Lively Capital

Biotechnologies, Ethics, and Governance in Global Markets

Author: Kaushik Sunder Rajan

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822348314

Category: Science

Page: 511

View: 4996

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This collection of anthropology of science essays explores the new forms of capital, markets, ethical, legal, and intellectual property concerns associated with new forms of research in the life sciences.

Pharmocracy

Value, Politics, and Knowledge in Global Biomedicine

Author: Kaushik Sunder Rajan

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373289

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 4926

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Continuing his pioneering theoretical explorations into the relationships among biosciences, the market, and political economy, Kaushik Sunder Rajan introduces the concept of pharmocracy to explain the structure and operation of the global hegemony of the multinational pharmaceutical industry. He reveals pharmocracy's logic in two case studies from contemporary India: the controversial introduction of an HPV vaccine in 2010, and the Indian Patent Office's denial of a patent for an anticancer drug in 2006 and ensuing legal battles. In each instance health was appropriated by capital and transformed from an embodied state of well-being into an abstract category made subject to capital's interests. These cases demonstrate the precarious situation in which pharmocracy places democracy, as India's accommodation of global pharmaceutical regulatory frameworks pits the interests of its citizens against those of international capital. Sunder Rajan's insights into this dynamic make clear the high stakes of pharmocracy's intersection with health, politics, and democracy.

Biocapital

The Constitution of Postgenomic Life

Author: Kaushik Sunder Rajan

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822337201

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 343

View: 5814

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DIVAn ethnography about the work of genome scientists, entrepreneurs, and policy makers in biotech drug development in the United States and India./div

Drugs for Life

How Pharmaceutical Companies Define Our Health

Author: Joseph Dumit

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822348713

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 262

View: 8271

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Joseph Dumit argues that underlying Americans' burgeoning consumption of prescription drugs and the skyrocketing cost of healthcare is a relatively new perception of ourselves as inherently ill and in need of chronic treatment.

Speculative Markets

Drug Circuits and Derivative Life in Nigeria

Author: Kristin Peterson

Publisher: Duke University Press Books

ISBN: 9780822357025

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 4511

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In this unprecedented account of the dynamics of Nigeria's pharmaceutical markets, Kristin Peterson connects multinational drug company policies, oil concerns, Nigerian political and economic transitions, the circulation of pharmaceuticals in the Global South, Wall Street machinations, and the needs and aspirations of individual Nigerians. Studying the pharmaceutical market in Lagos, Nigeria, she places local market social norms and credit and pricing practices in the broader context of regional, transnational, and global financial capital. Peterson explains how a significant and formerly profitable African pharmaceutical market collapsed in the face of U.S. monetary policies and neoliberal economic reforms, and she illuminates the relation between that collapse and the American turn to speculative capital during the 1980s. In the process, she reveals the mutual constitution of financial speculation in the drug industry and the structural adjustment plans that the IMF imposed on African nations. Her book is a sobering ethnographic analysis of the effects of speculation and "development" as they reverberate across markets and continents, and play out in everyday interpersonal transactions of the Lagos pharmaceutical market.

Beyond Bioethics

Toward a New Biopolitics

Author: Osagie K. Obasogie,Marcy Darnovsky

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520277821

Category: Medical

Page: 552

View: 3959

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"For several decades, the field of bioethics has played a dominant role in shaping the way society thinks about ethical problems related to developments in science, technology, and medicine. But its traditional emphases on, for example, doctor-patient relationships, informed consent, and individual autonomy have led the field to not be fully responsive to the challenges posed by new human biotechnologies such as assisted reproduction, human genetic enhancement, and DNA forensics. Beyond Bioethics provides a focused overview for students and others grappling with the profound social dilemmas posed by these developments. It brings together the work of cutting-edge thinkers from diverse fields of study and public engagement, all of them committed to a new perspective that is grounded in social justice and public interest values. The contributors to this volume seek to define an emerging field of scholarly, policy, and public concern: a new biopolitics."--Provided by publisher.

An Anthropology of Biomedicine

Author: Margaret Lock,Vinh-Kim Nguyen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119069130

Category: Medical

Page: 560

View: 4126

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"Edition History: Margaret Lock and Vinh-Kim Nguyen (1e, 2010) published by Blackwell Ltd."--T.p. verso.

Dynamic Sustainabilities

Technology, Environment, Social Justice

Author: Melissa Leach,Ian Scoones,Andy Stirling

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1849710937

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 212

View: 9445

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Introducing a new pathways approach for understanding and responding to sustainability challenges, this title explores practical ways forward for building pathways to sustainability.

Tactical Biopolitics

Art, Activism, and Technoscience

Author: Beatriz Da Costa,Kavita Philip

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262514915

Category: Art

Page: 536

View: 5535

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Scientists, scholars, and artists consider the political significance of recent advances in the biological sciences.

Asian Biotech

Ethics and Communities of Fate

Author: Aihwa Ong,Nancy N. Chen

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822393204

Category: Social Science

Page: 344

View: 6384

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Providing the first overview of Asia’s emerging biosciences landscape, this timely and important collection brings together ethnographic case studies on biotech endeavors such as genetically modified foods in China, clinical trials in India, blood collection in Singapore and China, and stem-cell research in Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. While biotech policies and projects vary by country, the contributors identify a significant trend toward state entrepreneurialism in biotechnology, and they highlight the ways that political thinking and ethical reasoning are converging around the biosciences. As ascendant nations in a region of postcolonial emergence, with an “uncanny surplus” in population and pandemics, Asian countries treat their populations as sources of opportunity and risk. Biotech enterprises are allied to efforts to overcome past humiliations and restore national identity and political ambition, and they are legitimized as solutions to national anxieties about food supplies, diseases, epidemics, and unknown biological crises in the future. Biotechnological responses to perceived risks stir deep feelings about shared fate, and they crystallize new ethical configurations, often re-inscribing traditional beliefs about ethnicity, nation, and race. As many of the essays in this collection illustrate, state involvement in biotech initiatives is driving the emergence of “biosovereignty,” an increasing pressure for state control over biological resources, commercial health products, corporate behavior, and genetic based-identities. Asian Biotech offers much-needed analysis of the interplay among biotechnologies, economic growth, biosecurity, and ethical practices in Asia. Contributors Vincanne Adams Nancy N. Chen Stefan Ecks Kathleen Erwin Phuoc V. Le Jennifer Liu Aihwa Ong Margaret Sleeboom-Faulkner Kaushik Sunder Rajan Wen-Ching Sung Charis Thompson Ara Wilson

Bioethics Education in a Global Perspective

Challenges in global bioethics

Author: Henk A.M.J. ten Have

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9401792321

Category: Philosophy

Page: 221

View: 8172

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This book critically analyses experiences with bioethics education in various countries across the world and identifies common challenges and interests. It presents ethics teaching experiences in nine different countries and the basic question of the goals of bioethics education. It addresses bioethics education in resource-poor countries, as the conditions and facilities are widely different and set limits and provide challenges to bioethics educators. Further, the question of how bioethics education can be improved is explored by the contributors. Despite the volume of journal publications agreement on bioethics education is rather limited. There are only few examples of core curricula, demonstrating consensus on the contents, goals, methods and assessment of teaching programs. We need ask: How can agreement on the best modalities of bioethics education be promoted?.

Race Decoded

The Genomic Fight for Social Justice

Author: Catherine Bliss

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804782059

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 3844

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In 2000, with the success of the Human Genome Project, scientists declared the death of race in biology and medicine. But within five years, many of these same scientists had reversed course and embarked upon a new hunt for the biological meaning of race. Drawing on personal interviews and life stories, Race Decoded takes us into the world of elite genome scientists—including Francis Collins, director of the NIH; Craig Venter, the first person to create a synthetic genome; and Spencer Wells, National Geographic Society explorer-in-residence, among others—to show how and why they are formulating new ways of thinking about race. In this original exploration, Catherine Bliss reveals a paradigm shift, both at the level of science and society, from colorblindness to racial consciousness. Scientists have been fighting older understandings of race in biology while simultaneously promoting a new grand-scale program of minority inclusion. In selecting research topics or considering research design, scientists routinely draw upon personal experience of race to push the public to think about race as a biosocial entity, and even those of the most privileged racial and social backgrounds incorporate identity politics in the scientific process. Though individual scientists may view their positions differently—whether as a black civil rights activist or a white bench scientist—all stakeholders in the scientific debates are drawing on memories of racial discrimination to fashion a science-based activism to fight for social justice.

The Anthropology of Sustainability

Beyond Development and Progress

Author: Marc Brightman,Jerome Lewis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137566361

Category: Social Science

Page: 316

View: 920

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This book compiles research from leading experts in the social, behavioral, and cultural dimensions of sustainability, as well as local and global understandings of the concept, and on lived practices around the world. It contains studies focusing on ways of living, acting, and thinking which claim to favor the local and global ecological systems of which we are a part, and on which we depend for survival. The concept of sustainability as a product of concern about global environmental degradation, rising social inequalities, and dispossession is presented as a key concept. The contributors explore the opportunities to engage with questions of sustainability and to redefine the concept of sustainability in anthropological terms.

Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy

Rebuilding Progress

Author: Devaki Jain,Diane Elson

Publisher: IDRC

ISBN: 8132107411

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 347

View: 756

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Harvesting Feminist Knowledge for Public Policy brings together 14 essays by feminist thinkers from different parts of the world, reflecting on the flaws in the current patterns of development and arguing for political, economic, and social changes to promote equality and sustainability. The contributors argue that the very approach being taken to understand and measure progress, and plan for and evaluate development, needs rethinking in ways that draw on the experiences and knowledge of women. All the essays, in diverse ways, offer proposals for alternative ideas to address the limitations and contradictions of currently dominant theories and practices in development, and move towards the creation of a socially just and egalitarian world.

Environmental Governance in Latin America

Author: Fabio De Castro,Barbara Hogenboom,Michiel Baud

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137505729

Category: Political Science

Page: 338

View: 1826

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This book is open access under a CC-BY license. The multiple purposes of nature – livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists – have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a resource-rich region, unequal power relations, conflicting priorities, and trade-offs among multiple goals have led to a myriad of contrasting initiatives that are reshaping social relations and rural territories. This edited collection addresses these tensions by unpacking environmental governance as a complex process of formulating and contesting values, procedures and practices shaping the access, control and use of natural resources. Contributors from various fields address the challenges, limitations, and possibilities for a more sustainable, equal, and fair development. In this book, environmental governance is seen as an overarching concept defining the dynamic and multi-layered repertoire of society-nature interactions, where images of nature and discourses on the use of natural resources are mediated by contextual processes at multiple scales.

Making Death Matter

A Feminist Technoscience Study of Alzheimer's Sciences in the Laboratory

Author: Tara Mehrabi

Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press

ISBN: 9176856550

Category: Electronic books

Page: 263

View: 5021

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This thesis is a contribution to feminist laboratory studies and a critical engagement with the natural sciences, or more precisely research on the biochemical workings and deadly relations of Alzheimer’s disease emanating from a year of field work in a Drosophila fly lab. The natural sciences have been a point of fascination within the field of gender studies for decades. Such sciences produce knowledge on what gets to count as nature and natural, healthy or sick, normal or not, and they have done it with great societal authority and impact throughout European modernity. However, feminist technoscience scholars argue that science and knowledge is socially produced, and political too. Concepts such as nature, animal, human, body, sex, and life itself are not simply given natural realities but phenomena processed through the naturecultures of the laboratory. Situated within such theoretical and methodological approaches, this thesis wonders how scientific facts about Alzheimer’s disease are made in the lab today. What kinds of realities, bodies and ethico-political concerns are enacted? Who gets to live and who gets to die in everyday laboratory practices? Theoretically, the thesis is grounded, particularly, within Karen Barad’s agential realism and posthumanist performativity, and as such it accounts for human and nonhuman entanglements through which AD is performed in the lab in relational ways. In other words, the thesis explores how AD is enacted in the bodies of transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), as these flies embody the disease, live and die with it. Last but not least, the thesis explores the materialities of death, dying, embodiment and biological waste in a biochemistry lab as constitutive parts of the produced knowledge about AD.

A Better Globalization

Legitimacy, Governance, and Reform

Author: Kemal Derviş

Publisher: Ctr for Global Development

ISBN: 9780815717638

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 301

View: 1124

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"Discusses the two broad dimensions of the globalization debate--economic, including finance, trade, poverty, and health; and political, covering security, the fight against terrorism, and the role of international institutions--and the significance of democratic consent in the twenty-first century"--Provided by publisher.

In the Bubble

Designing in a Complex World

Author: John Thackara

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262250375

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 4533

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We're filling up the world with technology and devices, but we've lost sight of an important question: What is this stuff for? What value does it add to our lives? So asks author John Thackara in his new book, In the Bubble: Designing for a Complex World. These are tough questions for the pushers of technology to answer. Our economic system is centered on technology, so it would be no small matter if "tech" ceased to be an end-in-itself in our daily lives. Technology is not going to go away, but the time to discuss the end it will serve is before we deploy it, not after. We need to ask what purpose will be served by the broadband communications, smart materials, wearable computing, and connected appliances that we're unleashing upon the world. We need to ask what impact all this stuff will have on our daily lives. Who will look after it, and how?In the Bubble is about a world based less on stuff and more on people. Thackara describes a transformation that is taking place now -- not in a remote science fiction future; it's not about, as he puts it, "the schlock of the new" but about radical innovation already emerging in daily life. We are regaining respect for what people can do that technology can't. In the Bubble describes services designed to help people carry out daily activities in new ways. Many of these services involve technology -- ranging from body implants to wide-bodied jets. But objects and systems play a supporting role in a people-centered world. The design focus is on services, not things. And new principles -- above all, lightness -- inform the way these services are designed and used. At the heart of In the Bubble is a belief, informed by a wealth of real-world examples, that ethics and responsibility can inform design decisions without impeding social and technical innovation.