Ethics and Science

An Introduction

Author: Adam Briggle,Carl Mitcham

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521878411

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 388

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This book explores ethical issues at the interfaces of science, policy, religion and technology, cultivating the skills for critical analysis.

Ethics in Science

Ethical Misconduct in Scientific Research

Author: John D'Angelo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439840865

Category: Science

Page: 130

View: 2633

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Providing the tools necessary for robust debate, Ethics in Science: Ethical Misconduct in Scientific Research explains various forms of scientific misconduct and describes ethical controversies that have occurred in research. The first part of the book includes a description of a variety of ethical violations, why they occur, how they are handled, and what can be done to prevent them along with a discussion of the peer-review process. The second part of the book presents real-life case studies that review the known facts, allowing readers to decide for themselves whether an ethical violation has occurred and if so, what should be done. Discussing the difference between bad science and bad ethics and how to prevent scientific misconduct, this book explains the various forms of scientific misconduct and provides resources for guided discussion of topical controversies.

The Ethics of Science

An Introduction

Author: David B. Resnik,Professor of Medical Humanities the Brody School of Medicine David B Resnik

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134705859

Category: Philosophy

Page: 232

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Ethics of Science is a comprehensive and student-friendly introduction to the study of ethics in science and scientific research. The book covers: * Science and Ethics * Ethical Theory and Applications * Science as a Profession * Standards of Ethical Conduct in Science * Objectivity in Research * Ethical Issues in the Laboratory * The Scientist in Society * Toward a More Ethical Science * Actual case studies include: Baltimore Affair * cold fusion * Milikan's oil drop experiments * human and animal cloning * Cold War experiments * Strategic Defence Initiative * the Challenger accident * Tobacco Research.

Ethics in Science and Engineering

Author: James G. Speight,Russell Foote

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118104842

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 318

View: 6984

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For engineering and scientific endeavors to progress there must be generally accepted ethical guidelines in place to which engineers and scientists must adhere. This book explores the various scientific and engineering disciplines, examining the potential for unethical behavior by professionals. Documented examples are presented to show where unethical behavior could have been halted before it became an issue. The authors also look to the future to see what is in store for professionals in the scientific and engineering disciplines and how the potential for unethical behavior can be negated.

Science and Ethics

Author: Bernard E. Rollin

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139455044

Category: Science

Page: N.A

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In Science and Ethics, Bernard Rollin examines the ideology that denies the relevance of ethics to science. Providing an introduction to basic ethical concepts, he discusses a variety of ethical issues that are relevant to science and how they are ignored, to the detriment of both science and society. These include research on human subjects, animal research, genetic engineering, biotechnology, cloning, xenotransplantation, and stem cell research. Rollin also explores the ideological agnosticism that scientists have displayed regarding subjective experience in humans and animals, and its pernicious effect on pain management. Finally, he articulates the implications of the ideological denial of ethics for the practice of science itself in terms of fraud, plagiarism, and data falsification. In engaging prose and with philosophical sophistication, Rollin cogently argues in favor of making education in ethics part and parcel of scientific training.

Later Mohist Logic, Ethics, and Science

Author: Angus Charles Graham,Di Mo

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 590

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This a general account of the school of Mo-tzu, its social basis as a movement of craftsmen, its isolated place in the Chinese tradition, and the nature of its later contributions to logic, ethics, and science. It assesses the relation of Mohist thinking to the structure of the Chinese language, and grapples with the textual dynamics of later Mohist writings, particularly in regard to grammar and style, technical terminology, the use and significance of stock examples, and overall organization. Includes edited and annotated Chinese text with an English translation and commentary, a glossary, and a photographic reproduction of the unemended text from the Taoist Patrology.

Ethics and Practice in Science Communication

Author: Susanna Priest,Jean Goodwin,Michael F. Dahlstrom

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022649795X

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 1465

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From climate to vaccination, stem-cell research to evolution, scientific work is often the subject of public controversies in which scientists and science communicators find themselves enmeshed. Especially with such hot-button topics, science communication plays vital roles. Gathering together the work of a multidisciplinary, international collection of scholars, the editors of Ethics and Practice in Science Communication present an enlightening dialogue involving these communities, one that articulates the often differing objectives and ethical responsibilities communicators face in bringing a range of scientific knowledge to the wider world. In three sections—how ethics matters, professional practice, and case studies—contributors to this volume explore the many complex questions surrounding the communication of scientific results to nonscientists. Has the science been shared clearly and accurately? Have questions of risk, uncertainty, and appropriate representation been adequately addressed? And, most fundamentally, what is the purpose of communicating science to the public: Is it to inform and empower? Or to persuade—to influence behavior and policy? By inspiring scientists and science communicators alike to think more deeply about their work, this book reaffirms that the integrity of the communication of science is vital to a healthy relationship between science and society today.

The Ethical Chemist

Professionalism and Ethics in Science

Author: Jeffrey Kovac

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190668652

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 7879

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This book is an introduction to professional ethics in chemistry. After a brief overview of ethical theory, it provides a detailed discussion of professional ethic for chemists based on the view that the specific codes of conduct derive from a moral ideal. The moral ideal presented here has three parts. The first refers to the practice of science, the second to relationships within the scientific community and the third to the relationship between science and society, particularly the uses of science. The question of why a scientist should obey the professional code is discussed in terms of the virtue of reverence, after which the ethical issues unique to chemistry are identified. A method for approaching ethical problems is presented. Finally, there is a large collection of specific ethical problems, or cases, each followed by a commentary where the issues raised by that case are discussed.

Ethics and Social Responsibility in Science Education

Science and Technology Education and Future Human Needs

Author: M. J. Frazer,A. Kornhauser

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483160572

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 274

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Ethics and Social Responsibility in Science Education discusses the principles and approaches to the problems of ethics and social responsibility in science education. The book is divided into three parts. The first part, Principles and Approach, explores the nature of moral education and the ethics; social responsibility of science; and the roles of scientists and engineers in societal issues. The second part, Problems and Prospects, covers different social and cultural issues in relation to ethics in science such as international stability; food production; human experimentation; medical ethics; chemical pollution; and energy production. The third part, Teaching Methodology, talks about the importance and styles of teaching ethics and social responsibility in science education. The text is recommended for practitioners, researchers, and educators in the different fields of science. Those who wish to know the importance of ethics in the socio-cultural aspect of sciences will also find this book helpful.

Creativity

Ethics and Excellence in Science

Author: Michael W. Martin

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739132166

Category: Philosophy

Page: 162

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Creativity explores the moral dimensions of creativity in science in a systematic and comprehensive way. A work of applied philosophy, professional ethics, and philosophy of science, the book argues that scientific creativity often constitutes moral creativity_the production of new and morally variable outcomes. At the same time, creative ambitions have a dark side that can lead to professional misconduct and harmful effects on society and the environment. In this work, creativity is generally defined as the development of new and valuable outcomes such as significant truths, illuminating explanations, or useful technological products. Virtue and accompanying ideals are emphasized as a moral framework. Intellectual virtues, such as love of truth, intellectual honesty, and intellectual courage, are themselves moral virtues. Further moral topics concerning scientific creativity are explored: serendipity and its connection with moral luck, the paradoxes of moral motivation, scientific misconduct arising from unbalanced creative ambitions, forbidden knowledge, creative teaching and leadership in science, and the role of scientific creativity in good lives.

The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate

Science, Ethics, and Public Policy

Author: Suzanne Holland,Karen Lebacqz,Laurie Zoloth

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262582087

Category: Medical

Page: 257

View: 717

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Discusses the ethical issues involved in the use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicine.

A Clone of Your Own?

Author: Arlene Judith Klotzko

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521852944

Category: Science

Page: 162

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Discusses the differences between therapeutic and reproductive cloning, the science and issues of stem cell research, and the legal and ethical sides of the debate.

What Will Work

Fighting Climate Change with Renewable Energy, Not Nuclear Power

Author: Kristin Shrader-Frechette

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199911789

Category: Philosophy

Page: 368

View: 1702

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What Will Work makes a rigorous and compelling case that energy efficiencies and renewable energy-and not nuclear fission or "clean coal"-are the most effective, cheapest, and equitable solutions to the pressing problem of climate change.

Privatizing Public Lands

Author: Scott Lehmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195089723

Category: Religion

Page: 248

View: 2981

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At the present time, the United States federal government retains title to roughly a quarter of the nation's land, including national parks, forests, wildlife refuges, and several hundred million miscellaneous acres. Managing these properties is expensive and often contentious, and few management decisions escape criticism. Some observers, however, argue that this criticism is misdirected, that the fundamental problem is collective ownership itself; the solution, therefore, would be a move toward privatization of such property. A free market, it is claimed, directs privately owned resources to their most productive uses, and privatizing public lands would create a free market for their services. This timely study critically examines these claims, interrogating the concept of productivity. Lehmann argues that there is no way of understanding "productive" so that greater productivity is at once desirable and a likely consequence of privatizing public lands or "marketizing" their management. The discussion is fully self-contained, with background chapters on federal lands and management agencies, economics, and ethics. It will interest philosophers, public policy analysts, and all those concerned about the future of land use in the United States.

Why and Because

The Art and Science of Moral and Ethical Understanding

Author: Lawrence Sheraton

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780692903087

Category:

Page: 102

View: 304

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Do you know right from wrong? Most people are confident they can tell right from wrong. We make ethical judgments instantly for simple matters and require little deliberation for more complex issues. Some people are so confident they are right and others are wrong, that they are willing to die to defend their positions or kill others who disagree with them or their group. Adults tell kids what is right and wrong every day, but how do they know? If you are making an assertion of right or wrong, how can you be certain that you are right? The fundamental question that ethics deals with is: how do you know you are right? Few people stop and think about that question. Fewer still have a good answer. Why and Because provides a method for deriving ethical truth independent of time or culture. It explores some of the main reasons why agreement on moral matters appears to be so elusive. An afternoon with this book will help you to convince others why you are right . . . once you convince yourself.

Eating Ethically

Religion and Science for a Better Diet

Author: Jonathan K. Crane

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231545878

Category: Religion

Page: 250

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Few activities are as essential to human flourishing as eating, and fewer still are as ethically fraught. Eating well is particularly confusing. We live amid excess, faced with conflicting recommendations, contradictory scientific studies, and complex moral, medical, and environmental consequences that influence our choices. A new eating strategy is urgently needed, one grounded in ethics, informed by biology, supported by philosophy and theology, and, ultimately, personally achievable. Eating Ethically argues persuasively for more adaptive eating practices. Drawing on religion, medicine, philosophy, cognitive science, art, ethics, and more, Jonathan K. Crane shows how distinguishing among the eater, the eaten, and the act of eating promotes a radical reorientation away from external cues and toward internal ones. This turn is vital for survival, according to classic philosophy on appetite and contemporary studies of satiety, metabolic science as well as metaphysics and religion. By intertwining ancient wisdom from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam with cutting-edge research, Crane concludes that ethical eating is a means to achieve both personal health and social cohesion. Grounded in science and tradition, Eating Ethically shows us what it truly means to eat well.

Ethics and Science

1992-1993 Lecture Series

Author: Peggie J. Hollingsworth,Thomas Edwin Moore

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Research

Page: 54

View: 5405

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Scientific Integrity and Research Ethics

An Approach from the Ethos of Science

Author: David Koepsell

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319512773

Category: Philosophy

Page: 115

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This book is an easy to read, yet comprehensive introduction to practical issues in research ethics and scientific integrity. It addresses questions about what constitutes appropriate academic and scientific behaviors from the point of view of what Robert Merton called the “ethos of science.” In other words, without getting into tricky questions about the nature of the good or right (as philosophers often do), Koepsell’s concise book provides an approach to behaving according to the norms of science and academia without delving into the morass of philosophical ethics. The central thesis is that: since we know certain behaviors are necessary for science and its institutions to work properly (rather than pathologically), we can extend those principles to guide good behaviors as scientists and academics. The Spanish version of this book was commissioned by the Mexican National Science Foundation (CONACyT) and is being distributed to and used by Mexican scientists in a unique, national plan to improve scientific integrity throughout all of Mexico. Available now in English, the examples and strategies employed can be used throughout the English speaking research world for discussing issues in research ethics, training for scientists and researchers across disciplines, and those who are generally interested in ethics in academia.

Acceptable Evidence

Science and Values in Risk Management

Author: Deborah G. Mayo,Rachelle D. Hollander

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195089294

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 9412

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Discussions of science and values in risk management have largely focused on how values enter into arguments about risks, that is, issues of acceptable risk. Instead this volume concentrates on how values enter into collecting, interpreting, communicating, and evaluating the evidence of risks, that is, issues of the acceptability of evidence of risk. By focusing on acceptable evidence, this volume avoids two barriers to progress. One barrier assumes that evidence of risk is largely a matter of objective scientific data and therefore uncontroversial. The other assumes that evidence of risk, being "just" a matter of values, is not amenable to reasoned critique. Denying both extremes, this volume argues for a more constructive conclusion: understanding the interrelations of scientific and value issues enables a critical scrutiny of risk assessments and better public deliberation about social choices. The contributors, distinguished philosophers, policy analysts, and natural and social scientists, analyze environmental and medical controversies, and assumptions underlying views about risk assessment and the scientific and statistical models used in risk management.

Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition

Author: Robin T. Bowen

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498777163

Category: Law

Page: 254

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While one would hope that forensic scientists, investigators, and experts are intrinsically ethical by nature, the reality is that these individuals have morality as varied as the general population. These professionals confront ethical dilemmas every day, some with clear-cut protocols and others that frequently have no definitive answers. Since the publication of the first edition of Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, the field of forensic science has continued to see its share of controversy. This runs the gamut of news stories from investigators, lab personnel, or even lab directors falsifying results, committing perjury, admitting to fraud, to overturned convictions, questions about bias, ethics, and what constitutes an "expert" on the witness stand. This fully updated edition tackles all these issues—including some specific instances and cases of unethical behavior—and addresses such salient issues as accreditation requirements, standardization of ethical codes, examiner certification, and standards for education and training. The new edition provides: A new chapter on the "Ferguson Effect" faced by the criminal justice system The context of forensic science ethics in relation to general scientific ethics, measurement uncertainty, and ethics in criminal justice Ethical conundrums and real-world examples that forensic scientists confront every day The ethics and conduct codes of 20 different forensic and scientific professional organizations An outline of the National Academies of Science (NAS) recommendations and progress made on ethics in forensic science since the release of the NAS report Ethics and the Practice of Forensic Science, Second Edition explores the range of ethical issues facing those who work in the forensic sciences—highlights the complicated nature of ethics and decision-making at the crime scene, in the lab, and in the courts. The book serves both as an essential resource for laboratories to train their employees and as an invaluable textbook for the growing number of courses on ethics in criminal justice and forensic science curricula. Accompanying PowerPoint® slides and an Instructor’s Manual with Test Bank are available to professors upon qualifying course adoption.