Infectious Disease Ecology

Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld,Felicia Keesing,Valerie T. Eviner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 140083788X

Category: Science

Page: 520

View: 7539

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News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Infectious Disease Ecology

Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld,Felicia Keesing,Valerie T. Eviner

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 069112485X

Category: Science

Page: 506

View: 8892

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News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Infectious Disease Ecology

The Effects of Ecosystems on Disease and of Disease on Ecosystems

Author: Richard S. Ostfeld,Felicia Keesing,Valerie T. Eviner

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 506

View: 3986

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News headlines are forever reporting diseases that take huge tolls on humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and both cultivated and native plants worldwide. These diseases can also completely transform the ecosystems that feed us and provide us with other critical benefits, from flood control to water purification. And yet diseases sometimes serve to maintain the structure and function of the ecosystems on which humans depend. Gathering thirteen essays by forty leading experts who convened at the Cary Conference at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in 2005, this book develops an integrated framework for understanding where these diseases come from, what ecological factors influence their impacts, and how they in turn influence ecosystem dynamics. It marks the first comprehensive and in-depth exploration of the rich and complex linkages between ecology and disease, and provides conceptual underpinnings to understand and ameliorate epidemics. It also sheds light on the roles that diseases play in ecosystems, bringing vital new insights to landscape management issues in particular. While the ecological context is a key piece of the puzzle, effective control and understanding of diseases requires the interaction of professionals in medicine, epidemiology, veterinary medicine, forestry, agriculture, and ecology. The essential resource on the subject, Infectious Disease Ecology seeks to bridge these fields with an ecological approach that focuses on systems thinking and complex interactions.

Disease Ecology

Community Structure and Pathogen Dynamics

Author: Sharon K. Collinge,Chris Ray

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198567080

Category: Medical

Page: 227

View: 8559

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Disease Ecology highlights exciting advances in theoretical and empirical research towards understanding the importance of community structure in the emergence of infectious diseases. The chapters in this book illustrate aspects of community ecology that influence pathogen transmission rates and disease dynamics in a wide variety of study systems. The innovative studies presented here communicate a clear message: studies of epidemiology can be approached from the perspective of community ecology, and students of community ecology can contribute significantly to epidemiology.

Lyme Disease

The Ecology of a Complex System

Author: Richard Ostfeld

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199780853

Category: Science

Page: 232

View: 3126

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Most human diseases come from nature, from pathogens that live and breed in non-human animals and are "accidentally" transmitted to us. Human illness is only the culmination of a complex series of interactions among species in their natural habitats. To avoid exposure to these pathogens, we must understand which species are involved, what regulates their abundance, and how they interact. Lyme disease affects the lives of millions of people in the US, Europe, and Asia. It is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States; About 20,000 cases have been reported each year over the past five years, and tens of thousands more go unrecognized and unreported. Despite the epidemiological importance of understanding variable LD risk, such pursuit has been slow, indirect, and only partially successful, due in part to an overemphasis on identifying the small subset of 'key players' that contribute to Lyme disease risk, as well as a general misunderstanding of effective treatment options. This controversial book is a comprehensive, synthetic review of research on the ecology of Lyme disease in North America. It describes how humans get sick, why some years and places are so risky and others not. It challenges dogma - for instance, that risk is closely tied to the abundance of deer - and replaces it with a new understanding that embraces the complexity of species and their interactions. It describes why the place where Lyme disease emerged - coastal New England - set researchers on mistaken pathways. It shows how tiny acorns have enormous impacts on our probability of getting sick, why biodiversity is good for our health, why living next to a small woodlot is dangerous, and why Lyme disease is an excellent model system for understanding many other human and animal diseases. Intended for an audience of professional and student ecologists, epidemiologists, and other health scientists, it is written in an informal style accessible also to non-scientists interested in human health and conservation.

The Ecology of Wildlife Diseases

Author: Peter Hudson,Annapaola Rizzoli,Bryan Grenfell,Hans Heesterbeek,Andy Dobson

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780198506195

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 8506

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The study of epidemiology is an essential part of understanding how infectious diseases emerge, and how they affect humans, wildlife and wildlife conservation. The integration of modelling techniques with parasitology and population dynamics has been hugely significant for our understanding of disease dynamics. This book on wildlife epidemiology brings the subject right up to date, covering the most recent empirical and theoretical developments in the field.

Parasites in Ecological Communities

From Interactions to Ecosystems

Author: Melanie J. Hatcher,Alison M. Dunn

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139496980

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2964

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Interactions between competitors, predators and their prey have traditionally been viewed as the foundation of community structure. Parasites – long ignored in community ecology – are now recognized as playing an important part in influencing species interactions and consequently affecting ecosystem function. Parasitism can interact with other ecological drivers, resulting in both detrimental and beneficial effects on biodiversity and ecosystem health. Species interactions involving parasites are also key to understanding many biological invasions and emerging infectious diseases. This book bridges the gap between community ecology and epidemiology to create a wide-ranging examination of how parasites and pathogens affect all aspects of ecological communities, enabling the new generation of ecologists to include parasites as a key consideration in their studies. This comprehensive guide to a newly emerging field is of relevance to academics, practitioners and graduates in biodiversity, conservation and population management, and animal and human health.

Foundations of Wildlife Diseases

Author: Richard G. Botzler,Richard N. Brown

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520276094

Category: Nature

Page: 464

View: 6936

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Foundations of Wildlife Diseases is a comprehensive overview of the basic principles that govern the study of wildlife diseases. The authors integrate theoretical foundations with a thorough examination of the factors that can affect the health and fitness of animals. They include specific information on a wide array of infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, arthropods, fungi, protista, and helminths, as well as immunity to these agents. Also provided is a foundation for the study of noninfectious diseases, cancers, and prion diseases that affect wildlife. Supporting students, faculty, and researchers in areas related to wildlife management, biology, and veterinary sciences, this volume fills an important gap in wildlife disease resources, focusing on mammalian and avian wildlife while also considering reptiles and amphibians. Foundations of Wildlife Diseases provides students with a structure for thinking about and understanding infective agents and their interactions with wildlife. Each chapter includes an outline, select definitions and concepts, an overview and summary, and literature cited.

Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases

Author: Ann E. Hajek,David I. Shapiro-Ilan

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119256070

Category: Science

Page: 680

View: 1487

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A rapidly growing interdisciplinary field, disease ecology merges key ideas from ecology, medicine, genetics, immunology, and epidemiology to study how hosts and pathogens interact in populations, communities, and entire ecosystems. Bringing together contributions from leading international experts on the ecology of diseases among invertebrate species, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the field. Beginning with an introductory overview of general principles and methodologies, the book continues with in-depth discussions of a range of critical issues concerning invertebrate disease epidemiology, molecular biology, vectors, and pathogens. Topics covered in detail include: Methods for studying the ecology of invertebrate diseases and pathogens Invertebrate pathogen ecology and the ecology of pathogen groups Applied ecology of invertebrate pathogens Leveraging the ecology of invertebrate pathogens in microbial control Prevention and management of infectious diseases of aquatic invertebrates Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases is a necessary and long overdue addition to the world literature on this vitally important subject. This volume belongs on the reference shelves of all those involved in the environmental sciences, genetics, microbiology, marine biology, immunology, epidemiology, fisheries and wildlife science, and related disciplines.

Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases

Workshop Summary

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Health and Medicine Division,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309377625

Category: Medical

Page: 396

View: 1584

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Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases â€" including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and plague â€" together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Over the past three decades, previously controlled vector-borne diseases have resurged or reemerged in new geographic locations, and several newly identified pathogens and vectors have triggered disease outbreaks in plants and animals, including humans. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited. Few vaccines have been developed against vector-borne pathogens. At the same time, drug resistance has developed in vector-borne pathogens while their vectors are increasingly resistant to insecticide controls. Furthermore, the ranks of scientists trained to conduct research in key fields including medical entomology, vector ecology, and tropical medicine have dwindled, threatening prospects for addressing vector-borne diseases now and in the future. In June 2007, as these circumstances became alarmingly apparent, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the dynamic relationships among host, pathogen(s), vector(s), and ecosystems that characterize vector-borne diseases. Revisiting this topic in September 2014, the Forum organized a workshop to examine trends and patterns in the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne diseases in an increasingly interconnected and ecologically disturbed world, as well as recent developments to meet these dynamic threats. Participants examined the emergence and global movement of vector-borne diseases, research priorities for understanding their biology and ecology, and global preparedness for and progress toward their prevention, control, and mitigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

The Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases

Author: Kenneth H. Mayer,H.F. Pizer

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557144

Category: Medical

Page: 528

View: 8189

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Social Ecology of Infectious Diseases explores how human activities enable microbes to disseminate and evolve, thereby creating favorable conditions for the diverse manifestations of communicable diseases. Today, infectious and parasitic diseases cause about one-third of deaths and are the second leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The speed that changes in human behavior can produce epidemics is well illustrated by AIDS, but this is only one of numerous microbial threats whose severity and spread are determined by human behaviors. In this book, forty experts in the fields of infectious diseases, the life sciences and public health explore how demography, geography, migration, travel, environmental change, natural disaster, sexual behavior, drug use, food production and distribution, medical technology, training and preparedness, as well as governance, human conflict and social dislocation influence current and likely future epidemics. Provides essential understanding of current and future epidemics Presents a crossover perspective for disciplines in the medical and social sciences and public policy, including public health, infectious diseases, population science, epidemiology, microbiology, food safety, defense preparedness and humanitarian relief Creates a new perspective on ecology based on the interaction of microbes and human activities

Ecology and Evolution of Cancer

Author: Beata Ujvari,Benjamin Roche,Frederic Thomas

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128043806

Category: Medical

Page: 290

View: 5158

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Ecology and Evolution of Cancer is a timely work outlining ideas that not only represent a substantial and original contribution to the fields of evolution, ecology, and cancer, but also goes beyond by connecting the interfaces of these disciplines. This work engages the expertise of a multidisciplinary research team to collate and review the latest knowledge and developments in this exciting research field. The evolutionary perspective of cancer has gained significant international recognition and interest, which is fully understandable given that somatic cellular selection and evolution are elegant explanations for carcinogenesis. Cancer is now generally accepted to be an evolutionary and ecological process with complex interactions between tumor cells and their environment sharing many similarities with organismal evolution. As a critical contribution to this field of research the book is important and relevant for the applications of evolutionary biology to understand the origin of cancers, to control neoplastic progression, and to prevent therapeutic failures. Covers all aspects of the evolution of cancer, appealing to researchers seeking to understand its origins and effects of treatments on its progression, as well as to lecturers in evolutionary medicine Functions as both an introduction to cancer and evolution and a review of the current research on this burgeoning, exciting field, presented by an international group of leading editors and contributors Improves understanding of the origin and the evolution of cancer, aiding efforts to determine how this disease interferes with biotic interactions that govern ecosystems Highlights research that intends to apply evolutionary principles to help predict emergence and metastatic progression with the aim of improving therapies

Ecosystem Change and Public Health

A Global Perspective

Author: Joan Leslie Aron,Jonathan Patz

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801865817

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 480

View: 6596

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"The purpose of this textbook on global ecosystem change and human health is twofold: (1) to raise awareness of changes in human health related to global ecosystem change and (2) to expand the scope of the traditional curriculum in environmental health to include the interactions of major environmental forces and public health on a global scale."--from the Introduction "Ecosystem Change and Public Health" focuses on how human health is affected by global ecosystem changes. It is the first textbook devoted to this emerging field, offering a global perspective on research methods and emphasizing empirical investigations of health outcomes in combination with integrated assessment for policy development. The book covers such topics as global climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion, water resources management, and ecology and infectious disease. Case studies of cholera, malaria, the effects of water resources, and global climate change and air pollution illustrate the analysis and methodology. The book also includes a resource center describing places to start searches on the World Wide Web, guidelines for finding and evaluating information, suggested study projects, and strategies for encouraging communication among course participants.

Biodiversity and Health

Linking Life, Ecosystems and Societies

Author: Serge Morand,Claire Lajaunie

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0081011679

Category: Medical

Page: 300

View: 7012

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Biodiversity and Health: Linking Life, Ecosystems and Societies fills the gap between the ecology of health and the concepts supported by international organizations, such as EcoHealth and One Health. The book provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how ecological sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, and social sciences may contribute to improve human health through conserving biodiversity and the services it provides to societies. Presents the first book to give a broad and integrated overview of the scientific disciplines that contribute to health From evolutionary ecology, to laws and policies, this book explores the links between health and biodiversity Demonstrates how ecological sciences, environmental sciences, medical sciences, and social sciences may contribute to improve human health

Evolutionary Parasitology

The Integrated Study of Infections, Immunology, Ecology, and Genetics

Author: Paul Schmid-Hempel

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199229481

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 2140

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Parasites are among the most serious threats for any organism. This book brings together the latest knowledge from different fields and traces the basic ecological and evolutionary principles behind the eternal and momentous struggle between hosts and their parasites, providing a synthesis of current understanding.

Under the Weather:

Climate, Ecosystems, and Infectious Disease

Author: Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Committee on Climate, Ecosystems, Infectious Diseases, and Human Health,National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309072786

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 2756

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Since the dawn of medical science, people have recognized connections between a change in the weather and the appearance of epidemic disease. With today's technology, some hope that it will be possible to build models for predicting the emergence and spread of many infectious diseases based on climate and weather forecasts. However, separating the effects of climate from other effects presents a tremendous scientific challenge. Can we use climate and weather forecasts to predict infectious disease outbreaks? Can the field of public health advance from "surveillance and response" to "prediction and prevention?" And perhaps the most important question of all: Can we predict how global warming will affect the emergence and transmission of infectious disease agents around the world? Under the Weather evaluates our current understanding of the linkages among climate, ecosystems, and infectious disease; it then goes a step further and outlines the research needed to improve our understanding of these linkages. The book also examines the potential for using climate forecasts and ecological observations to help predict infectious disease outbreaks, identifies the necessary components for an epidemic early warning system, and reviews lessons learned from the use of climate forecasts in other realms of human activity.

Health of Antarctic Wildlife

A Challenge for Science and Policy

Author: Knowles R. Kerry,Martin Riddle

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540939238

Category: Science

Page: 470

View: 7049

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comprehensively up to date. We are most grateful to these authors and to those we recruited to write the additional chapters necessary to fill the significant gaps. We acknowledge also the sacrifice of some who presented results of original research and have thus suffered a longer time than usual to publication. The timing of publication however has provided the opportunity to highlight recent discussions and resolutions made within the Antarctic Treaty forum to protect wildlife against disease and to include responses by Government and non-Government operators in Antarctica. These developments mostly followed from the Workshop on Diseases of Antarctic Wildlife. The book comprises 17 chapters presented in two parts. Wildlife disease consists of reviews, case studies and health assessments, and External factors covers the environmental, administrative and legal aspects. Each chapter is complete and c- tains all references. Six important documents are provided as Appendices. These present methods, reviews and other documents which are referred to in one or more chapters but are not readily available. There are many related topics we have been unable to cover that would enhance the understanding of health and disease processes in Antarctica. While we ackno- edge their importance they are outside the scope of the present volume. Such topics include epidemiology, new and emerging infectious diseases and the effects of climate change. These topics are referred to in the various chapters where ref- ences to source material are given.

Infectious Diseases in Primates

Behavior, Ecology and Evolution

Author: Charles Nunn,Sonia M. Altizer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198565844

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 2321

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1. Questions, Terminology, and Underlying Principles2. Diversity and Characteristics of Primate Parasites3. Primate Socioecology and Disease Risk- Predictions and Rationale4. Host-Parasite Dynamics and Epidemiological Principles5. Host Defenses- The Immune System and Behavioral Counterstrategies6. Infectious Disease and Primate Social Systems7. Parasites and Primate Conservation8. From Nonhuman Primates to Human Health and Evolution9. Concluding Remarks and Future Directions

Dynamic Modeling of Diseases and Pests

Author: Bruce Hannon,Matthias Ruth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387095608

Category: Medical

Page: 290

View: 7212

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The ease of use of the programs in the application to ever more complex cases of disease and pestilence. The lack of need on the part of the student or modelers of mathematics beyond algebra and the lack of need of any prior computer programming experience. The surprising insights that can be gained from initially simple systems models.

Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy, Volume 7 - E-Book

Author: R. Eric Miller,Murray E. Fowler

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 1437719856

Category: Medical

Page: 688

View: 8497

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With coverage of current issues and emerging trends, Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 7 provides a comprehensive, all-new reference for the management of zoo and wildlife diseases. A Current Therapy format emphasizes the latest advances in the field, including nutrition, diagnosis, and treatment protocols. Cutting-edge coverage includes topics such as the "One Medicine" concept, laparoscopic surgery in elephants and rhinoceros, amphibian viral diseases, and advanced water quality evaluation for zoos. Editors R. Eric Miller and Murray E. Fowler promote a philosophy of animal conservation, bridging the gap between captive and free-ranging wild animal medicine with chapters contributed by more than 100 international experts. The Current Therapy format focuses on emerging trends, treatment protocols, and diagnostic updates new to the field, providing timely information on the latest advances in zoo and wild animal medicine. Content ranges from drug treatment, nutrition, husbandry, surgery, and imaging to behavioral training. Coverage of species ranges from giraffes, elephants, lions, and orangutans to sea turtles, hellbenders, bats, kakapos, and more. An extensive list of contributors includes recognized authors from around the world, offering expert information with chapters focusing on the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals. A philosophy of animal conservation helps zoo and wildlife veterinarians fulfill not only the technical aspects of veterinary medicine, but contribute to the overall biological teams needed to rescue many threatened and endangered species from extinction. All content is new, with coverage including coverage of cutting-edge issues such as white-nose disease in bats, updates on Ebola virus in wild great apes, and chytrid fungus in amphibians. Full-color photographs depict external clinical signs for more accurate clinical recognition. Discussions of the "One Medicine" concept include chapters addressing the interface between wildlife, livestock, human, and ecosystem health. New sections cover Edentates, Marsupials, Carnivores, Perrissodactyla, and Camelids. Over 100 new tables provide a quick reference to a wide range of topics. An emphasis on conserving threatened and endangered species globally involves 102 expert authors representing 12 different countries.