Introduction to Elasticity Theory for Crystal Defects

Second Edition

Author: Robert W Balluffi

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814749745

Category: Science

Page: 660

View: 8595

The book presents a unified and self-sufficient and reader-friendly introduction to the anisotropic elasticity theory necessary to model a wide range of point, line, planar and volume type crystal defects (e.g., vacancies, dislocations, interfaces, inhomogeneities and inclusions). The necessary elasticity theory is first developed along with basic methods for obtaining solutions. This is followed by a detailed treatment of each defect type. Included are analyses of their elastic fields and energies, their interactions with imposed stresses and image stresses, and the interactions that occur between them, all employing the basic methods introduced earlier. All results are derived in full with intermediate steps shown, and "it can be shown" is avoided. A particular effort is made to describe and compare different methods of solving important problems. Numerous exercises (with solutions) are provided to strengthen the reader's understanding and extend the immediate text. In the 2nd edition an additional chapter has been added which treats the important topic of the self-forces that are experienced by defects that are extended in more than one dimension. A considerable number of exercises have been added which expand the scope of the book and furnish further insights. Numerous sections of the book have been rewritten to provide additional clarity and scope. The major aim of the book is to provide, in one place, a unique and complete introduction to the anisotropic theory of elasticity for defects written in a manner suitable for both students and professionals.

Imperfections in Crystalline Solids

Author: Wei Cai,William D. Nix

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107123135

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 9363

An accessible textbook providing students with a working knowledge of the properties of defects in crystals, in a step-by-step tutorial style.

Introduction to Dislocations

Author: Derek Hull,D. J. Bacon

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080966731

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 272

View: 3109

In materials science, dislocations are irregularities within the crystal structure or atomic scale of engineering materials, such as metals, semi-conductors, polymers, and composites. Discussing this specific aspect of materials science and engineering, Introduction to Dislocations is a key resource for students. The book provides students and practitioners with the fundamental principles required to understand dislocations. Comprised of 10 chapters, the text includes advanced computer modeling and very high-resolution electron microscopy to help readers better understand the structure of atoms close to the core of dislocations. It shows that atomic arrangement has a significant effect on the formation of dislocations and thereby on the properties of solids. The first two chapters of the book present an overview of dislocations. The crystal structures and the various defects and dislocations are discussed, and methods of observation and diagnosis of dislocations are covered. Chapters 3 to 5 discuss the behavior of dislocations and explain how changes in the structure and arrangement of atoms can affect the behavior of dislocations. The three chapters also discuss the mechanical properties of dislocations. The remaining chapters offer a detailed discussion of the mechanisms of dislocations and the mechanical strength of crystalline solids. The book is written for undergraduate- and graduate-level students in both materials science and mechanical engineering. Non-experts and novices working on mechanical properties, mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and properties of materials, as well as industrial and academic researchers, will find this book invaluable. Long-established academic reference by an expert author team, highly regarded for their contributions to the field. Uses minimal mathematics to present theory and applications in a detailed yet easy-to-read manner, making this an understandable introduction to a complex topic. Unlike the main competition, this new edition includes recent developments in the subject and up-to-date references to further reading and research sources.

Dislocations and Plastic Deformation

International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy

Author: I. Kovács,L. Zsoldos

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483146189

Category: Science

Page: 356

View: 6757

Dislocations and Plastic Deformation deals with dislocations and plastic deformation, and specifically discusses topics ranging from deformation of single crystals and dislocations in the lattice to the fundamentals of the continuum theory, the properties of point defects in crystals, multiplication of dislocations, and partial dislocations. The effect of lattice defects on the physical properties of metals is also considered. Comprised of nine chapters, this book begins by providing a short and, where possible, precise explanation of dislocation theory. The first six chapters discuss the properties of dislocations and point defects both in crystals and in an elastic continuum. The reader is then introduced to some applications of dislocation theory that show, for instance, the difficulties involved in understanding the hardening of alloys and the work-hardening of pure metals. This book concludes by analyzing the effect of heat treatment on the defect structure in metals. This text will be of interest to students and practitioners in the field of physics.

Mechanics and Mathematics of Crystals

Selected Papers of J. L. Ericksen

Author: Jerald L. Ericksen,Millard F. Beatty,Michael A. Hayes

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812562834

Category: Science

Page: 621

View: 395

This book is a unique and comprehensive collection of pioneering contributions to the mechanics of crystals by J L Ericksen, a prominent and leading contributor to the study of the mechanics and mathematics of crystalline solids over the past 35 years.It presents a splendid corpus of research papers that cover areas on crystal symmetry, constitutive equations, defects and phase transitions — all topics of current importance to a broad group of workers in the field.The volume thus provides in one place material that is frequently referenced by numerous researchers on crystals across a spectrum of activities in areas of continuum mechanics, applied mathematics, engineering and materials science.Each group of papers or chapters in the book is preceded by a summary introduction that describes how the papers on that topic fit together, and in which Ericksen sketches the context of each paper and shares with the reader his thinking and insightfulness in writing it. The volume, edited by internationally renowned scholars whose works in finite elasticity and continuum mechanics have appeared in a variety of books and prestigious journals published over the past four decades, also includes a very interesting brief autobiography by Ericksen. In it he describes his early life in Oregon, his wartime experiences, his student days and postgraduate study, his introduction to scientific work, and what motivated him in his research. An English translation and revision of the first paper in this volume, originally published in Russian, appears here for the first time.

Lattice Dynamical Foundations of Continuum Theories

Elasticity, Piezoelectricity, Viscoelasticity, Plasticity

Author: Attila Askar

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814518956

Category: Continuum mechanics

Page: 208

View: 1835

This book presents a discussion of lattice dynamics for perfect and imperfect lattices and their relation to continuum theories of elasticity, piezoelectricity, viscoelasticity and plasticity. Some of the material is rather classical and close in spirit to solid state physics. A major aim here is to present a coherent theory for the four basic behavior types in the style of continuum mechanics. In each case, emphasis is on an explicit display of the physical mechanisms involved rather than general formalisms. The material is presented in terms of an atomistic picture for the discrete system. The basic ideas are believed to be relevant also at an intermediate scale in the continuum description of media with structure such as granular materials and composites. Contents: Perfect Crystal Lattices:Elasticity and PiezoelectricityInteratomic ForcesOne-Dimensional Simple Lattices and Classical ElasticityOne-Dimensional Nonsimple Lattices and Special Continuum TheoriesMulti-Dimensional Perfect Lattices and Continuum Theory of ElasticityPolarizable Lattices and PiezoelectricityCrystal Lattices with Defect:Defects in CrystalsEnergy Loss Mechanisms ViscoelasticityDislocations and Plasticity Readership: Physicists and material scientists. Keywords:Continuum Mechanics;Interatomic Forces;Simple Lattices;Classical Elasticity;One-Dimensional Nonsimple Lattices;Special Continuum Theories;Polarizable Lattices;Piezoelectricity;Crystal Lattices

Stochastic Dynamics of Crystal Defects

Author: Thomas Swinburne

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319200194

Category: Science

Page: 100

View: 7085

This thesis is concerned with establishing a rigorous, modern theory of the stochastic and dissipative forces on crystal defects, which remain poorly understood despite their importance in any temperature dependent micro-structural process such as the ductile to brittle transition or irradiation damage. The author first uses novel molecular dynamics simulations to parameterise an efficient, stochastic and discrete dislocation model that allows access to experimental time and length scales. Simulated trajectories are in excellent agreement with experiment. The author also applies modern methods of multiscale analysis to extract novel bounds on the transport properties of these many body systems. Despite their successes in coarse graining, existing theories are found unable to explain stochastic defect dynamics. To resolve this, the author defines crystal defects through projection operators, without any recourse to elasticity. By rigorous dimensional reduction, explicit analytical forms are derived for the stochastic forces acting on crystal defects, allowing new quantitative insight into the role of thermal fluctuations in crystal plasticity.

An Introduction to Geometrical Physics

Author: Ruben Aldrovandi,J. G. Pereira

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810222321

Category: Science

Page: 699

View: 6956

This book stresses the unifying power of the geometrical framework in bringing together concepts from the different areas of physics. Common underpinnings of optics, elasticity, gravitation, relativistic fields, particle mechanics and other subjects are underlined. It attempts to extricate the notion of space currently in the physical literature from the metric connotation.The book's goal is to present mathematical ideas associated with geometrical physics in a rather introductory language. Included are many examples from elementary physics and also, for those wishing to reach a higher level of understanding, a more advanced treatment of the mathematical topics. It is aimed as an elementary text, more so than most others on the market, and is intended for first year graduate students.

Crystals, Defects and Microstructures

Modeling Across Scales

Author: Rob Phillips

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521793575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 780

View: 2761

Examines the advances made in the field in recent years and looks at the various methods now used; ideal for graduate students and researchers.

Introduction to Materials Science

Author: Jean P Mercier,Gerald Zambelli,Wilfried Kurz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008095071X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 460

View: 6063

The approach of this concise but comprehensive introduction, covering all major classes of materials, is right for not just materials science students and professionals, but also for those in engineering, physics and chemistry, or other related disciplines. The characteristics of all main classes of materials, metals, polymers and ceramics, are explained with reference to real-world examples. So each class of material is described, then its properties are explained, with illustrative examples from the leading edge of application. This edition contains new material on nanomaterials and nanostructures, and includes a study of degradation and corrosion, and a presentation of the main organic composite materials. Illustrative examples include carbon fibres, the silicon crystal, metallic glasses, and diamond films. Applications explored include ultra-light aircraft, contact lenses, dental materials, single crystal blades for gas turbines, use of lasers in the automotive industry, cables for cable cars, permanent magnets and molecular electronic devices. Covers latest materials including nanomaterials and nanostructures Real-world case studies bring the theory to life and illustrate the latest in good design All major classes of materials are covered in this concise yet comprehensive volume

Crystallography and Crystal Defects

Author: Anthony Kelly,Kevin M. Knowles

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470750146

Category: Science

Page: 521

View: 9942

This new edition updates readers with the latest concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner, and describes their application in line and planar defects in crystalline materials, quasicrystals, and crystal interfaces. The coverage begins with a chapter on lattice geometry, followed by crystal systems and crystal structures.

Imperfections and Active Centres in Semiconductors

International Series of Monographs on Semiconductors

Author: R. G. Rhodes

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483222810

Category: Science

Page: 386

View: 2494

Imperfections and Active Centres in Semiconductors discusses principles of semiconduction theory in terms of the band model, and electrical properties as regards chemical or physical defects in the lattice structures. The book reviews the fundamental concepts of semiconductor crystals, semiconduction, silicon, and the atomic lattice of germanium. The Frenkel defect accounts for displaced atoms in the lattice that move into spaces between normal atom positions. The text describes dislocations or line defects, the motion and generation of dislocations, as well as the geometry of the dislocations in the diamond. Honrstra (1958), who shows the geometry of the dislocation structures through a diagram, also describes the geometry of more complicated types of dislocation in the diamond lattice. The book explains X-ray diffraction and crystal imperfections in which the amount of X-radiation reflected from a crystal specimen depends on the perfection or on the atomic structure of the reflecting planes. The electron microscope can reveal more detail in higher resolution, for example, the actual arrangement of the molecules around an edge dislocation has been exposed in a platinum phthalocyanine crystal. The book also describes the fabrication of semiconductor devices where the crystals are cut with an abrasive saw and then ground with fine abrasive. The text can be used by physicists, engineers, or technologists in the allied fields of solid state physics and materials engineering.

Introduction to the Mathematics of Quasicrystals

Author: Marko V. Jaric

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323159478

Category: Science

Page: 238

View: 7594

Introduction to the Mathematics of Quasicrystals provides a pedagogical introduction to mathematical concepts and results necessary for a quantitative description or analysis of quasicrystals. This book is organized into five chapters that cover the three mathematical areas most relevant to quasicrystals, namely, the theory of almost periodic functions, the theory of aperiodic tilings, and group theory. Chapter 1 describes the aspects of the theory of tiling in two- and three-dimensional space that are important for understanding some of the ways in which “classical mathematical crystallography is being generalized; this process is to include possible models for aperiodic crystals. Chapter 2 examines the non-local nature of assembly “mistakes that might have significance to the quasicrystals growth. This chapter also describes how closely a physical quasicrystal might be able to approximate a three-dimensional version of tilings. Chapter 3 discusses the theoretical background and concepts of group theory of icosahedral quasicrystals. Chapter 4 presents the local properties of the three-dimensional Penrose tilings and their global construction is described through the projection method. This chapter emphasizes the relationship between quasiperiodic sets of points and quasiperiodic tiling. Chapter 5 explores the analysis of defects in quasicrystals and their kinetics, as well as some properties of the perfect system. This book is of great value to physicists, crystallographers, metallurgists, and beginners in the field of quasicrystals.

Science and Engineering of Materials, SI Edition

Author: Donald R. Askeland,Wendelin J. Wright

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 130544633X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 960

View: 6290

Succeed in your materials science course with THE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MATERIALS, 7e. Filled with built-in study tools to help you master key concepts, this proven book will help you develop an understanding of the relationship between structure, processing, and properties of materials and will serve as a useful reference for future courses in manufacturing, materials, design, or materials selection. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Micromechanics of defects in solids

Author: Toshio Mura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401193061

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 4152

This book sterns from a course on Micromechanics that I started about fifteen years ago at Northwestern University. At that time, micro mechanics was a rather unfamiliar subject. Although I repeated the course every year, I was ne ver convinced that my notes have quite developed into a final manuscript because new topics emerged con stantly requiring revisions, and additions. I finally came to realize that if this is continued, then I will never complete the book to my total satisfaction. Meanwhile, T. Mori and I had coauthored a book in Micromechanics, published by Baifu-kan, Tokyo, in Japanese, entitled 1975. It received an extremely favorable response from students and researchers in Japan. This encouraged me to go ahead and publish my course notes in their latest version, as this book, which contains further development of the subject and is more comprehensive than the one published in Japanese. Micromechanics encompasses mechanics related to microstructures of materials. The method employed is a continuum theory of elasticity yet its applications cover a broad area relating to the mechanical behavior of materials: plasticity, fracture and fatigue, constitutive equa tions, composite materials, polycrystals, etc. These subjects are treated in this book by means of a powerful and unified method which is called the 'eigenstrain method. ' In particular, problems relating to inclusions and dislocations are most effectively analyzed by this method, and therefore, special emphasis is placed on these topics.

Theory of Dislocations

Author: Peter M. Anderson,John P. Hirth,Jens Lothe

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316785106

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: N.A

View: 5184

Theory of Dislocations provides unparalleled coverage of the fundamentals of dislocation theory, with applications to specific metal and ionic crystals. Rather than citing final results, step-by-step developments are provided to offer an in-depth understanding of the topic. The text provides the solid theoretical foundation for researchers to develop modeling and computational approaches to discrete dislocation plasticity, yet it covers important experimental observations related to the effects of crystal structure, temperature, nucleation mechanisms, and specific systems. This new edition incorporates significant advances in theory, experimental observations of dislocations, and new findings from first principles and atomistic treatments of dislocations. Also included are new discussions on thin films, deformation in nanostructured systems, and connection to crystal plasticity and strain gradient continuum formulations. Several new computer programs and worked problems allow the reader to understand, visualize, and implement dislocation theory concepts.

Concepts in Physical Metallurgy

Author: Lavakumar Avala

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1681744740

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 169

View: 8714

The progress of civilization can be, in part, attributed to their ability to employ metallurgy. This book is an introduction to multiple facets of physical metallurgy, materials science, and engineering. As all metals are crystalline in structure, it focuses attention on these structures and how the formation of these crystals are responsible for certain aspects of the material's chemical and physical behaviour. Concepts in Physical Metallurgy also discusses the mechanical properties of metals, the theory of alloys, and physical metallurgy of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys.