Grain Boundary Migration in Metals

Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Applications, Second Edition

Author: Gunter Gottstein,Lasar S. Shvindlerman

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439858993

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 711

View: 2042

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A major goal of materials science is to create new engineering materials and optimize their cost and performance. Understanding how adjacent materials behave at their borders is an essential part of this process. Grain boundaries are the longest-known crystal defects, but although they were discovered in the mid-eighteenth century, until quite recently, we did not understand them very well. Even now, scientists are still searching for the best ways to comprehensively characterize a material’s microstructure—and accurately predict its evolution and behavior. Fills the gap between the physics of grain boundary motion and its engineering practicality Like the popular first edition, Grain Boundary Migration in Metals: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, Applications, Second Edition focuses extensively on the thermodynamics, kinetics, and applications involved with individual grain boundary migration in metals. However, this new volume adds a decade’s worth of new developments in research and methods. It offers an up-to-date overview of current knowledge of the grain boundary migration process, and it details how migration influences microstructural evolution, including the recrystallization process and the creation of new materials. The authors rely on well-defined geometry and crystallography to address key topics such as grain growth, textures, and the properties and behavior of grain boundaries, particularly the nonlinear interaction of boundary elements. This invaluable second edition: Covers the latest techniques and computer simulations used in the study of single-grain boundary motion and grain boundary systems with junctions Provides the latest experimental data of grain boundary free volume measurements and offers the first measurements of grain boundary junction line tension Includes new problems with solutions As a solid foundation on which you can build your understanding of the migration phenomenon, this book should be required reading for researchers in areas such as interface physics and materials science of microstructure evolution and property control. It will also be vastly useful to any professional engaged in metals production and/or the heat treatment of metals and alloys.

Superplasticity and Grain Boundaries in Ultrafine-Grained Materials

Author: A L Zhilyaev,A I Pshenichnyuk

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0857093835

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 1351

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Superplasticity is a state in which solid crystalline materials, such as some fine-grained metals, are deformed well beyond their usual breaking point. The phenomenon is of importance in processes such as superplastic forming which allows the manufacture of complex, high-quality components in such areas as aerospace and biomedical engineering. Superplasticity and grain boundaries in ultrafine-grained materials discusses a number of problems associated with grain boundaries in metallic polycrystalline materials. The role of grain boundaries in processes such as grain boundary diffusion, relaxation and grain growth is investigated. The authors explore the formation and evolution of the microstructure, texture and ensembles of grain boundaries in materials produced by severe plastic deformation. Written by two leading experts in the field, Superplasticity and grain boundaries in ultrafine-grained materials significantly advances our understanding of this important phenomenon and will be an important reference work for metallurgists and those involved in superplastic forming processes. Discusses significant problems associated with grain boundaries in polycrystals incorporating structural superplasticity and grain boundary sliding Assesses the role of grain boundaries in processes such as grain boundary diffusion, relaxation and grain growth Explores the formation and evolution of the microstructure, texture and ensembles of grain boundaries in materials produced by severe plastic deformation

Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

Author: Pavel Lejcek

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642125058

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 239

View: 9176

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Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena

Author: Anthony Rollett,Gregory S. Rohrer,John Humphreys

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0080982697

Category: Science

Page: 734

View: 2092

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Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, Third Edition, fulfills the information needs of materials scientists in both industry and academia. The subjects treated in the book are all active research areas, forming a major part of at least four regular international conference series. This new third edition ensures the reader has access to the latest findings, and is essential reading to those working in the forefront of research in universities and laboratories. For those in industry, the book highlights applications of the research and technology, exploring, in particular, the significant progress made recently in key areas such as deformed state, including deformation to very large strains, the characterization of microstructures by electron backscatter diffraction, the modeling and simulation of annealing, and continuous recrystallization. Includes over 50% of new, revised, and updated material, highlighting the significant recent literature results in grain growth in non-crystallizing systems, 3D characterization techniques, quantitative modeling techniques, and all-new appendices on texture and measurements Contains synthesized, detailed coverage from leading authors that bridge the gap between theory and practice Includes a critical level of synthesis and pedagogy with an authored rather than edited volume

Moving Interfaces in Crystalline Solids

Author: Franz D. Fischer,Erich Schmid

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783211238998

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 256

View: 2399

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Moving Interfaces in Solids are typically phase boundaries and grain or subgrain boundaries. Continuum thermodynamics and continuum mechanics are applied to explain the motion process. Related numerical and experimental concepts are dealt with. Experts from material physics and mechanics bridge the gap between these fields. The reader is offered a common view of interface mtion in a unique representation. Examples are presented for various material systems.

Microstructural Design of Advanced Engineering Materials

Author: Dmitri A. Molodov

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527652833

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 530

View: 4875

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The choice of a material for a certain application is made taking into account its properties. If, for example one would like to produce a table, a hard material is needed to guarantee the stability of the product, but the material should not be too hard so that manufacturing is still as easy as possible - in this simple example wood might be the material of choice. When coming to more advanced applications the required properties are becoming more complex and the manufacturer`s desire is to tailor the properties of the material to fit the needs. To let this dream come true, insights into the microstructure of materials is crucial to finally control the properties of the materials because the microstructure determines its properties. Written by leading scientists in the field of microstructural design of engineering materials, this book focuses on the evolution and behavior of granular microstructures of various advanced materials during plastic deformation and treatment at elevated temperatures. These topics provide essential background and practical information for materials scientists, metallurgists and solid state physicists.

Fractals and Disordered Systems

Author: Armin Bunde,Shlomo Havlin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642514359

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 1267

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Fractals and disordered systems have recently become the focus of intense interest in research. This book discusses in great detail the effects of disorder on mesoscopic scales (fractures, aggregates, colloids, surfaces and interfaces, glasses, and polymers) and presents tools to describe them in mathematical language. A substantial part is devoted to the development of scaling theories based on fractal concepts. In 10 chapters written by leading experts in the field, including E. Stanley and B. Mandelbrot, the reader is introduced to basic concepts and techniques in disordered systems and is lead to the forefront of current research. In each chapter the connection between theory and experiment is emphasized, and a special chapter entitled "Fractals and Experiments" presents experimental studies of fractal systems in the laboratory. The book is written pedagogically. It can be used as a textbook for graduate students, by university teachers to prepare courses and seminars, and by active scientists who want to become familiar with a fascinating new field.

Sintering

Densification, Grain Growth and Microstructure

Author: Suk-Joong L. Kang

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080493076

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 280

View: 2642

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Sintering is the process of forming materials and components from a powder under the action of thermal energy. It is a key materials science subject: most ceramic materials and many specialist metal powder products for use in key industries such as electronics, automotive and aerospace are formed this way. Written by one of the leading experts in the field, this book offers an unrivalled introduction to sintering and sintering processes for students of materials science and engineering, and practicing engineers in industry. The book is unique in providing a complete grounding in the principles of sintering and equal coverage of the three key sintering processes: densification, grain growth and microstructure. Students and professional engineers alike will be attracted by the emphasis on developing a detailed understanding of the theory and practical processes of sintering, the balanced coverage of ceramic and metal sintering, and the accompanying examination questions with selected solutions. Delivering unrivalled depth of coverage on the basis of sintering, science, including thermodynamics and polycrystalline microstructure. Unique in its balanced coverage of the three key sintering elements - densification, grain growth and microstructure. A key reference for students and engineers in materials science and engineering, accompanied by examination questions and selected solutions.

Grain Boundaries and Crystalline Plasticity

Author: Louisette Priester

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118603109

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 344

View: 2133

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This book explores the fundamental role of grain boundaries in the plasticity of crystalline materials, providing a multi-scale approach to plasticity to facilitate understanding. It starts with the atomic description of a grain boundary, moves on to the elemental interaction processes between dislocations and grain boundaries, and finally shows how the microscopic phenomena influence the macroscopic behaviors and constitutive laws. Drawing on topics from physical, chemical, and mechanical disciplines, this work also explains properties of deformation at low and high temperature, creep, fatigue, and rupture.

Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Third Edition (Revised Reprint)

Author: David A. Porter,Kenneth E. Easterling

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780748757411

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 528

View: 4976

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In the decade since the first edition of this popular text was published, the metallurgical field has undergone rapid developments in many sectors. Nonetheless, the underlying principles governing these developments remain the same. A textbook that presents these advances within the context of the fundamentals is greatly needed by instructors in the field Phase Transformations in Metals and Alloys, Second Edition maintains the simplicity that undergraduate instructors and students have come to appreciate while updating and expanding coverage of recently developed methods and materials. The book is effectively divided into two parts. The beginning chapters contain the background material necessary for understanding phase transformations - thermodynamics, kinetics, diffusion theory and the structure and properties of interfaces. The following chapters deal with specific transformations - solidification, diffusional transformation in solids and diffusionless transformation. Case studies of engineering alloys are incorporated to provide a link between theory and practice. New additions include an extended list of further reading at the end of each chapter and a section containing complete solutions to all exercises in the book Designed for final year undergraduate and postgraduate students of metallurgy, materials science, or engineering materials, this is an ideal textbook for both students and instructors.

Introduction to Texture Analysis

Macrotexture, Microtexture, and Orientation Mapping, Second Edition

Author: Olaf Engler,Valerie Randle

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420063660

Category: Science

Page: 488

View: 2507

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The first edition of Introduction to Texture Analysis: Macrotexture, Microtexture, and Orientation Mapping broke new ground by collating seventy years worth of research in a convenient single-source format. Reflecting emerging methods and the evolution of the field, the second edition continues to provide comprehensive coverage of the concepts, practices, and applications of techniques used to determine and characterize texture. Providing a clear focus on scientific principles, this reference keeps mathematics to a minimum in covering both traditional macrotexture analysis and more modern electron-microscopy-based microtexture analysis. The authors integrate the two techniques and address the subsequent need for a more detailed explanation of philosophy, practice, and analysis associated with texture analysis. The book is organized into three sections: Fundamental Issues addresses terminology associated with orientations and texture, in addition to their representation. It also covers the diffraction of radiation, a phenomenon that is the basis for almost all texture analysis. Macrotexture Analysis covers data acquisition, as well as representation and evaluation related to the well-established methods of macrotexture analysis. Microtexture Analysis provides experimental details of the transmission or scanning electron microscope-based techniques for microtexture analysis. It also describes how microtexture data are evaluated and represented and explores the innovative topics of orientation microscopy and mapping, and advanced issues concerning crystallographic aspects of interfaces and connectivity. Completely revised and updated, this second edition of a bestseller is a rare introductory-level guide to texture analysis. It illustrates approaches to orientation measurement and interpretation and elucidates the fundamental principles on which measurements are based. This book is an ideal tool to help you develop a working understanding of the practice and applications of texture.

Superplasticity in Metals and Ceramics

Author: T. G. Nieh,J. Wadsworth,O. D. Sherby

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521020343

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 288

View: 8108

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A materials engineering monograph in the Cambridge Solid State Science Series, first published in 1997.

Diffusion in Crystalline Solids

Author: G E Murch

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0323140300

Category: Science

Page: 482

View: 4066

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Diffusion in Crystalline Solids addresses some of the most active areas of research on diffusion in crystalline solids. Topics covered include measurement of tracer diffusion coefficients in solids, diffusion in silicon and germanium, atom transport in oxides of the fluorite structure, tracer diffusion in concentrated alloys, diffusion in dislocations, grain boundary diffusion mechanisms in metals, and the use of the Monte Carlo Method to simulate diffusion kinetics. This book is made up of eight chapters and begins with an introduction to the measurement of diffusion coefficients with radioisotopes. The following three chapters consider diffusion in materials of substantial technological importance such as silicon and germanium. Atomic transport in oxides of the fluorite structure is described, and diffusion in concentrated alloys, including intermetallic compounds, is analyzed. The next two chapters delve into diffusion along short-circuiting paths, focusing on the effect of diffusion down dislocations on the form of the tracer concentration profile. The book also discusses the mechanisms of diffusion in grain boundaries in metals by invoking considerable work done on grain-boundary structure. The last two chapters are concerned with computer simulation, paying particular attention to machine calculations and the Monte Carlo method. The book concludes by exploring the fundamental atomic migration process and presenting some state-of-the-art calculations for defect energies and the topology of the saddle surface. Students and researchers of material science will find this book extremely useful.