Elements of Modern X-ray Physics

Author: Jens Als-Nielsen,Des McMorrow

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781119970156

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 4248

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Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-molecules A new chapter on x-ray imaging - developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field Two new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction and imaging Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition Four-colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts Extensive problems after each chapter There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (http://booksupport.wiley.com). Praise for the previous edition: “The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x-ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002

Elements of Modern X-ray Physics

Author: Jens Als-Nielsen,Des McMorrow

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 1119997313

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 1543

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Eagerly awaited, this second edition of a best-selling text comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. Written by internationally acclaimed authors, the style of the book is to develop the basic physical principles without obscuring them with excessive mathematics. The second edition differs substantially from the first edition, with over 30% new material, including: A new chapter on non-crystalline diffraction - designed to appeal to the large community who study the structure of liquids, glasses, and most importantly polymers and bio-molecules A new chapter on x-ray imaging - developed in close cooperation with many of the leading experts in the field Two new chapters covering non-crystalline diffraction and imaging Many important changes to various sections in the book have been made with a view to improving the exposition Four-colour representation throughout the text to clarify key concepts Extensive problems after each chapter There is also supplementary book material for this title available online (http://booksupport.wiley.com). Praise for the previous edition: “The publication of Jens Als-Nielsen and Des McMorrow’s Elements of Modern X-ray Physics is a defining moment in the field of synchrotron radiation… a welcome addition to the bookshelves of synchrotron–radiation professionals and students alike.... The text is now my personal choice for teaching x-ray physics…” – Physics Today, 2002

X-Ray Diffraction

Author: B. E. Warren

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141616

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 9346

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Rigorous graduate-level text stresses modern applications to nonstructural problems such as temperature vibration effects, order-disorder phenomena, crystal imperfections, more. Problems. Six Appendixes include tables of values. Bibliographies.

Theory of Inelastic Scattering and Absorption of X-rays

Author: Michel van Veenendaal

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316239861

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8948

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This comprehensive, self-contained guide to X-ray spectroscopy will equip you with everything you need to begin extracting the maximum amount of information available from X-ray spectra. Key topics such as the interaction between X-rays and matter, the basic theory of spectroscopy, and selection and sum rules, are introduced from the ground up, providing a solid theoretical grounding. The book also introduces core underlying concepts such as atomic structure, solid-state effects, the fundamentals of tensor algebra and group theory, many-body interactions, scattering theory, and response functions, placing spectroscopy within a broader conceptual framework, and encouraging a deep understanding of this essential theoretical background. Suitable for graduate students, researchers, materials scientists and optical engineers, this is the definitive guide to the theory behind this powerful and widely used technique.

Elementary Scattering Theory

For X-ray and Neutron Users

Author: D.S. Sivia

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199228671

Category: Science

Page: 201

View: 7766

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This book provides the basic theoretical background for X-ray and neutron scattering experiments. Since these techniques are increasingly being used by biologists and chemists, as well as physicists, the book is intended to be accessible to a broad spectrum of scientists.

An Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation

Techniques and Applications

Author: Philip Willmott, PhD

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119972868

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 8738

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This book introduces the reader to the basic concepts of the generation and manipulation of synchrotron light, its interaction with matter, and the application of synchrotron light in the “classical” techniques, while including some of the most modern technological developments. As much as possible, complicated mathematical derivations and formulas are avoided. A more heuristic approach is adopted, whereby the general physical reasoning behind the equations is highlighted. Key features: A general introduction to synchrotron radiation and experimental techniques using synchrotron radiation Contains many detailed “worked examples” from the literature Of interest for a broad audience - synchrotrons are possibly one of the best examples of multidisciplinary research Four-colour presentation throughout

Basic X-Ray Scattering for Soft Matter

Author: Wim H. de Jeu

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191044415

Category: Science

Page: 192

View: 1839

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X-ray scattering is a well-established technique in materials science. Several excellent textbooks exist in this field, but these texts are typically written by physicists who use mathematics to make things clear. Consequently these books appeal less to students and scientists in the field of soft matter (polymers, liquid crystals, colloids, self-assembled organic systems) who usually have a more chemical-oriented background with limited mathematics. Moreover, they need to know about the technique of x-ray scattering, but do not intend to become an expert. The aim of this book is to explain basic principles and applications of x-ray scattering in a simple way using many practical examples followed by more elaborate case studies. The book contains a separate chapter on the different types of order/disorder in soft matter that play such an important role in modern self-assembling systems. Finally the last chapter treats soft matter surfaces and thin film that are increasingly used in coatings and in many technological applications, such as liquid crystal displays and nanostructured block copolymer films. This book has been written for the large community of soft matter students and scientists.

An Introduction to X-Ray Physics, Optics, and Applications

Author: Carolyn A. MacDonald

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400887739

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 4248

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In this book, Carolyn A. MacDonald provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of a wide range of x-ray applications, optics, and analysis tools. Theory is applied to practical considerations of optics and applications ranging from astronomy to medical imaging and materials analysis. Emphasizing common physical concepts that underpin diverse phenomena and applications of x-ray physics, the book opens with a look at nuclear medicine, motivating further investigations into scattering, detection, and noise statistics. The second section explores topics in x-ray generation, including characteristic emission, x-ray fluorescence analysis, bremsstrahlung emission, and synchrotron and laser sources. The third section details the main forms of interaction, including the physics of photoelectric absorption, coherent and Compton scattering, diffraction, and refractive, reflective, and diffractive optics. Applications in this section include x-ray spectroscopy, crystallography, and dose and contrast in radiography. A bibliography is included at the end of every chapter, and solutions to chapter problems are provided in the appendix. Based on a course for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in physics and related sciences and also intended for researchers, An Introduction to X-Ray Physics, Optics, and Applications offers a thorough survey of the physics of x-ray generation and of interaction with materials. Common aspects of diverse phenomena emphasized Theoretical development tied to practical applications Suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in physics or related sciences, as well as researchers Examples and problems include applications drawn from medicine, astronomy, and materials analysis Detailed solutions are provided for all examples and problems

X-Ray Diffraction

In Crystals, Imperfect Crystals, and Amorphous Bodies

Author: A. Guinier

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486141349

Category: Science

Page: 378

View: 3797

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Exploration of fundamentals of x-ray diffraction theory using Fourier transforms applies general results to various atomic structures, amorphous bodies, crystals, and imperfect crystals. 154 illustrations. 1963 edition.

The Physics of Liquid Crystals

Author: P. G. de Gennes,J. Prost

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198517856

Category: Science

Page: 616

View: 5513

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The original edition was immediately recognized as a classic of condensed matter physics. This new edition covers the main properties of nematics, cholesterics, and smectics and columnar phases, particularly the symmetry and the mechanical and optical characteristics of each phase. The latter includes some applications to display systems. The emphasis on order-of-magnitude considerations should make it accessible to researchers and graduate students alike.

Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation

Principles and Applications

Author: David Attwood

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 052102997X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 470

View: 4727

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This comprehensive book describes the fundamental properties of soft X-rays and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation and discusses their applications in a wide variety of fields, including EUV lithography for semiconductor chip manufacture and soft X-ray biomicroscopy. The author provides a wealth of useful reference material such as electron binding energies, characteristic emission lines and photo-absorption cross-sections. The book will be of great interest to graduate students and researchers in engineering, physics, chemistry, and the...

Outline of Crystallography for Biologists

Author: David Blow

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198510519

Category: Medical

Page: 236

View: 9858

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X-ray crystallography is the main method used to determine the structure of biological molecules. X-ray crystallography is explained without maths and reading this text allows biologists to assess the quality and accuracy of biological structures.

XAFS for Everyone

Author: Scott Calvin

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439878633

Category: Science

Page: 457

View: 2207

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XAFS for Everyone provides a practical, thorough guide to x-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) spectroscopy for both novices and seasoned practitioners from a range of disciplines. The text is enhanced with more than 200 figures as well as cartoon characters who offer informative commentary on the different approaches used in XAFS spectroscopy. The book covers sample preparation, data reduction, tips and tricks for data collection, fingerprinting, linear combination analysis, principal component analysis, and modeling using theoretical standards. It describes both near-edge (XANES) and extended (EXAFS) applications in detail. Examples throughout the text are drawn from diverse areas, including materials science, environmental science, structural biology, catalysis, nanoscience, chemistry, art, and archaeology. In addition, five case studies from the literature demonstrate the use of XAFS principles and analysis in practice. The text includes derivations and sample calculations to foster a deeper comprehension of the results. Whether you are encountering this technique for the first time or looking to hone your craft, this innovative and engaging book gives you insight on implementing XAFS spectroscopy and interpreting XAFS experiments and results. It helps you understand real-world trade-offs and the reasons behind common rules of thumb.

Neutron and X-ray Spectroscopy

Author: Françoise Hippert,Erik Geissler,Jean Louis Hodeau,Eddy Lelièvre-Berna,Jean-René Regnard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402033370

Category: Science

Page: 566

View: 1371

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- Up-to-date account of the principles and practice of inelastic and spectroscopic methods available at neutron and synchrotron sources - Multi-technique approach set around a central theme, rather than a monograph on one technique - Emphasis on the complementarity of neutron spectroscopy and X-ray spectroscopy which are usually treated in separate books

Industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography

Author: Simone Carmignato,Wim Dewulf,Richard Leach

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319595733

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 369

View: 7948

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X-ray computed tomography has been used for several decades as a tool for measuring the three-dimensional geometry of the internal organs in medicine. However, in recent years, we have seen a move in manufacturing industries for the use of X-ray computed tomography; first to give qualitative information about the internal geometry and defects in a component, and more recently, as a fully-quantitative technique for dimensional and materials analysis. This trend is primarily due to the ability of X-ray computed tomography to give a high-density and multi-scale representation of both the external and internal geometry of a component, in a non-destructive, non-contact and relatively fast way. But, due to the complexity of X-ray computed tomography, there are remaining metrological issues to solve and the specification standards are still under development. This book will act as a one-stop-shop resource for students and users of X-ray computed tomography in both academia and industry. It presents the fundamental principles of the technique, detailed descriptions of the various components (hardware and software), current developments in calibration and performance verification and a wealth of example applications. The book will also highlight where there is still work to do, in the perspective that X-ray computed tomography will be an essential part of Industry 4.0.

X-Ray Imaging

Fundamentals, Industrial Techniques and Applications

Author: Harry E. Martz,Clint M. Logan,Daniel J. Schneberk,Peter J. Shull

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420009761

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 574

View: 9979

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While books on the medical applications of x-ray imaging exist, there is not one currently available that focuses on industrial applications. Full of color images that show clear spectrometry and rich with applications, X-Ray Imaging fills the need for a comprehensive work on modern industrial x-ray imaging. It reviews the fundamental science of x-ray imaging and addresses equipment and system configuration. Useful to a broad range of radiation imaging practitioners, the book looks at the rapid development and deployment of digital x-ray imaging system.

Handbook of X-ray Imaging

Physics and Technology

Author: Paolo Russo

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1498741541

Category: Medical

Page: 1393

View: 1678

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Containing chapter contributions from over 130 experts, this unique publication is the first handbook dedicated to the physics and technology of X-ray imaging, offering extensive coverage of the field. This highly comprehensive work is edited by one of the world’s leading experts in X-ray imaging?physics and technology and has been created with guidance from a Scientific Board containing respected and renowned scientists from around the world. The book's scope includes 2D and 3D X-ray imaging techniques from soft-X-ray to megavoltage energies, including computed tomography, fluoroscopy, dental imaging and small animal imaging, with several chapters dedicated to breast imaging techniques. 2D and 3D industrial imaging is incorporated, including imaging of artworks. Specific attention is dedicated to techniques of phase contrast X-ray imaging. The approach undertaken is one that illustrates the theory as well as the techniques and the devices routinely used in the various fields. Computational aspects are fully covered, including 3D reconstruction algorithms, hard/software phantoms, and computer-aided diagnosis. Theories of image quality are fully illustrated. Historical, radioprotection, radiation dosimetry, quality assurance and educational aspects are also covered. This handbook will be suitable for a very broad audience, including graduate students in medical physics and biomedical engineering; medical physics residents; radiographers; physicists and engineers in the field of imaging and non-destructive industrial testing using X-rays; and scientists interested in understanding and using X-ray imaging techniques. The handbook's editor, Dr. Paolo Russo, has over 30 years’ experience in the academic teaching of medical physics and X-ray imaging research. He has authored several book chapters in the field of X-ray imaging, is Editor-in-Chief of an international scientific journal in medical physics, and has responsibilities in the publication committees of international scientific organizations in medical physics.

Elements of Quantum Optics

Author: Pierre Meystre,Murray Sargent

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540742115

Category: Science

Page: 507

View: 3859

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With a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light and the input-output formalism, this fourth edition of the brilliant work on quantum optics has been much updated. It still gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing.

Christensen's Physics of Diagnostic Radiology

Author: Thomas S. Curry,James E. Dowdey,Robert C. Murry

Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

ISBN: 9780812113105

Category: Medical

Page: 522

View: 5428

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The Fourth Edition of this text provides a clear understanding of the physics principles essential to getting maximum diagnostic value from the full range of current and emerging imaging technologies. Updated material added in areas such as x-ray generators (solid-state devices), xerography (liquid toner), CT scanners (fast-imaging technology) and ultrasound (color Doppler).