Physical Properties of Crystals

Their Representation by Tensors and Matrices

Author: J. F. Nye

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198511656

Category: Mathematics

Page: 329

View: 4181

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First published in 1957, this classic study has been reissued in a paperback version that includes an additional chapter bringing the material up to date. The author formulates the physical properties of crystals systematically in tensor notation, presenting tensor properties in terms of their common mathematical basis and the thermodynamic relations between them. The mathematical groundwork is laid in a discussion of tensors of the first and second ranks. Tensors of higher ranks and matrix methods are then introduced as natural developments of the theory. A similar pattern is followed in discussing thermodynamic and optical aspects.

Symmetry and Physical Properties of Crystals

Author: Cécile Malgrange,Christian Ricolleau,Michel Schlenker

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401789932

Category: Science

Page: 522

View: 5952

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Crystals are everywhere, from natural crystals (minerals) through the semiconductors and magnetic materials in electronic devices and computers or piezoelectric resonators at the heart of our quartz watches to electro-optical devices. Understanding them in depth is essential both for pure research and for their applications. This book provides a clear, thorough presentation of their symmetry, both at the microscopic space-group level and the macroscopic point-group level. The implications of the symmetry of crystals for their physical properties are then presented, together with their mathematical description in terms of tensors. The conditions on the symmetry of a crystal for a given property to exist then become clear, as does the symmetry of the property. The geometrical representation of tensor quantities or properties is presented, and its use in determining important relationships emphasized. An original feature of this book is that most chapters include exercises with complete solutions. This allows readers to test and improve their understanding of the material. The intended readership includes undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and materials-related aspects of electrical and optical engineering; researchers involved in the investigation of the physical properties of crystals and the design of applications based on crystal properties such as piezoelectricity, electro-optics, optical activity and all those involved in the characterization of the structural properties of materials.

Physical Properties of Crystals

An Introduction

Author: Siegfried Haussühl

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527621164

Category: Science

Page: 453

View: 1202

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Modern semiconductor and laser techniques would be unthinkable today without a highly developed physics of solids. As tailored materials increasingly gain significance, it is more important than ever to understand the basics of crystalline materials and the influence of their symmetry on phenomenological aspects. This first international edition of a classic German standard integrates the latest developments in the field, including two-dimensional crystals and Giant Magneto-Resistance. Its aim is to impart the knowledge necessary to comprehend the manifold peculiarities of crystalline substances in a comprehensive and easily accessible manner. The book devotes much space to a coherent introduction to tensor calculation, making this the first to address the topic in a readily understandable way. Supplemented by 40 exercises with their solutions, this is an ideal textbook for students of physics and chemistry, solid state physicists and chemists, and materials scientists, but also a comprehensive resource for those who wish to get an overview of this important topic.

Symmetry, Group Theory, and the Physical Properties of Crystals

Author: Richard C Powell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1441975985

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 9326

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Complete with reference tables and sample problems, this volume serves as a textbook or reference for solid-state physics and chemistry, materials science, and engineering. Chapters illustrate symmetry, and its role in determining solid properties, as well as a demonstration of group theory.

Physical Properties of Liquid Crystals

Author: George W. Gray,Volkmar Vill,Hans W. Spiess,Dietrich Demus,John W. Goodby

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527613951

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 522

View: 2479

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This handbook is a unique compendium of knowledge on all aspects of the physics of liquid crystals. In over 500 pages it provides detailed information on the physical properties of liquid crystals as well as the recent theories and results on phase transitions, defects and textures of different types of liquid crystals. An in-depth understanding of the physical fundamentals is a prerequisite for everyone working in the field of liquid crystal research. With this book the experts as well as graduate students entering the field get all the information they need.

Liquid Crystals

Experimental Study of Physical Properties and Phase Transitions

Author: Satyen Kumar

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521461320

Category: Science

Page: 483

View: 8515

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Originally published in 2001, this book describes in detail various experimental techniques used in the study of liquid crystals. It will be indispensable for established workers in the field as well as students embarking on liquid crystal research. Each chapter in the book is dedicated to an important experimental technique used in the study and characterisation of liquid crystalline systems. Use of these techniques on liquid crystals requires modifications of traditional experiments, special sample handling and a fresh a approach to data analysis. In addition, general routes used to synthesise liquid crystals and tools to characterise liquid crystal phases are described. Attempts are also made to show structure property relationships for well known systems. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students in physics and chemistry as well as established researchers in the fields of liquid crystals and soft condensed matter.

Modern Crystallography IV

Physical Properties of Crystals

Author: L.A. Shuvalov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642818382

Category: Science

Page: 583

View: 6065

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Modern Crystallography IV is devoted to a systematic and up- to-date description of fundamental physical properties of solid and liquid crystals. These include elastic and mechanical, dielectric and ferroelectric, magnetic and optical properties, transport phenomena and spectroscopy. An important feature of the treatment is its use of the crystallographic approach, an introduction to which is given in the opening chapter of the book. The topics are treated at a level understandable to students who have two years of university physics. Researchers and engineers working on practical applications should also find the book useful, as should specialists in other fields who wish to broaden their knowledge of crystallography and materials science. The book is written by a group of leading scientists from the Institute of Crystallography of the USSR Academy of Sciences.

Properties of Materials

Anisotropy, Symmetry, Structure

Author: Robert E. Newnham

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198520751

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 9055

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Tensors, matrices, symmetry, and structure-property relationships form the main subjects of the book. While tensors and matrices provide the mathematical framework for understanding anistropy, on which the physical and chemical properties of crystals and textured materials often depend, atomistic arguments are also needed to qualify the property coefficients in various directions. The atomistic arguments are partly based on symmetry and party on the basic physics and chemistry of materials.

Tensor Properties of Crystals, Second Edition

Author: D Lovett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750306256

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 1555

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The use of single crystals for scientific and technological applications is now widespread in solid-state physics, optics, electronics, materials science, and geophysics. An understanding of the variation of physical properties with crystalline direction is essential to maximize the performance of solid-state devices. Written from a physical viewpoint and avoiding advanced mathematics, Tensor Properties of Crystals provides a concise introduction to the tensor properties of crystals at a level suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. While retaining the successful basic format of the well-known first edition, this second edition brings the material up to date with the latest developments in nonlinear optics and modulated structures. Because of the increasing importance of nonlinear optics, a new chapter on optoelectronics has been added. This edition also includes a short discussion on incommensurate modulated structures in the final chapter because they are relevant to high temperature superconductors and to ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials. The book extensively contains diagrams, worked examples, and problems with answers throughout.

Crystals and Stones

A Complete Guide to Their Healing Properties

Author: Group of 5

Publisher: North Atlantic Books

ISBN: 1556439180

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 287

View: 5462

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"New Age readers will love this definitive guide to more than 190 stones and crystals and their impact on the physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well being of individuals"--Provided by publisher.

Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals

Author: Lev M. Blinov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048188291

Category: Science

Page: 439

View: 8316

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This book by Lev M. Blinov is ideal to guide researchers from their very first encounter with liquid crystals to the level where they can perform independent experiments on liquid crystals with a thorough understanding of their behaviour also in relation to the theoretical framework. Liquid crystals can be found everywhere around us. They are used in virtually every display device, whether it is for domestic appliances of for specialized technological instruments. Their finely tunable optical properties make them suitable also for thermo-sensing and laser technologies. There are many monographs written by prominent scholars on the subject of liquid crystals. The majority of them presents the subject in great depth, sometimes focusing on a particular research aspect, and in general they require a significant level of prior knowledge. In contrast, this books aims at an audience of advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics, chemistry and materials science. The book consists of three parts: the first part, on structure, starts from the fundamental principles underlying the structure of liquid crystals, their rich phase behaviour and the methods used to study them; the second part, on physical properties, emphasizes the influence of anisotropy on all aspects of liquid crystals behaviour; the third, focuses on electro-optics, the most important properties from the applications standpoint. This part covers only the main effects and illustrates the underlying principles in greater detail. Professor Lev M. Blinov has had a long carrier as an experimentalist. He made major contributions in the field of ferroelectric mesophases. In 1985 he received the USSR state prize for investigations of electro-optical effects in liquid crystals for spatial light modulators. In 1999 he was awarded the Frederiks medal of the Soviet Liquid Crystal Society and in 2000 he was honoured with the G. Gray silver medal of the British Liquid Crystal Society. He has held many visiting academic positions in universities and laboratories across Europe and in Japan.

Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments

Author: Patrick Oswald,Pawel Pieranski

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780203023013

Category: Science

Page: 648

View: 3589

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Liquid crystals allow us to perform experiments that provide insight into fundamental problems of modern physics, such as phase transitions, frustration, elasticity, hydrodynamics, defects, growth phenomena, and optics (linear and non linear). This excellent volume meets the need for an up-to-date text on liquid crystals. Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments is a result of personal research and of the graduate lectures given by the authors at the École Normale Supérieure de Lyon and the University of Paris VII, respectively. The first part of the book presents historical background, the modern classification of liquid crystals, and mesogenic anatomy; the second part examines liquid crystals with nematic and cholesteric orientational order. Topics include dielectric and magnetic properties, Frederiks transitions and displays, light scattering, flow and electrohydrodynamic instabilities, surface anchoring transitions, interfaces, equilibrium shapes, and the Mullins-Sekerka instability. Smectic and columnar liquid crystals are covered in more detail by the authors in a separate volume, entitled Smectic and Columnar Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments. The presentation is illustrated throughout by simple experiments, some of which were performed in class. Nematic and Cholesteric Liquid Crystals: Concepts and Physical Properties Illustrated by Experiments provides a useful reference intended for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers in liquid crystals, condensed matter physics, and materials science.

The Physics of Liquid Crystals

Author: P. G. de Gennes,J. Prost

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198517856

Category: Science

Page: 616

View: 5855

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The original edition was immediately recognized as a classic of condensed matter physics. This new edition covers the main properties of nematics, cholesterics, and smectics and columnar phases, particularly the symmetry and the mechanical and optical characteristics of each phase. The latter includes some applications to display systems. The emphasis on order-of-magnitude considerations should make it accessible to researchers and graduate students alike.