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Since the early 1970s the increasingly effective conduct of archaeological work in the City of London and surrounding parts of the conurbation have revolutionised our view of the development and European importance of London between 1100 and 1600. There have been hundreds of archaeological excavations of every type of site, from the cathedral to chapels, palaces to outhouses, bridges, wharves, streams, fields, kilns, roads and lanes. The study of the material culture of Londoners over these five centuries has begun in earnest, based on thousands of accurately dated artefacts, especially found along the waterfront. Work by documentary historians has complemented and filled out the new picture. This book, written by an archaeologist who has been at the centre of this study since 1974, will summarise the main findings and new suggestions about the development of the City, its ups and downs through the Black Death and the Dissolution of the Monasteries; its place in Europe as a capital city with great architecture and relations with many other parts of Europe, from the Baltic to the Mediterranean. London has been the most intensively studied medieval city in Europe by archaeologists, due to the pace of development especially since the 1970s. Thus although this will be a study of a single medieval city, it will be a major contribution to the Archaeology of Europe, 1100-1600. The book is endorsed by the Museum of London, the City of London Archaeological Trust and the City of London Corporation whose logos will appear on the back cover.
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England during the Middle Ages was at the forefront of European antisemitism. It was in medieval Norwich that the notorious "blood libel" was first introduced when a resident accused the city's Jewish leaders of abducting and ritually murdering a local boy. England also enforced legislation demanding that Jews wear a badge of infamy, and in 1290, it became the first European nation to expel forcibly all of its Jewish residents. In The Accommodated Jew, Kathy Lavezzo rethinks the complex and contradictory relation between England’s rejection of “the Jew” and the centrality of Jews to classic English literature. Drawing on literary, historical, and cartographic texts, she charts an entangled Jewish imaginative presence in English culture. In a sweeping view that extends from the Anglo-Saxon period to the late seventeenth century, Lavezzo tracks how English writers from Bede to Milton imagine Jews via buildings—tombs, latrines and especially houses—that support fantasies of exile. Epitomizing this trope is the blood libel and its implication that Jews cannot be accommodated in England because of the anti-Christian violence they allegedly perform in their homes. In the Croxton Play of the Sacrament, Marlowe’s The Jew of Malta, and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, the Jewish house not only serves as a lethal trap but also as the site of an emerging bourgeoisie incompatible with Christian pieties. Lavezzo reveals the central place of “the Jew” in the slow process by which a Christian “nation of shopkeepers” negotiated their relationship to the urban capitalist sensibility they came to embrace and embody. In the book’s epilogue, she advances her inquiry into Victorian England and the relationship between Charles Dickens (whose Fagin is the second most infamous Jew in English literature after Shylock) and the Jewish couple that purchased his London home, Tavistock House, showing how far relations between gentiles and Jews in England had (and had not) evolved.
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"When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford." – Samuel Johnson From plagues and poverty to financial scandals, serial killers to public executions, mad monarchs to barbaric mental asylums, Bloody History of Londonreaches deeply into the city’s long history and ranges widely across the social, political and cultural life of the metropolis. Founded by the Romans and attacked by the Vikings, London grew to become an immense trading city. Included here are tales of medieval torture in the Tower, burnings at the stake during the Reformation and Counter-Reformation, the merry debauchery of the Restoration and the market crash of the South Sea Bubble. From political skullduggery among the Tudors to the Cold War Profumo scandal and assassination of Georgy Markov, the book is a lively account across almost 2,000 years of London history. Immensely entertaining and illustrated with 180 colour and black-&-white artworks, Bloody History of London is an engaging and highly informative exploration of the highlights of London lowlife and the depravities of London’s high life.
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In 1666 London was devastated by the Great Fire, which gutted over 13,000 houses, over eighty parish churches and St Paul's Cathedral. Bob Jones has set out to discover the original structures and streets that survived the Great Fire and can still be seen today.
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The River Thames has been integral to the prosperity of London since Roman times. Explorers sailed away on voyages of discovery to distant lands. Colonies were established and a great empire grew. Funding their ships and cargoes helped make the City of London into the world's leading financial center. In the 19th century a vast network of docks was created for ever-larger ships, behind high, prison-like walls that kept them secret from all those who did not toil within. Sail made way for steam as goods were dispatched to every corner of the world. In the 19th century London was the world's greatest port city. In the Second World War the Port of London became Hitler's prime target. It paid a heavy price but soon recovered. Yet by the end of the 20th century the docks had been transformed into Docklands, a new financial center. The History of the Port of London: A Vast Emporium of Nations is the fascinating story of the rise and fall and revival of the commercial river. The only book to tell the whole story and bring it right up to date, it charts the foundation, growth and evolution of the port and explains why for centuries it has been so important to Britain's prosperity. This book will appeal to those interested in London's history, maritime and industrial heritage, the Docklands and East End of London, and the River Thames.
Author: Bruno Blondé,Marc Boone,Anne-Laure Van Bruaene
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
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The Low Countries was collectively one of the earliest and most heavily urbanised societies in European history. Present-day Belgium and the Netherlands still share important common features, such as comparatively low income inequalities, high levels of per capita income, a balanced political structure, and a strong 'civil society'. This book traces the origins of this specific social model in medieval patterns of urbanisation, while also searching for explanations for the historical reproduction of social inequalities. Access to cheap inland river navigation and to the sea generated a 'river delta' urbanisation that explains the persistence of a decentralised urban economic network, marked by intensive cooperation and competition and by the absence of real metropolises. Internally as well, powerful checks and balances prevented money and power from being concentrated. Ultimately, however, the utmost defining characteristic of the Low Countries' urban cultures was located in their resilient middle classes.
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London in the 16th and 17th centuries was a place of phenomenal change and growth. The arrival of merchants and artisans from continental Europe prompted rapid technological development in many trades and crafts. This book focuses predominantly on silk weaving, beer brewing and the silver trade. It places immigrants in the broader social and economic context of Europe and explores their experience in London.
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A comprehensive study of domestic buildings in London from about 1200 to the Great Fire in 1666. John Schofield describes houses and such related buildings as almshouses, taverns, inns, shops and livery company halls, drawing on evidence from surviving buildings, archaeological excavations, documents, panoramas, drawn surveys and plans, contemporary descriptions, and later engravings and photographs. Schofield presents an overview of the topography of the medieval city, reconstructing its streets, defences, many religious houses and fine civic buildings. He then provides details about the mediaeval and Tudor London house: its plan, individual rooms and spaces and their functions, the roofs, floors and windows, the materials of construction and decoration, and the internal fittings and furniture. Throughout the text he discusses what this evidence tells us about the special restrictions or pleasures of living in the capital; how certain innovations of plan and construction first occurred in London before spreading to other towns; and how notions of privacy developed. in the City of London and its immediate environs.
The Medieval Wool trade and Its Political Importance 1100–1600
Author: Susan Rose
Publisher: Oxbow Books
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The wool trade was undoubtedly one of the most important elements of the British economy throughout the medieval period - even the seat occupied by the speaker of the House of lords rests on a woolsack. In The Wealth of England Susan Rose brings together the social, economic and political strands in the development of the wool trade and show how and why it became so important. The author looks at the lives of prominent wool-men; gentry who based their wealth on producing this commodity like the Stonors in the Chilterns, canny middlemen who rose to prominence in the City of London like Nicholas Brembre and Richard (Dick) Whittington, and men who acquired wealth and influence like William de la Pole of Hull. She examines how the wealth made by these and other wool-men transformed the appearance of the leading centres of the trade with magnificent churches and other buildings. The export of wool also gave England links with Italian trading cities at the very time that the Renaissance was transforming cultural life. The complex operation of the trade is also explained with the role of the Staple at Calais to the fore leading to a discussion on the way the policy of English kings, especially in the fourteenth century, was heavily influenced by trade in this one commodity. No other book has treated this subject holistically with its influence on the course of English history made plain. Susan Rose presents a fascinating new exposition on the role of the wool trade in the economy and political history of medieval England. She shows how this simple product created wealth and status among men of hugely varying backgrounds, transformed market towns both economically and in architectural terms and contributed to fundamental social and cultural changes through trading links with Italy and other European countries at the height of the Renaissance
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This is the first volume concerned solely with the archaeology of a major late 17th century building in London, and the major changes it has undergone. St Paul’s Cathedral in the City of London was built in 1675–1711 to the designs of Sir Christopher Wren and has been described as an iconic building many times. In this major new account, John Schofield examines the cathedral from an archaeological perspective, reviewing its history from the early 18th to the early 21st century, as illustrated by recent archaeological recording, documentary research and engineering assessment. A detailed account of the construction of the cathedral is provided based on a comparison of the fabric with voluminous building accounts which have survived and evidence from recent archaeological investigation. The construction of the Wren building and its embellishments are followed by the main works of later surveyors such as Robert Mylne and Francis Penrose. The 20th century brought further changes and conservation projects, including restoration after the building was hit by two bombs in World War II, and all its windows blown out. The 1990s and first years of the present century have witnessed considerable refurbishment and cleaning involving archaeological and engineering works. Archaeological specialist reports and an engineering review of the stability and character of the building are provided.
Author: Jonathan Cohen,William G Powderly,Steven M. Opal
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
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Drs. Cohen, Powderly and Opal, three of the most-respected names in infectious disease medicine, lead a diverse team of international contributors to bring you the latest knowledge and best practices. Extensively updated, the fourth edition includes brand-new information on advances in diagnosis of infection; Hepatitis C; managing resistant bacterial infections; and many other timely topics. An abundance of photographs and illustrations; a practical, clinically-focused style; highly-templated organization; and robust interactive content combine to make this clinician-friendly resource the fastest and best place to find all of the authoritative, current information you need. Hundreds of full-color photographs and figures provide unparalleled visual guidance. Consistent chapter organization and colorful layouts make for quick searches. Clinically-focused guidance from "Practice Points" demonstrates how to diagnose and treat complicated problems encountered in practice. The "Syndromes by Body System", "HIV and AIDS", and "International Medicine" sections are designed to reflect how practicing specialists think when faced with a patient. Sweeping updates include new or revised chapters on: Hepatitis C and antivirals Fungal infection and newer antifungals Microbiome and infectious diseases as well as advances in diagnosis of infection; Clostridium difficile epidemiology; infection control in the ICU setting; Chlamydia trachomatis infection; acquired syndromes associated with autoantibodies to cytokines;; management of multidrug resistant pathogens; probiotics, polymyxins, and the pathway to developing new antibiotics HIV including HIV and aging, antiretroviral therapy in developing countries, and cure for HIV