Learning from Error in Policing

A Case Study in Organizational Accident Theory

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319000411

Category: Social Science

Page: 91

View: 4568

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​While the proximate cause of any accident is usually someone’s immediate action— or omission (failure to act)—there is often a trail of underlying latent conditions that facilitated their error: the person has, in effect, been unwittingly “set up” for failure by the organization. This Brief explores an accident in policing, as a framework for examining existing police practices. Learning from Error in Policing describes a case of wrongful arrest from the perspective of organizational accident theory, which suggests a single unsafe act—in this case a wrongful arrest—is facilitated by several underlying latent conditions that triggered the event and failed to stop the harm once in motion. The analysis demonstrates that the risk of errors committed by omission (failing to act) were significantly more likely to occur than errors committed by acts of commission. By examining this case, policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. The analysis of this case, and the underlying lessons learned from it will have important implications for researchers and practitioners in the policing field.​

Confidential Informants

A Closer Look at Police Policy

Author: Jon Shane

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331922252X

Category: Social Science

Page: 112

View: 6972

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While confidential informants (CI’s) can play a crucial role in police investigations, they also have the potential to cause great harm if they are dishonest. The process by which police agencies qualify a CI to work and the strength of agency policy may be the source of the problem. This Brief examines the integrity problem involving CIs in police operations within the United States, provides an overview of pitfalls and problems related to veracity and informant integrity including the difficulties in detecting when a CI is lying, and compares the provisions of actual published police policy to the model CI policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP). The analysis shows a wide divergence between actual police policy and the national standard promulgated by the IACP. The Brief provides policy recommendations for improving use of CIs that can potentially reduce or eliminate integrity problems that can lead to organizational accidents such as wrongful arrests and convictions, injuries or deaths. Some Courts have issued measures to ensure that information received from CIs is reliable by examining sworn testimony and documents related to their work. However, as this Brief explores, this judicial effort arises only after a police operation has taken place, and the use of force – even deadly force—has already been employed. The author proposes integrity testing beforehand, which would allow police to have a greater understanding of a CI’s motivation, ability and veracity when conducting law enforcement operations. In addition, there are aspects of police policy that can enhance CI management such as training, supervision and entrapment that can further guard against integrity problems. Although integrity testing is not flawless, it does interpose an additional step in the CI management process that can help guard against wrongful conviction and perjury that harms the judicial process.

Community-Oriented Policing and Technological Innovations

Author: Georgios Leventakis,M. R. Haberfeld

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319892940

Category: Social Science

Page: 131

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This Brief presents new approaches and innovative challenges to address bringing technology into community-oriented policing efforts. “Community-oriented policing” is an approach that encourages police to develop and maintain personal relationships with citizens and community organizations. By developing these partnerships, the goal is to enhance trust and legitimacy of police by the community (and vice versa), and focus on engaging the community crime prevention and detection efforts for sustainable, long-term crime reduction. The contributions to this volume emphasize how technological innovations can advance community-oriented policing goals, such as: -Strengthening community policing principles through effective and efficient tools, procedures and approaches - Accelerating communication between citizens and police forces - Early identification, timely intervention, as well as better crime reporting, identification of risks, unreported and undiscovered crime through the community Contributions to this volume were developed out of the Next Generation Community Policing (NGCP) International Conference was co-organized by nine contributing research and development projects, funded by the Horizon 2020 SECURITY Program of the European Commission. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, as well as related fields such as sociology, public health, security, IT and public policy. This book is open access under a CC BY license.

Best Practices for the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System

Author: Lenore E.A. Walker,James M. Pann,David L. Shapiro,Vincent B. Van Hasselt

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319216562

Category: Psychology

Page: 88

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This timely brief resource introduces a new evidence-based model for treatment of mentally ill individuals in jails, with emphasis on community-based options. Forensic mental health experts review police alternatives to arresting mentally ill persons in confrontations, the efficacy of problem-solving courts, and continuity of care between jail and community. The book's best-practices approach extends to frequently related issues such as addiction, domestic violence, juvenile considerations, and trauma and describes successful programs coordinating judicial and clinical systems. These guidelines for decriminalizing non-violent behaviors and making appropriate services available to those with mental problems should also help address issues affecting the justice system, such as overcrowding. Included in the coverage: The Best Practices Model. Best practices in law enforcement crisis interventions with the mentally ill. Problem-solving courts and therapeutic jurisprudence. Competency restoration programs. A review of best practices for the treatment of persons with mental illness in jail. Conclusions, recommendations, and helpful appendices. With its practical vision for systemic improvement, Best Practices Model for Intervention with the Mentally Ill in the Criminal Justice System is progressive reading for practitioners in the mental health field, especially practitioners working with inmates, as well as for stakeholders in the law enforcement and justice systems.

Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment

Author: Lisa Schelbe,Jennifer M. Geiger

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319438247

Category: Social Science

Page: 89

View: 5832

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This accessible resource coordinates what we know about the intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment (ITCM), with a specific focus on prevention in context. Cutting through facile cause-and-effect constructs, the authors review and critique the recent literature on the complicated nature of the phenomenon and weigh different approaches to its conceptualization. The book identifies child and parental risk factors linked to ITCM as well as protective factors involved in its reduction, while examining complex relationships between family, parenting, and social contexts that can provide keys to understanding and healing traumatized families. This close attention to crucial yet often overlooked details will aid professionals in creating the next wave of salient research projects and effective interventions, and enhance current efforts to break longstanding patterns of abuse and neglect. Among the topics covered: • Theoretical frameworks conceptualizing intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Empirical studies on intergenerational transmission of child maltreatment.• Risk factors associated with ITCM.• Protective factors associated with breaking the cycle of maltreatment.• Methodological challenges in studying ITCM.• Recommendations for evaluation of intervention and prevention strategies. Geared toward novices and veterans alike, Intergenerational Transmission of Child Maltreatment is a solution-focused reference of singular importance to practitioners and research professionals involved in improving children’s well-being.

Volunteer Police in the United States

Programs, Challenges, and Legal Aspects

Author: Elizabeth C. Bartels

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319023659

Category: Social Science

Page: 44

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​This work examines in-depth the phenomenon of volunteer policing in the United States. Due to a combination of municipal budget cuts, decreased manpower, and a renewed interest in community partnership, everyday citizens are increasingly joining the police rank and file. This trend provides low-cost solutions for a number of policing problems, but also brings its own special challenges and considerations. This work provides a historical overview of volunteer police in the United States and abroad; an practical overview of volunteer programs throughout the United States including training programs, requirements and qualifications; a close examination of two central types of laws governing volunteer police units: the "Stand Your Ground" law and the "Good Samaritan" law; and overview of the dangers that can face volunteer police units, and a comparative analysis with volunteer programs worldwide. It will be of interest to researchers in police studies, criminal justice administration, and for policymakers and practitioners working with police organization and training.

Producing Bias-Free Policing

A Science-Based Approach

Author: Lorie A. Fridell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319331752

Category: Social Science

Page: 117

View: 782

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This Brief provides specific recommendations for police professionals to reduce the influence of implicit bias on police practice, which will improve both effectiveness (in a shift towards evidence-based, rather than bias-based) practices and police legitimacy. The author is donating her proceeds from this book to the National Law Enforcement Officers Memorial Fund (nleomf.org).

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children

Author: Brandy Bang,Paige L. Baker,Alexis Carpinteri,Vincent B. Van Hasselt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319018787

Category: Psychology

Page: 57

View: 5000

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The commercial exploitation of children is a global crisis (Rahman, 2011; Svensson, 2006). However, media outlets and sociological researchers have successfully situated the problem as a primarily Asian, South American, or Eastern European concern. In the process, the exploitation of children in the United States has largely been ignored. The continued trafficking of international youth into this country, coupled with the growing rate at which American born children are targeted by interstate sex traffickers, speaks to the urgency with which the domestic exploitation of children must be addressed (Walker-Rodriguez & Hill, 2011). In fact, research suggests that an average of 250,000 American children and adolescents are at risk of commercial exploitation each year (Estes & Weiner, 2001). Further, there are indications that current data vastly underestimate the actual numbers of vulnerable and victimized youth (Chase & Statham, 2005). According to the U.S. Department of Justice (2007), no systematic efforts have been made to examine the commercial exploitation of children in this country. The low visibilities of the crime, combined with the inherent vulnerability of the victims, have facilitated the continued victimization of these children. The purpose of this book is to provide a critical analysis of the domestic, commercial exploitation of children. A careful explanation of the differing forms of commercial exploitation of children, victim and offender characteristics, and the mechanisms which maintain the problem will assist health care providers, researchers, and law enforcement in their efforts with this marginalized and understudied population. The authors begin with a comprehensive review of extant literature in this area. Additionally, case studies of child sexual exploitation are included to further illustrate the severity, complexity, and depravity of commercial exploitation in real life cases.​​​​​

Quality of Life in Communities of Latin Countries

Author: Graciela Tonon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319531832

Category: Social Science

Page: 286

View: 2027

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This book presents a reconfiguration of the concepts of community in Latin countries as well as the community quality of life and well-being of different groups: children, young people, older adults, migrants. The traditional concept of community has changed together with the way people participate in community spaces. Community nowadays is more than a geographic concentration; it is related to social support, inter-subjectivity, participation, consensus, common beliefs, joint effort aiming at a major objective, and intense and extensive relationships. This volume presents unique experiences about culture, social development, health, water, armed conflicts, the digital media, and sports within communities, written by authors from Latin countries. This volume is a valuable resource for researchers, students, and policy makers in quality of life studies.

Shifting Nicaraguan Mediascapes

Authoritarianism and the Struggle for Social Justice

Author: Julie Cupples,Kevin Glynn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319643193

Category: Social Science

Page: 82

View: 511

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This book explores the mediated struggles for autonomy, land rights and social justice in a context of growing authoritarianism and persistent coloniality in Nicaragua. To do so, it draws on in-depth fieldwork, analysis of media texts, and decolonial and other cultural theories. There are two main threats to the authoritarian rule of the Nicaraguan government led by Daniel Ortega: the first is the Managua-based NGO and civil society sector led largely by educated dissident Sandinistas, and the second is the escalating struggle for autonomy and land rights being fought by Nicaragua’s indigenous and Afro-descended inhabitants on the country’s Caribbean coast. In order to confront these threats and, it seems, secure indefinite political tenure, the government engages in a set of centralizing and anti-democratic political strategies characterized by secrecy, institutional power grabs, highly suspect electoral practices, clientelistic anti-poverty programmes, and the control through purchase or co-optation of much of the nation's media. The social movements that threaten Ortega’s rule are however operating through dispersed and topological modalities of power and the creative use of emergent spaces for the circulation of counter-discourses and counter-narratives within a rapidly transforming media environment. The primary response to these mediated tactics is a politics of silence and a refusal to acknowledge or respond to the political claims made by social movements. In the current conjuncture, the authors identify a struggle for hegemony whose strategies and tactics include the citizenship-stripping activities of the state and the citizenship-claiming activities of black, indigenous and dissident actors and activists. This struggle plays out in part through the mediated circulation and counter-circulation of discourses and the infrastructural dynamics of media convergence.

Social Banking and Social Finance

Answers to the Economic Crisis

Author: Roland Benedikter

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781441977748

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 136

View: 3730

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For over 2,000 years, banks have served to facilitate the exchange of money and to provide a variety of economic and financial services. During the most recent financial collapse and subsequent recession, beginning in 2008, banks have been vilified as perpetrators of the crisis, the public distrust compounded by massive public bailouts. Nevertheless, another form of banking has also emerged, with a focus on promoting economic sustainability, investing in community, providing opportunity for the disadvantaged, and supporting social, environmental, and ethical agendas. Social Banking and Social Finance traces the emergence of the “bank with a conscience” and proposes a new approach to banking in the wake of the economic crisis. Featuring innovations and initiatives in banking from Europe, Canada, and the United States, Roland Benedikter presents an alternative to traditional banking practices that are focused exclusively on profit maximization. He argues that social banking is not about changing the system, but about improving some of its core features by putting into use the "triple bottom line" principle of profit-people-planet. Important lessons can be learned by the success of social banks that may be useful for the greater task of improving the global financial system and avoiding economic crises in the future.

The Web of Violence

Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse

Author: Sherry Hamby,John Grych

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400755961

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

View: 8842

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There is an increasing appreciation of the interconnections among all forms of violence. These interconnections have critical implications for conducting research that can produce valid conclusions about the causes and consequences of abuse, maltreatment, and trauma. The accumulated data on co-occurrence also provide strong evidence that prevention and intervention should be organized around the full context of individuals’ experiences, not narrowly defined subtypes of violence. Managing the flood of new research and practice innovations is a challenge, however. New means of communication and integration are needed to meet this challenge, and the Web of Violence is intended to contribute to this process by serving as a concise overview of the conceptual and empirical work that form a basis for understanding the interconnections across forms of violence throughout the lifespan. It also offers ideas and directions for prevention, intervention, and public policy. A number of initiatives are emerging to integrate the findings on co-occurrence into research and action. The American Psychological Association established a new journal, Psychology of Violence, which is a forum for research on all types of violence. Sherry Hamby is the founding editor and John Grych is associate editor and co-editor of a special issue on the co-occurrence of violence in 2012. Dr. Hamby also is a co-investigator of the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence (NatSCEV), which has drawn attention to polyvictimization. Polyvictimization is a focus of the U.S. Department of Justice’s Defending Childhood Initiative and has recently been featured in calls for grant proposals by the Office of Victims of Crime and National Institutes for Justice.

Archaeological Human Remains

Global Perspectives

Author: Barra O’Donnabhain,María Cecilia Lozada

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319063707

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 9257

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This volume addresses the directions that studies of archaeological human remains have taken in a number of different countries, where attitudes range from widespread support to prohibition. Overlooked in many previous publications, this diversity in attitudes is examined through a variety of lenses, including academic origins, national identities, supporting institutions, archaeological context and globalization. The volume situates this diversity of attitudes by examining past and current tendencies in studies of archaeologically-retrieved human remains across a range of geopolitical settings. In a context where methodological approaches have been increasingly standardized in recent decades, the volume poses the question if this standardization has led to a convergence in approaches to archaeological human remains or if significant differences remain between practitioners in different countries. The volume also explores the future trajectories of the study of skeletal remains in the different jurisdictions under scrutiny.

Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Approximations, Numerical Analysis and Applications

Cetraro, Italy 2011, Editors: Paola Loreti, Nicoletta Anna Tchou

Author: Yves Achdou,Guy Barles,Hitoshi Ishii,Grigory L. Litvinov

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642364330

Category: Mathematics

Page: 301

View: 1721

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These Lecture Notes contain the material relative to the courses given at the CIME summer school held in Cetraro, Italy from August 29 to September 3, 2011. The topic was "Hamilton-Jacobi Equations: Approximations, Numerical Analysis and Applications". The courses dealt mostly with the following subjects: first order and second order Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations, properties of viscosity solutions, asymptotic behaviors, mean field games, approximation and numerical methods, idempotent analysis. The content of the courses ranged from an introduction to viscosity solutions to quite advanced topics, at the cutting edge of research in the field. We believe that they opened perspectives on new and delicate issues. These lecture notes contain four contributions by Yves Achdou (Finite Difference Methods for Mean Field Games), Guy Barles (An Introduction to the Theory of Viscosity Solutions for First-order Hamilton-Jacobi Equations and Applications), Hitoshi Ishii (A Short Introduction to Viscosity Solutions and the Large Time Behavior of Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations) and Grigory Litvinov (Idempotent/Tropical Analysis, the Hamilton-Jacobi and Bellman Equations).

Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis

First International Symposium, SIMPDA 2011, Campione D’Italia, Italy, June 29 – July 1, 2011, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Karl Aberer,Ernesto Damiani,Tharam Dillon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 364234044X

Category: Computers

Page: 213

View: 1591

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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 9601

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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Computational Systems Neurobiology

Author: N. Le Novère

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400738587

Category: Medical

Page: 572

View: 3997

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Computational neurosciences and systems biology are among the main domains of life science research where mathematical modeling made a difference. This book introduces the many different types of computational studies one can develop to study neuronal systems. It is aimed at undergraduate students starting their research in computational neurobiology or more senior researchers who would like, or need, to move towards computational approaches. Based on their specific project, the readers would then move to one of the more specialized excellent textbooks available in the field. The first part of the book deals with molecular systems biology. Functional genomics is introduced through examples of transcriptomics and proteomics studies of neurobiological interest. Quantitative modelling of biochemical systems is presented in homogeneous compartments and using spatial descriptions. A second part deals with the various approaches to model single neuron physiology, and naturally moves to neuronal networks. A division is focused on the development of neurons and neuronal systems and the book closes on a series of methodological chapters. From the molecules to the organ, thinking at the level of systems is transforming biology and its impact on society. This book will help the reader to hop on the train directly in the tank engine.

Logistics and Supply Chain Innovation

Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice

Author: Henk Zijm,Matthias Klumpp,Uwe Clausen,Michael ten Hompel

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319222880

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 431

View: 8115

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This contributed volume presents state-of-the-art advances in logistics theory in various fields as well as case studies. The book reports on a number of recently conducted studies in the Dinalog and the EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr, thus bridging the gap between different perspectives of theoretical and applied research. A selection of theoretical topics, practical examples, case studies and project reports is presented in this volume. The editors carefully selected contributions from a wide variety of projects, which were carried out in both the Dinalog cluster and the Effizienzcluster LogistikRuhr. The contributions are grouped in five main sections, each representing key domains in the evolution of logistics and supply chain management: sustainability, urban logistics, value chain management, IT-based innovation, knowledge management. This book is intended for both researchers and practitioners in the field of logistics and supply chain management, to serve as an important source of information for further research as well as to stimulate further innovation.

Learning and Performance

A Systemic Model for Analysing Needs and Evaluating Training

Author: Bryan Hopkins

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315412233

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 258

View: 8671

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Changing work roles, greater emphasis on individual autonomy, the growing importance of relationships, the complexity of many businesses; all these things call into question the prevailing approach to training needs analysis and evaluation, which still tends to be based on a simple gap analysis between job requirements and an employee's knowledge and skills. Bryan Hopkins's Learning and Performance takes a systemic approach to workplace performance, training needs and the basis on which we can analyse them and evaluate the subsequent training. The author's approach offers a model for HR and training departments that is relevant and sufficiently sophisticated for today's workplaces. As with all his books, Bryan Hopkins combines a complete understanding of learning and organisational theory with pragmatic examples, ensuring a book that will be read and applied in equal measure.

Novel Insights in the Neurochemistry and Function of Pulmonary Sensory Receptors

Author: Inge Brouns,Isabel Pintelon,Jean-Pierre Timmermans,Dirk Adriaensen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642227721

Category: Medical

Page: 118

View: 2764

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With the advances of immunohistochemistry in combination with confocal microscopy, airway sensory receptor end-organs can now be examined and evaluated objectively. Based on their ‘neurochemical coding’, morphology, location and origin, three sensory receptor end organs are currently morphologically well-characterised: smooth muscle-associated airway receptors (SMARs), neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs) and visceral pleura receptors (VPRs). The present information on the functional morphological and neurochemical characteristics of these sensory receptors, leads to important conclusions about their (possible) function.