Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: N.A

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080931227

Category: Philosophy

Page: 952

View: 6223

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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: Cliff Hooker

Publisher: North-Holland

ISBN: 9780444520760

Category: Science

Page: 936

View: 6948

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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Complexity and Postmodernism

Understanding Complex Systems

Author: Paul Cilliers

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134743300

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 4695

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In Complexity and Postmodernism, Paul Cilliers explores the idea of complexity in the light of contemporary perspectives from philosophy and science. Cilliers offers us a unique approach to understanding complexity and computational theory by integrating postmodern theory (like that of Derrida and Lyotard) into his discussion. Complexity and Postmodernism is an exciting and an original book that should be read by anyone interested in gaining a fresh understanding of complexity, postmodernism and connectionism.

Hierarchy theory

the challenge of complex systems

Author: Howard Hunt Pattee

Publisher: George Braziller

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 156

View: 2271

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Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education

Author: Mark Mason

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444307363

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 3538

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A collection of scholarly essays, Complexity Theory and the Philosophy of Education provides an accessible theoretical introduction to the topic of complexity theory while considering its broader implications for educational change. Explains the contributions of complexity theory to philosophy of education, curriculum, and educational research Brings together new research by an international team of contributors Debates issues ranging from the culture of curriculum, to the implications of work of key philosophers such as Foucault and John Dewey for educational change Demonstrates how social scientists and social and education policy makers are drawing on complexity theory to answer questions such as: why is it that education decision-makers are so resistant to change; how does change in education happen; and what does it take to make these changes sustainable? Considers changes in use of complexity theory; developed principally in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, and economics, and now being applied more broadly to the social sciences and to the study of education

Bigger than Chaos

Understanding Complexity through Probability

Author: Michael Strevens

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674044061

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 2720

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Foundations of Complex-system Theories

In Economics, Evolutionary Biology, and Statistical Physics

Author: Sunny Y. Auyang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521778268

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 404

View: 7549

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Analyzes approaches to the study of complexity in the physical, biological, and social sciences.

Theoretical Biology and Complexity

Three Essays on the Natural Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author: Robert J. Rosen

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483272346

Category: Science

Page: 222

View: 4965

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Theoretical Biology and Complexity: Three Essays on the Natural Philosophy of Complex Systems is made up of three short essays—each separately conceived and written, each with distinct thrusts and emphases, but nevertheless closely related in substance and spirit. All three spring from a common concern: to grasp and comprehend the material basis of living systems. The first essay is about the interaction between particles and the consequent observable manifestations. It casts the analysis of the measurement process into an elegant dualism relating modes of description, and explores the consequences of this dualism for what may be called classical physics. The second essay explores the deeper consequences of representing the properties of natural systems through states built up out of observable quantities, and the dynamics that such systems impose on each other through interactions. The final essay argues that traditional modes of system representation, involving fixed sets of states together with imposed dynamical laws, strictly pertains only to an extremely limited class of systems (called simple systems or mechanisms). Systems not in this class are called “complex, and these can only be in some sense approximated, locally and temporally, by simple ones. Such a radical alteration of viewpoint leads to a large number of concrete, practical consequences, some of which are described in the essay.

Philosophy of Systems Biology

Perspectives from Scientists and Philosophers

Author: Sara Green

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319470000

Category: Science

Page: 265

View: 6459

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The emergence of systems biology raises many fascinating questions: What does it mean to take a systems approach to problems in biology? To what extent is the use of mathematical and computational modelling changing the life sciences? How does the availability of big data influence research practices? What are the major challenges for biomedical research in the years to come? This book addresses such questions of relevance not only to philosophers and biologists but also to readers interested in the broader implications of systems biology for science and society. The book features reflections and original work by experts from across the disciplines including systems biologists, philosophers, and interdisciplinary scholars investigating the social and educational aspects of systems biology. In response to the same set of questions, the experts develop and defend their personal perspectives on the distinctive character of systems biology and the challenges that lie ahead. Readers are invited to engage with different views on the questions addressed, and may explore numerous themes relating to the philosophy of systems biology. This edited work will appeal to scholars and all levels, from undergraduates to researchers, and to those interested in a variety of scholarly approaches such as systems biology, mathematical and computational modelling, cell and molecular biology, genomics, systems theory, and of course, philosophy of biology.

Modularity

Understanding the Development and Evolution of Natural Complex Systems

Author: Werner Callebaut,Diego Rasskin-Gutman

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262033268

Category: Science

Page: 455

View: 1658

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Experts from diverse fields, including artificial life, cognitive science, economics, developmental and evolutionary biology, and the arts, discuss modularity.

Complexity and the Arrow of Time

Author: Charles H. Lineweaver,Paul C. W. Davies,Michael Ruse

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107276632

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5222

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There is a widespread assumption that the universe in general, and life in particular, is 'getting more complex with time'. This book brings together a wide range of experts in science, philosophy and theology and unveils their joint effort in exploring this idea. They confront essential problems behind the theory of complexity and the role of life within it: what is complexity? When does it increase, and why? Is the universe evolving towards states of ever greater complexity and diversity? If so, what is the source of this universal enrichment? This book addresses those difficult questions, and offers a unique cross-disciplinary perspective on some of the most profound issues at the heart of science and philosophy. Readers will gain insights in complexity that reach deep into key areas of physics, biology, complexity science, philosophy and religion.

A New Philosophy of Society

Assemblage Theory and Social Complexity

Author: Manuel DeLanda

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1441114483

Category: Philosophy

Page: 150

View: 3726

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Manuel DeLanda is a distinguished writer, artist and philosopher. In his new book, he offers a fascinating look at how the contemporary world is characterized by an extraordinary social complexity. Since most social entities, from small communities to large nation-states, would disappear altogether if human minds ceased to exist, Delanda proposes a novel approach to social ontology that asserts the autonomy of social entities from the conceptions we have of them.

The Evolutionary Dynamics of Complex Systems

A Study in Biosocial Complexity

Author: Charles Dyke

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 161

View: 1385

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Dyke examines the controversial topics of sociobiology and evolution from scientific and philosophical perspectives. At issue are the basic underpinnings of biology: explanation, determination, teleology, reductionism, and hierarchy. The author proposes that progress in sociobiology and evolution is hindered by an outmoded philosophical view of science that does not adequately take into account recent advances in our understanding of basic biological processes. His goal is to shift the focus from a philosophical understanding based on observation from outside biology to a dynamic, philosophically aware science.

Social Emergence

Societies As Complex Systems

Author: Robert Keith Sawyer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521844642

Category: Philosophy

Page: 276

View: 627

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Can we understand important social issues by studying individual personalities and decisions? Or are societies somehow more than the people in them? Sociologists have long believed that psychology can't explain what happens when people work together in complex modern societies. In contrast, most psychologists and economists believe that if we have an accurate theory of how individuals make choices and act on them, we can explain pretty much everything about social life. Social Emergence takes a new approach to these longstanding questions. Sawyer argues that societies are complex dynamical systems, and that the best way to resolve these debates is by developing the concept of emergence, focusing on multiple levels of analysis - individuals, interactions, and groups - and with a dynamic focus on how social group phenomena emerge from communication processes among individual members. This book makes a unique contribution not only to complex systems research but also to social theory.

Models of Discovery

and Other Topics in the Methods of Science

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401095213

Category: Science

Page: 475

View: 4970

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We respect Herbert A. Simon as an established leader of empirical and logical analysis in the human sciences while we happily think of him as also the loner; of course he works with many colleagues but none can match him. He has been writing fruitfully and steadily for four decades in many fields, among them psychology, logic, decision theory, economics, computer science, management, production engineering, information and control theory, operations research, confirmation theory, and we must have omitted several. With all of them, he is at once the technical scientist and the philosophical critic and analyst. When writing of decisions and actions, he is at the interface of philosophy of science, decision theory, philosophy of the specific social sciences, and inventory theory (itself, for him, at the interface of economic theory, production engineering and information theory). When writing on causality, he is at the interface of methodology, metaphysics, logic and philosophy of physics, systems theory, and so on. Not that the interdisciplinary is his orthodoxy; we are delighted that he has chosen to include in this book both his early and little-appreciated treatment of straightforward philosophy of physics - the axioms of Newtonian mechanics, and also his fine papers on pure confirmation theory.

Worldviews, Science and Us

Philosophy and Complexity : University of Liverpool, UK, 11-14 September 2005

Author: Carlos Gershenson,Diederik Aerts,Bruce Edmonds

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812705481

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 7514

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Nell'introduzione si legge: Many chapters in this volume are derived from presentations given at the Philosophy and Complexity session of the Complexity, Science and Society Conference, held in Liverpool, UK, between September 11th and 14th 2005.

A Primer on Complex Systems

With Applications to Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

Author: Raúl Sánchez,David Newman

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402412298

Category: Science

Page: 404

View: 3503

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The purpose of this book is to illustrate the fundamental concepts of complexity and complex behavior and the best methods to characterize this behavior by means of their applications to some current research topics from within the fields of fusion, earth and solar plasmas. In this sense, it is a departure from the many books already available that discuss general features of complexity. The book is divided in two parts. In the first part the most important properties and features of complex systems are introduced, discussed and illustrated. The second part discusses several instances of possible complex phenomena in magnetized plasmas and some of the analysis tools that were introduced in the first part are used to characterize the dynamics in these systems. A list of problems is proposed at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for graduate and post-graduate students with a solid college background in mathematics and classical physics, who intend to work in the field of plasma physics and, in particular, plasma turbulence. It will also be of interest to senior scientists who have so far approached these systems and problems from a different perspective and want a new fresh angle.

The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Obesity

Author: John Cawley

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199876177

Category: Medical

Page: 912

View: 2999

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There is an urgent need to better understand the causes and consequences of obesity, and to learn what works to prevent or reduce obesity. This volume accurately and conveniently summarizes the findings and insights of obesity-related research from the full range of social sciences including anthropology, economics, government, psychology, and sociology. It is an excellent resource for researchers in these areas, both bringing them up to date on the relevant research in their own discipline and allowing them to quickly and easily understand the cutting-edge research being produced in other disciplines. The Oxford Handbook of the Social Science of Obesity is a critical reference for obesity researchers and is also valuable for public health officials, policymakers, nutritionists, and medical practitioners. The first section of the book explains how each social science discipline models human behavior (in particular, diet and physical activity), and summarizes the major research literatures on obesity in that discipline. The second section provides important practical information for researchers, including a guide to publicly available social science data on obesity and an overview of the challenges to causal inference in obesity research. The third part of the book synthesizes social science research on specific causes and correlates of obesity, such as food advertising, food prices, and peers. The fourth section summarizes social science research on the consequences of obesity, such as lower wages, job absenteeism, and discrimination. The fifth and final section reviews the social science literature on obesity treatment and prevention, such as food taxes, school-based interventions, and medical treatments such as anti-obesity drugs and bariatric surgery.

Handbook of Research Methods in Complexity Science

Theory and Applications

Author: Eve Mitleton-Kelly,Alexandros Paraskevas,Christopher Day

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1785364421

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 5804

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This comprehensive Handbook is aimed at both academic researchers and practitioners in the field of complexity science. The book’s 26 chapters, specially written by leading experts, provide in-depth coverage of research methods based on the sciences of complexity. The research methods presented are illustratively applied to practical cases and are readily accessible to researchers and decision makers alike.

An Introduction to Complex Systems

Society, Ecology, and Nonlinear Dynamics

Author: Paul Fieguth

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319446061

Category: Science

Page: 346

View: 3139

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This undergraduate text explores a variety of large-scale phenomena - global warming, ice ages, water, poverty - and uses these case studies as a motivation to explore nonlinear dynamics, power-law statistics, and complex systems. Although the detailed mathematical descriptions of these topics can be challenging, the consequences of a system being nonlinear, power-law, or complex are in fact quite accessible. This book blends a tutorial approach to the mathematical aspects of complex systems together with a complementary narrative on the global/ecological/societal implications of such systems. Nearly all engineering undergraduate courses focus on mathematics and systems which are small scale, linear, and Gaussian. Unfortunately there is not a single large-scale ecological or social phenomenon that is scalar, linear, and Gaussian. This book offers students insights to better understand the large-scale problems facing the world and to realize that these cannot be solved by a single, narrow academic field or perspective. Instead, the book seeks to emphasize understanding, concepts, and ideas, in a way that is mathematically rigorous, so that the concepts do not feel vague, but not so technical that the mathematics get in the way. The book is intended for undergraduate students in a technical domain such as engineering, computer science, physics, mathematics, and environmental studies.