Modeling Survival Data: Extending the Cox Model

Author: Terry M. Therneau,Patricia M. Grambsch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475732945

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 9173

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This book is for statistical practitioners, particularly those who design and analyze studies for survival and event history data. Building on recent developments motivated by counting process and martingale theory, it shows the reader how to extend the Cox model to analyze multiple/correlated event data using marginal and random effects. The focus is on actual data examples, the analysis and interpretation of results, and computation. The book shows how these new methods can be implemented in SAS and S-Plus, including computer code, worked examples, and data sets.

Survival Analysis

A Self-Learning Text

Author: David G. Kleinbaum,Mitchel Klein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475725558

Category: Medical

Page: 324

View: 4586

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A straightforward and easy-to-follow introduction to the main concepts and techniques of the subject. It is based on numerous courses given by the author to students and researchers in the health sciences and is written with such readers in mind. A "user-friendly" layout includes numerous illustrations and exercises and the book is written in such a way so as to enable readers learn directly without the assistance of a classroom instructor. Throughout, there is an emphasis on presenting each new topic backed by real examples of a survival analysis investigation, followed up with thorough analyses of real data sets. Each chapter concludes with practice exercises to help readers reinforce their understanding of the concepts covered, before going on to a more comprehensive test. Answers to both are included. Readers will enjoy David Kleinbaums style of presentation, making this an excellent introduction for all those coming to the subject for the first time.

Survival and Event History Analysis

A Process Point of View

Author: Odd Aalen,Ornulf Borgan,Hakon Gjessing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038768560X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 540

View: 9797

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The aim of this book is to bridge the gap between standard textbook models and a range of models where the dynamic structure of the data manifests itself fully. The common denominator of such models is stochastic processes. The authors show how counting processes, martingales, and stochastic integrals fit very nicely with censored data. Beginning with standard analyses such as Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox regression, the presentation progresses to the additive hazard model and recurrent event data. Stochastic processes are also used as natural models for individual frailty; they allow sensible interpretations of a number of surprising artifacts seen in population data. The stochastic process framework is naturally connected to causality. The authors show how dynamic path analyses can incorporate many modern causality ideas in a framework that takes the time aspect seriously. To make the material accessible to the reader, a large number of practical examples, mainly from medicine, are developed in detail. Stochastic processes are introduced in an intuitive and non-technical manner. The book is aimed at investigators who use event history methods and want a better understanding of the statistical concepts. It is suitable as a textbook for graduate courses in statistics and biostatistics.

Analysis of Multivariate Survival Data

Author: Philip Hougaard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461213045

Category: Mathematics

Page: 542

View: 1962

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Survival data or more general time-to-event data occur in many areas, including medicine, biology, engineering, economics, and demography, but previously standard methods have requested that all time variables are univariate and independent. This book extends the field by allowing for multivariate times. As the field is rather new, the concepts and the possible types of data are described in detail. Four different approaches to the analysis of such data are presented from an applied point of view.

The Frailty Model

Author: Luc Duchateau,Paul Janssen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038772835X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 316

View: 831

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Readers will find in the pages of this book a treatment of the statistical analysis of clustered survival data. Such data are encountered in many scientific disciplines including human and veterinary medicine, biology, epidemiology, public health and demography. A typical example is the time to death in cancer patients, with patients clustered in hospitals. Frailty models provide a powerful tool to analyze clustered survival data. In this book different methods based on the frailty model are described and it is demonstrated how they can be used to analyze clustered survival data. All programs used for these examples are available on the Springer website.

Survival Analysis

Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data

Author: John P. Klein,Melvin L. Moeschberger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475727283

Category: Medical

Page: 502

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Making complex methods more accessible to applied researchers without an advanced mathematical background, the authors present the essence of new techniques available, as well as classical techniques, and apply them to data. Practical suggestions for implementing the various methods are set off in a series of practical notes at the end of each section, while technical details of the derivation of the techniques are sketched in the technical notes. This book will thus be useful for investigators who need to analyse censored or truncated life time data, and as a textbook for a graduate course in survival analysis, the only prerequisite being a standard course in statistical methodology.

Logistic Regression

A Self-Learning Text

Author: David G. Kleinbaum,Mitchel Klein

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144191742X

Category: Medical

Page: 702

View: 8799

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This is the third edition of this text on logistic regression methods, originally published in 1994, with its second e- tion published in 2002. As in the first two editions, each chapter contains a pres- tation of its topic in “lecture?book” format together with objectives, an outline, key formulae, practice exercises, and a test. The “lecture book” has a sequence of illust- tions, formulae, or summary statements in the left column of each page and a script (i. e. , text) in the right column. This format allows you to read the script in conjunction with the illustrations and formulae that highlight the main points, formulae, or examples being presented. This third edition has expanded the second edition by adding three new chapters and a modified computer appendix. We have also expanded our overview of mod- ing strategy guidelines in Chap. 6 to consider causal d- grams. The three new chapters are as follows: Chapter 8: Additional Modeling Strategy Issues Chapter 9: Assessing Goodness of Fit for Logistic Regression Chapter 10: Assessing Discriminatory Performance of a Binary Logistic Model: ROC Curves In adding these three chapters, we have moved Chaps. 8 through 13 from the second edition to follow the new chapters, so that these previous chapters have been ren- bered as Chaps. 11–16 in this third edition.

Introducing Survival and Event History Analysis

Author: Melinda Mills

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1848601026

Category: Social Science

Page: 279

View: 642

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This book is an accessible, practical and comprehensive guide for researchers from multiple disciplines including biomedical, epidemiology, engineering and the social sciences. Written for accessibility, this book will appeal to students and researchers who want to understand the basics of survival and event history analysis and apply these methods without getting entangled in mathematical and theoretical technicalities. Inside, readers are offered a blueprint for their entire research project from data preparation to model selection and diagnostics. Engaging, easy to read, functional and packed with enlightening examples, ‘hands-on’ exercises, conversations with key scholars and resources for both students and instructors, this text allows researchers to quickly master advanced statistical techniques. It is written from the perspective of the ‘user’, making it suitable as both a self-learning tool and graduate-level textbook. Also included are up-to-date innovations in the field, including advancements in the assessment of model fit, unobserved heterogeneity, recurrent events and multilevel event history models. Practical instructions are also included for using the statistical programs of R, STATA and SPSS, enabling readers to replicate the examples described in the text.

Bayesian Ideas and Data Analysis

An Introduction for Scientists and Statisticians

Author: Ronald Christensen,Wesley Johnson,Adam Branscum,Timothy E Hanson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439803552

Category: Mathematics

Page: 516

View: 4909

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Emphasizing the use of WinBUGS and R to analyze real data, Bayesian Ideas and Data Analysis: An Introduction for Scientists and Statisticians presents statistical tools to address scientific questions. It highlights foundational issues in statistics, the importance of making accurate predictions, and the need for scientists and statisticians to collaborate in analyzing data. The WinBUGS code provided offers a convenient platform to model and analyze a wide range of data. The first five chapters of the book contain core material that spans basic Bayesian ideas, calculations, and inference, including modeling one and two sample data from traditional sampling models. The text then covers Monte Carlo methods, such as Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation. After discussing linear structures in regression, it presents binomial regression, normal regression, analysis of variance, and Poisson regression, before extending these methods to handle correlated data. The authors also examine survival analysis and binary diagnostic testing. A complementary chapter on diagnostic testing for continuous outcomes is available on the book’s website. The last chapter on nonparametric inference explores density estimation and flexible regression modeling of mean functions. The appropriate statistical analysis of data involves a collaborative effort between scientists and statisticians. Exemplifying this approach, Bayesian Ideas and Data Analysis focuses on the necessary tools and concepts for modeling and analyzing scientific data. Data sets and codes are provided on a supplemental website.

The R Book

Author: Michael J. Crawley

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118448960

Category: Mathematics

Page: 1080

View: 9444

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Hugely successful and popular text presenting an extensive and comprehensive guide for all R users The R language is recognized as one of the most powerful and flexible statistical software packages, enabling users to apply many statistical techniques that would be impossible without such software to help implement such large data sets. R has become an essential tool for understanding and carrying out research. This edition: Features full colour text and extensive graphics throughout. Introduces a clear structure with numbered section headings to help readers locate information more efficiently. Looks at the evolution of R over the past five years. Features a new chapter on Bayesian Analysis and Meta-Analysis. Presents a fully revised and updated bibliography and reference section. Is supported by an accompanying website allowing examples from the text to be run by the user. Praise for the first edition: ‘…if you are an R user or wannabe R user, this text is the one that should be on your shelf. The breadth of topics covered is unsurpassed when it comes to texts on data analysis in R.’ (The American Statistician, August 2008) ‘The High-level software language of R is setting standards in quantitative analysis. And now anybody can get to grips with it thanks to The R Book…’ (Professional Pensions, July 2007)

Clinical Prediction Models

A Practical Approach to Development, Validation, and Updating

Author: Ewout W. Steyerberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387772448

Category: Medical

Page: 500

View: 9167

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Prediction models are important in various fields, including medicine, physics, meteorology, and finance. Prediction models will become more relevant in the medical field with the increase in knowledge on potential predictors of outcome, e.g. from genetics. Also, the number of applications will increase, e.g. with targeted early detection of disease, and individualized approaches to diagnostic testing and treatment. The current era of evidence-based medicine asks for an individualized approach to medical decision-making. Evidence-based medicine has a central place for meta-analysis to summarize results from randomized controlled trials; similarly prediction models may summarize the effects of predictors to provide individu- ized predictions of a diagnostic or prognostic outcome. Why Read This Book? My motivation for working on this book stems primarily from the fact that the development and applications of prediction models are often suboptimal in medical publications. With this book I hope to contribute to better understanding of relevant issues and give practical advice on better modelling strategies than are nowadays widely used. Issues include: (a) Better predictive modelling is sometimes easily possible; e.g. a large data set with high quality data is available, but all continuous predictors are dich- omized, which is known to have several disadvantages.

Quantitative Methods for Health Research

A Practical Interactive Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics

Author: Nigel Bruce,Daniel Pope,Debbi Stanistreet

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 111869337X

Category: Medical

Page: 552

View: 4888

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Quantitative Research Methods for Health Professionals: A Practical Interactive Course is a superb introduction to epidemiology, biostatistics, and research methodology for the whole health care community. Drawing examples from a wide range of health research, this practical handbook covers important contemporary health research methods such as survival analysis, Cox regression, and meta-analysis, the understanding of which go beyond introductory concepts. The book includes self-assessment exercises throughout to help students explore and reflect on their understanding and a clear distinction is made between a) knowledge and concepts that all students should ensure they understand and b) those that can be pursued by students who wish to do so. The authors incorporate a program of practical exercises in SPSS using a prepared data set that helps to consolidate the theory and develop skills and confidence in data handling, analysis and interpretation.

Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, Second Edition

Author: David Collett

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1584883251

Category: Mathematics

Page: 410

View: 2043

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Critically acclaimed and resoundingly popular in its first edition, Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the many developments and advances--particularly in software--made in the field over the last 10 years. Now, more than ever, it provides an outstanding text for upper-level and graduate courses in survival analysis, biostatistics, and time-to-event analysis.The treatment begins with an introduction to survival analysis and a description of four studies that lead to survival data. Subsequent chapters then use those data sets and others to illustrate the various analytical techniques applicable to such data, including the Cox regression model, the Weibull proportional hazards model, and others. This edition features a more detailed treatment of topics such as parametric models, accelerated failure time models, and analysis of interval-censored data. The author also focuses the software section on the use of SAS, summarising the methods used by the software to generate its output and examining that output in detail. Profusely illustrated with examples and written in the author's trademark, easy-to-follow style, Modelling Survival Data in Medical Research, Second Edition is a thorough, practical guide to survival analysis that reflects current statistical practices.

Statistical Learning with Sparsity

The Lasso and Generalizations

Author: Trevor Hastie,Robert Tibshirani,Martin Wainwright

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498712177

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 367

View: 6571

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Discover New Methods for Dealing with High-Dimensional Data A sparse statistical model has only a small number of nonzero parameters or weights; therefore, it is much easier to estimate and interpret than a dense model. Statistical Learning with Sparsity: The Lasso and Generalizations presents methods that exploit sparsity to help recover the underlying signal in a set of data. Top experts in this rapidly evolving field, the authors describe the lasso for linear regression and a simple coordinate descent algorithm for its computation. They discuss the application of l1 penalties to generalized linear models and support vector machines, cover generalized penalties such as the elastic net and group lasso, and review numerical methods for optimization. They also present statistical inference methods for fitted (lasso) models, including the bootstrap, Bayesian methods, and recently developed approaches. In addition, the book examines matrix decomposition, sparse multivariate analysis, graphical models, and compressed sensing. It concludes with a survey of theoretical results for the lasso. In this age of big data, the number of features measured on a person or object can be large and might be larger than the number of observations. This book shows how the sparsity assumption allows us to tackle these problems and extract useful and reproducible patterns from big datasets. Data analysts, computer scientists, and theorists will appreciate this thorough and up-to-date treatment of sparse statistical modeling.

Analysis of Observational Health Care Data Using SAS

Author: Douglas E. Faries,Robert Obenchain,Josep Maria Haro,Andrew C. Leon

Publisher: SAS Institute

ISBN: 9781607644248

Category: Computers

Page: 452

View: 6741

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This book guides researchers in performing and presenting high-quality analyses of all kinds of non-randomized studies, including analyses of observational studies, claims database analyses, assessment of registry data, survey data, pharmaco-economic data, and many more applications. The text is sufficiently detailed to provide not only general guidance, but to help the researcher through all of the standard issues that arise in such analyses. Just enough theory is included to allow the reader to understand the pros and cons of alternative approaches and when to use each method. The numerous contributors to this book illustrate, via real-world numerical examples and SAS code, appropriate implementations of alternative methods. The end result is that researchers will learn how to present high-quality and transparent analyses that will lead to fair and objective decisions from observational data. This book is part of the SAS Press program.

Regression Methods in Biostatistics

Linear, Logistic, Survival, and Repeated Measures Models

Author: Eric Vittinghoff,David V. Glidden,Stephen C. Shiboski,Charles E. McCulloch

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461413532

Category: Medical

Page: 512

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This new book provides a unified, in-depth, readable introduction to the multipredictor regression methods most widely used in biostatistics: linear models for continuous outcomes, logistic models for binary outcomes, the Cox model for right-censored survival times, repeated-measures models for longitudinal and hierarchical outcomes, and generalized linear models for counts and other outcomes. Treating these topics together takes advantage of all they have in common. The authors point out the many-shared elements in the methods they present for selecting, estimating, checking, and interpreting each of these models. They also show that these regression methods deal with confounding, mediation, and interaction of causal effects in essentially the same way. The examples, analyzed using Stata, are drawn from the biomedical context but generalize to other areas of application. While a first course in statistics is assumed, a chapter reviewing basic statistical methods is included. Some advanced topics are covered but the presentation remains intuitive. A brief introduction to regression analysis of complex surveys and notes for further reading are provided.

Statistical Modeling for Biomedical Researchers

A Simple Introduction to the Analysis of Complex Data

Author: William D. Dupont

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139643819

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

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The second edition of this standard text guides biomedical researchers in the selection and use of advanced statistical methods and the presentation of results to clinical colleagues. It assumes no knowledge of mathematics beyond high school level and is accessible to anyone with an introductory background in statistics. The Stata statistical software package is again used to perform the analyses, this time employing the much improved version 10 with its intuitive point and click as well as character-based commands. Topics covered include linear, logistic and Poisson regression, survival analysis, fixed-effects analysis of variance, and repeated-measure analysis of variance. Restricted cubic splines are used to model non-linear relationships. Each method is introduced in its simplest form and then extended to cover more complex situations. An appendix will help the reader select the most appropriate statistical methods for their data. The text makes extensive use of real data sets available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/dupontwd/wddtext/.

Estimating Animal Abundance

Closed Populations

Author: D.L. Borchers,Stephen T. Buckland,Walter Zucchini

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447137086

Category: Mathematics

Page: 314

View: 3940

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The first accessible introduction to the many various wildlife assessment methods! This book uses a new approach that makes the full range of methods accessible in a way that has not previously been possible. Accompanied by free, user-friendly software to get some "hands-on" experience with the methods and how they perform in different contexts.

Handbook of Multilevel Analysis

Author: Jan Deleeuw,Erik Meijer

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387731865

Category: Mathematics

Page: 494

View: 7117

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This book presents the state of the art in multilevel analysis, with an emphasis on more advanced topics. These topics are discussed conceptually, analyzed mathematically, and illustrated by empirical examples. Multilevel analysis is the statistical analysis of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. The simplest example is clustered data, such as a sample of students clustered within schools. Multilevel data are especially prevalent in the social and behavioral sciences and in the biomedical sciences. The chapter authors are all leading experts in the field. Given the omnipresence of multilevel data in the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences, this book is essential for empirical researchers in these fields.

Mixed Effects Models and Extensions in Ecology with R

Author: Alain Zuur,Elena N. Ieno,Neil Walker,Anatoly A. Saveliev,Graham M. Smith

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387874586

Category: Science

Page: 574

View: 5039

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This book discusses advanced statistical methods that can be used to analyse ecological data. Most environmental collected data are measured repeatedly over time, or space and this requires the use of GLMM or GAMM methods. The book starts by revising regression, additive modelling, GAM and GLM, and then discusses dealing with spatial or temporal dependencies and nested data.