migration, and colonization; hybridization and cultural encounters; materiality, memory, and identity; community and household; life and death; and ritual and ideology. The volume's broad coverage of different approaches and contemporary archaeological practices will help practitioners of Mediterranean archaeology to move the subject forward in new and dynamic ways. Together, the essays in this volume shed new light on the people, ideas, and materials that make up the world of Mediterranean archaeology today, beyond the borders that separate Europe, Africa, and the Middle East.

The Social Archaeology of Food

Thinking about Eating from Prehistory to the Present

Author: Christine A. Hastorf

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316710416

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

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This book offers a global perspective on the role food has played in shaping human societies, through both individual and collective identities. It integrates ethnographic and archaeological case studies from the European and Near Eastern Neolithic, Han China, ancient Cahokia, Classic Maya, the Inka and many other periods and regions, to ask how the meal in particular has acted as a social agent in the formation of society, economy, culture and identity. Drawing on a range of social theorists, Hastorf provides a theoretical toolkit essential for any archaeologist interested in foodways. Studying the social life of food, this book engages with taste, practice, the meal and the body to discuss power, identity, gender and meaning that creates our world as it created past societies.

Metals in Past Societies

A Global Perspective on Indigenous African Metallurgy

Author: Shadreck Chirikure

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331911641X

Category: Social Science

Page: 166

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This book seeks to communicate to both a global and local audience, the key attributes of pre-industrial African metallurgy such as technological variation across space and time, methods of mining and extractive metallurgy and the fabrication of metal objects. These processes were transformative in a physical and metaphoric sense, which made them total social facts. Because the production and use of metals was an accretion of various categories of practice, a chaine operatoire conceptual and theoretical framework that simultaneously considers the embedded technological and anthropological factors was used. The book focuses on Africa’s different regions as roughly defined by cultural geography. On the one hand there is North Africa, Egypt, the Egyptian Sudan, and the Horn of Africa which share cultural inheritances with the Middle East and on the other is Africa south of the Sahara and the Sudan which despite interacting with the former is remarkably different in terms of technological practice. For example, not only is the timing of metallurgy different but so is the infrastructure for working metals and the associated symbolic and sociological factors. The cultural valuation of metals and the social positions of metal workers were different too although there is evidence of some values transfer and multi-directional technological cross borrowing. The multitude of permutations associated with metals production and use amply demonstrates that metals participated in the production and reproduction of society. Despite huge temporal and spatial differences there are so many common factors between African metallurgy and that of other regions of the world. For example, the role of magic and ritual in metal working is almost universal be it in Bolivia, Nepal, Malawi, Timna, Togo or Zimbabwe. Similarly, techniques of mining were constrained by the underlying geology but this should not in any way suggest that Africa’s metallurgy was derivative or that the continent had no initiative. Rather it demonstrates that when confronted with similar challenges, humanity in different regions of the world responded to identical challenges in predictable ways mediated as mediated by the prevailing cultural context. The success of the use of historical and ethnographic data in understanding variation and improvisation in African metallurgical practices flags the potential utility of these sources in Asia, Latin America and Europe. Some nuance is however needed because it is simply naïve to assume that everything depicted in the history or ethnography has a parallel in the past and vice versa. Rather, the confluence of archaeology, history and ethnography becomes a pedestal for dialogue between different sources, subjects and ideas that is important for broadening our knowledge of global categories of metallurgical practice.

Hittite Landscape and Geography

Author: Mark Weeden,Lee Z. Ullmann

Publisher: Handbook of Oriental Studies

ISBN: 9789004341746

Category: History

Page: 404

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Hittite Landscape and Geography provides a holistic geographical perspective on the study of the Late Bronze Age Hittite Civilization from Anatolia (Turkey) both as it is represented in Hittite texts and modern archaeology.