Winning Without Killing:The Strategic and Operational Utility of Non-Kinetic Capabilities in Crises
Author: Paul A.L. Ducheine,Frans P.B. Osinga
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International conflict resolution increasingly involves the use of non-military powerand non-kinetic capabilities alongside military capabilities in the face of hybrid threats.In this book, counter-measures to those threats are addressed by academics with bothpractical and theoretical experience and knowledge, providing strategic and operationalinsights into non-kinetic conflict resolution and on the use of power to influence, affect,deter or coerce states and non-state actors. This volume in the NL ARMS series deals with the non-kinetic capabilities to addressinternational crises and conflicts and as always views matters from a global perspective.Included are chapters on the promise, practice and challenges of non-kinetic instrumentsof power, the instrumentality of soft power, information as a power instrumentand manoeuvring in the information environment, Russia's use of deception andmisinformation in conflict, applying counter-marketing techniques to fight ISIL, usingstatistics to profile terrorists, and employing tools such as Actor and Audience Analysis.Such diverse subjects as lawfare, the Law of Armed Conflict rules for non-kinetic cyberattacks, navigation warfare, GPS-spoofing, maritime interception operations, andfinally, as a prerequisite, innovative ways for intelligence collection in UN Peacekeepingin Mali come up for discussion. The book will provide both professionals such as (foreign) policy makers and thoseactive in the military services, academics at a master level and those with an interestin military law and the law of armed conflict with useful and up-to-date insights intothe wide range of subjects that are contained within it. Paul A.L. Ducheine and Frans P.B. Osinga are General Officers and full professors at theFaculty of Military Sciences of the Netherlands Defence Academy in Breda, The Netherlands.
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John Boyd is often known exclusively for the so-called ‘OODA’ loop model he developed. This model refers to a decision-making process and to the idea that military victory goes to the side that can complete the cycle from observation to action the fastest. This book aims to redress this state of affairs and re-examines John Boyd’s original contribution to strategic theory. By highlighting diverse sources that shaped Boyd’s thinking, and by offering a comprehensive overview of Boyd’s work, this volume demonstrates that the common interpretation of the meaning of Boyd’s OODA loop concept is incomplete. It also shows that Boyd’s work is much more comprehensive, richer and deeper than is generally thought. With his ideas featuring in the literature on Network Centric Warfare, a key element of the US and NATO’s so-called ‘military transformation’ programmes, as well as in the debate on Fourth Generation Warfare, Boyd continues to exert a strong influence on Western military thinking. Dr Osinga demonstrates how Boyd’s work can helps us to understand the new strategic threats in the post- 9/11 world, and establishes why John Boyd should be regarded as one of the most important (post)modern strategic theorists.
Author: Jelle Van Haaster,Rickey Gevers,Martijn Sprengers
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Much as Che Guevara’s book Guerilla Warfare helped define and delineate a new type of warfare in the wake of the Cuban revolution in 1961, Cyber Guerilla will help define the new types of threats and fighters now appearing in the digital landscape. Cyber Guerilla provides valuable insight for infosec professionals and consultants, as well as government, military, and corporate IT strategists who must defend against myriad threats from non-state actors. The authors take readers inside the operations and tactics of cyber guerillas, who are changing the dynamics of cyber warfare and information security through their unconventional strategies and threats. This book draws lessons from the authors’ own experiences but also from illustrative hacker groups such as Anonymous, LulzSec and Rebellious Rose. Discusses the conceptual and ideological foundation of hackers and hacker groups Provides concrete footholds regarding hacker group strategy Discusses how cyber guerillas are changing the face of cyber warfare and cyber security through asymmetrical, flexible and stealthy means and methods Explains the tactics, techniques, and procedures these hacker groups use in their operations Describes how cyber guerrillas and hackers use the media and influence the public Serves as a must-have guide for anyone who wants to understand—or is responsible for defending against—cyber warfare attacks
Author: Stephan De Spiegeire,Peter Wijninga,Tim Sweijs
Publisher: The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies
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As the NATO combat mission in Afghanistan draws to an end, the ‘West’ is starting to take a hard look back at two decades of global stabilization efforts. The ‘lessons learned’ literature on these efforts is exploding. One of the dominant themes in this literature is the need to embed the specifically military toolkit into a much more comprehensive, integrated approach towards planning and executing. In this forward-looking report, HCSS goes a step further by focusing not on the operational but on the strategic level of decision-making. Today, this strategic layer is driven much more by domestic and international ‘politicking’ than by creative strategic thinking. This report advocates a new approach to strategic decision-making which we label ‘strategic design’. It summarizes and borrows some key insights from the ‘design thinking’ literature in the business and public management literature and applies those to the security challenges surrounding stabilization efforts. The report then illustrates this approach by developing and evaluating a few ‘design sketches’ for new capability elements that even a small force provider like The Netherlands could start developing. The report might be of interest to strategic planners and decision-makers on both the military and civilians side
Author: Christopher Paul,Colin P. Clarke,Michael Schwille,Michael A. Brown,Jakub P. Hlavka,Steven S. Davenport,Isaac R. Porche, III,Joel Harding
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An examination of the evolution of both allied and adversary use of information power, alongside a comparative analysis of capability areas in which these others excel, can guide future U.S. Army force planning.
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This study is intended to support a dialogue among China, the United States, and other key Asian powers. It focuses on the current developments in China’s military strategy, forces, and modernization, but in the context of how they are influencing U.S. strategy and force development and the reactions of Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan.
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Written by a team of international lawyers from Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Caribbean, this book analyses some of the most significant aspects of the ongoing armed conflict between the Russian Federation and Ukraine. As challenging as this conflict is for the international legal order, it also offers lessons to be learned by the States concerned, and by other States alike. The book analyses the application of international law in this conflict, and suggests ways for this law’s progressive development. It will be useful to practitioners of international law working at national Ministries of Defence, Justice, and Foreign Affairs, as well as in Parliaments, to lawyers of international organizations, and to national and international judges dealing with matters of public international law, international humanitarian law and criminal law. It will also be of interest to scholars and students of international law, and to historians of international relations. Sergey Sayapin is Assistant Professor in International and Criminal Law at the School of Law of the KIMEP University in Almaty, Kazakhstan. Evhen Tsybulenko is Professor of Law at the Department of Law of the Tallinn University of Technology in Tallinn, Estonia.
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With the continued application of gaming for training and education, which has seen exponential growth over the past two decades, this book offers an insightful introduction to the current developments and applications of game technologies within educational settings, with cutting-edge academic research and industry insights, providing a greater understanding into current and future developments and advances within this field. Following on from the success of the first volume in 2011, researchers from around the world presents up-to-date research on a broad range of new and emerging topics such as serious games and emotion, games for music education and games for medical training, to gamification, bespoke serious games, and adaptation of commercial off-the shelf games for education and narrative design, giving readers a thorough understanding of the advances and current issues facing developers and designers regarding games for training and education. This second volume of Serious Games and Edutainment Applications offers further insights for researchers, designers and educators who are interested in using serious games for training and educational purposes, and gives game developers with detailed information on current topics and developments within this growing area.
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Since the end of World War II, the United States has made maintaining a favorable balance of power in Eurasia a core element of its national security strategy. It did so in good measure by maintaining a large conventional military force that was based not only at home, but also in bases spread across Europe and Asia. That strategy was buttressed by developing security ties and alliances with key powers and front-line states. The implicit bargain was that the United States would help keep the peace on their door front if they would provide access from which American forces could operate and, in turn, maintain credible forces themselves to reinforce and support U.S. efforts at keeping the great power peace. The question raised by this collection of essays is: Is that bargain unraveling? As the following chapters note, since the end of the great power threat posed by the Soviet Union, both the United States and its principal allies have seen fit to cut the size of their forces substantially and, in most cases, slowed efforts at re- placing military systems and platforms. The quandary many of America's allies have faced is, on the one hand, reforming their militaries to make them more expeditionary and useful for addressing various security problems-such as piracy, terrorism, and the instability brought about by collapsing regimes. On the other hand, not having the political resources at home to prioritize defense spending in the face of domestic demands and, more recently, faltering economies are also problems that need to be considered. The result is smaller, half-modernized militaries with often significant gaps in key capabilities. The strategic problem is that, while its allies and partners have shrunk their militaries, so too has the United States. It no longer retains a military sized to handle multiple major contingencies at once as it once did and is now facing the prospect of not only continuing to deal with large-scale disorder within the Middle East but also the problematic behavior of two major military powers, China and Russia. In short, at a time when the United States needs the most help, the prospects for receiving it, with the exception of a few allies, look more worrisome than at any point since perhaps the immediate aftermath of World War II. A Hard Look at Hard Power provides in-depth analysis of the state of key allied militaries. It could not be more timely.
Organizing for Safety and Security in Military Organizations
Author: Robert Beeres,Gwendolyn Bakx,Erik de Waard,Sebastiaan Rietjens
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NL ARMS 2016 offers a collection of studies on the interrelatedness of safety and security in military organizations so as to anticipate or even prepare for dire situations. The volume contains a wide spectrum of contributions on organizing for safety and security in a military context that are theoretically as well as empirically relevant. Theoretically, the contributions draw upon international security studies, safety science and organizational studies. Empirically, case studies address the reality of safety and security in national crisis management, logistics and unconventional warfare, focusing, amongst others, on rule of law during missions in which expeditionary military forces are involved in policing tasks to restore and reinforce safety and security and on the impact of rule of law on societal security. The result is a truly unique volume that may serve practitioners, policymakers and academics in gaining a better understanding of organizing for the security-safety nexus.
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NATO officials plan to unveil the new NATO Strategic Concept during the Alliance's summit in Portugal at the end of this year. This monograph focuses on the impact the Strategic Concept will have on the Alliance. It analyzes recent trends within NATO and their implications, and describes four possible future scenarios which would impact on NATO. The Alliance membership has grown to 28 countries and it faces problems with changing demographics, an awkward relationship with Russia, a war in Afghanistan and threats of global jihad. Muslim immigration into Europe and population aging will have a great impact on European views of the Alliance. NATO must decide how closely it wants to work and coordinate with Russia in future endeavors. The most important issue at hand is how NATO is going to fare coming out of the war in Afghanistan. It is imperative that the New Strategic Concept address NATO goals in Afghanistan and the ways and means of accomplishing those goals. Defined goals will give member nations objectives while formulating national defense plans. Getting the Strategic Concept right is the first step in maintaining the health of the Alliance.--Summary from book.
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The U.S. Army's Future Combat Systems program aimed to field an ambitious system of systems, with novel technologies integrated via an advanced wireless network. The largest and most ambitious planned acquisition program in the Army's history, it was cancelled in 2009, and some of its efforts transitioned to follow-on programs. This report documents the program's complex history and draws lessons from its experiences.
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This book explores the political process behind the construction of cyber-threats as one of the quintessential security threats of modern times in the US. Myriam Dunn Cavelty posits that cyber-threats are definable by their unsubstantiated nature. Despite this, they have been propelled to the forefront of the political agenda. Using an innovative theoretical approach, this book examines how, under what conditions, by whom, for what reasons, and with what impact cyber-threats have been moved on to the political agenda. In particular, it analyses how governments have used threat frames, specific interpretive schemata about what counts as a threat or risk and how to respond to this threat. By approaching this subject from a security studies angle, this book closes a gap between practical and theoretical academic approaches. It also contributes to the more general debate about changing practices of national security and their implications for the international community.
Policy Responses to the Growing Threat of Antibiotic Resistance
Author: Ramanan Laxminarayan,Anup Malani
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Our ability to treat common bacterial infections with antibiotics goes back only 65 years. However, the authors of this report make it clear that sustaining a supply of effective and affordable antibiotics cannot be without changes to the incentives facing patients, physicians, hospitals, insurers, and pharmaceutical manufacturers. In fact, increasing resistance to these drugs is already exacting a terrible price. Every day in the United States, approximately 172 men, women, and children die from infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospitals alone. Beyond those deaths, antibiotic resistance is costing billions of dollars through prolonged hospital stays and the need for doctors to resort to ever more costly drugs to use as substitute treatments. Extending the Cure presents the problem of antibiotic resistance as a conflict between individual decision makers and their short-term interest and the interest of society as a whole, in both present and future: The effort that doctors make to please each patient by prescribing a drug when it might not be properly indicated, poor monitoring of discharged patients to ensure that they do not transmit drug-resistant pathogens to other persons, excesses in the marketing of new antibiotics, and the broad overuse of antibiotics all contribute to the development and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The book explores a range of policy options that would encourage patients, health care providers, and managed care organizations to serve as more responsible stewards of existing antibiotics as well as proposals that would give pharmaceutical firms greater incentives to develop new antibiotics and avoid overselling. If the problem continues unaddressed, antibiotic resistance has the potential to derail the health care system and return us to a world where people of all ages routinely die from simple infections. As a basis for future research and a spur to a critically important dialogue, Extending the Cure is a fundamental first step in addressing this public health crisis. The Extending the Cure project is funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation through its Pioneer Portfolio.
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Discussions concerning civilian casualties in warfare continue to elicit very emotional responses among the public at large. Dr. Sarah Sewall, in Chasing Success: Air Force Efforts to Reduce Civilian Harm, depicts the US Air Force's efforts over the past twenty-plus years being at the vanguard of minimizing civilian harm in conflict while still effectively pursuing military objectives. When the Air Force Research Institute turned to Dr. Sewall to write this work, we understood that warfare is a messy business. At its core, when other elements of national power have failed to persuade and deter, warfare is about forcing one's will upon an adversary, including applying controlled violence. History is rife with examples of civilizations falling after their armies in the field are defeated and their cities are sacked, looted, and burned. The nature of modern warfare extracted an increasingly high toll on civilians as weapons became more deadly. As early as our own Civil War, the American military has become increasingly aware of civilian casualties-as has the international community, following the close of World War II. Nazi Germany's attacks on London utilizing terror weapons, such as the V-1 and V-2, and the Allied bombings of Dresden and Hiroshima demonstrated the totality of warfare in the modern era. The Geneva Conventions of 1949 attempted to define the basic rights of not just wartime prisoners but also to establish protection for civilians in and around a war zone. Warfare has become increasingly more complex. Some organizations, like the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), are following the old historical examples in which they convert, enslave, or murder the civilian residents in conquered territories. In other conflicts, with the rise of insurgencies across the globe, standing militaries no longer meet on a battlefield where identifiable fronts and protected zones exist. In Iraq and Afghanistan, adversaries hiding within civilian populations have become the norm rather than the exception. Precision-guided munitions (PGM) have enabled more accurate delivery of kinetic effects, improving airpower's effectiveness while reducing risk to friendly forces. PGMs have also enabled airpower to reduce collateral damage and civilian casualties through more precise targeting. Yet PGMs, and the humans who deliver them, are not infallible, nor is the targeting information obtained during wartime perfect. Thus, unintended effects can be reduced but never completely eliminated. An open dialogue on such controversial issues as civilian vi casualties depicts the true strength of our Air Force and demonstrates the best attributes of a military operating inside a democratic society. It is in this spirit of open dialogue that we present Dr. Sewall's work on a very timely and emotionally charged subject.
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The Aegis BMD program gives Navy Aegis cruisers and destroyers a capability for conducting BMD operations. Under current plans, the number of BMD-capable Navy Aegis ships is scheduled to grow from 20 at the end of FY 2010 to 38 at the end of FY 2015. Contents of this report: (1) Intro.; (2) Background: Planned Quantities of Ships, Ashore Sites, and Interceptor Missiles; Aegis BMD Flight Tests; Allied Participation and Interest in Aegis BMD Program; (3) Issues for Congress: Demands for BMD-Capable Aegis Ships; Demands for Aegis Ships in General; Numbers of SM-3 Interceptors; SM-2 Block IV Capability for 4.0.1 and Higher Versions; (4) Legislative Activity for FY 2011. Charts and tables. This is a print on demand publication.
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This book provides expert advice on the practical implementation of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and systematically analyses its various provisions. Examples, tables, a checklist etc. showcase the practical consequences of the new legislation. The handbook examines the GDPR’s scope of application, the organizational and material requirements for data protection, the rights of data subjects, the role of the Supervisory Authorities, enforcement and fines under the GDPR, and national particularities. In addition, it supplies a brief outlook on the legal consequences for seminal data processing areas, such as Cloud Computing, Big Data and the Internet of Things.Adopted in 2016, the General Data Protection Regulation will come into force in May 2018. It provides for numerous new and intensified data protection obligations, as well as a significant increase in fines (up to 20 million euros). As a result, not only companies located within the European Union will have to change their approach to data security; due to the GDPR’s broad, transnational scope of application, it will affect numerous companies worldwide.