Sets, Logic and Categories

Author: Peter J. Cameron

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447105893

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

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Set theory, logic and category theory lie at the foundations of mathematics, and have a dramatic effect on the mathematics that we do, through the Axiom of Choice, Gödel's Theorem, and the Skolem Paradox. But they are also rich mathematical theories in their own right, contributing techniques and results to working mathematicians such as the Compactness Theorem and module categories. The book is aimed at those who know some mathematics and want to know more about its building blocks. Set theory is first treated naively an axiomatic treatment is given after the basics of first-order logic have been introduced. The discussion is su pported by a wide range of exercises. The final chapter touches on philosophical issues. The book is supported by a World Wibe Web site containing a variety of supplementary material.

Set Theory and the Continuum Problem

Author: Raymond M. Smullyan,Melvin Fitting

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780486474847

Category: Mathematics

Page: 315

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A lucid, elegant, and complete survey of set theory, this three-part treatment explores axiomatic set theory, the consistency of the continuum hypothesis, and forcing and independence results. 1996 edition.

An Axiomatic Approach to Geometry

Geometric Trilogy I

Author: Francis Borceux

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3319017306

Category: Mathematics

Page: 403

View: 6909

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Focusing methodologically on those historical aspects that are relevant to supporting intuition in axiomatic approaches to geometry, the book develops systematic and modern approaches to the three core aspects of axiomatic geometry: Euclidean, non-Euclidean and projective. Historically, axiomatic geometry marks the origin of formalized mathematical activity. It is in this discipline that most historically famous problems can be found, the solutions of which have led to various presently very active domains of research, especially in algebra. The recognition of the coherence of two-by-two contradictory axiomatic systems for geometry (like one single parallel, no parallel at all, several parallels) has led to the emergence of mathematical theories based on an arbitrary system of axioms, an essential feature of contemporary mathematics. This is a fascinating book for all those who teach or study axiomatic geometry, and who are interested in the history of geometry or who want to see a complete proof of one of the famous problems encountered, but not solved, during their studies: circle squaring, duplication of the cube, trisection of the angle, construction of regular polygons, construction of models of non-Euclidean geometries, etc. It also provides hundreds of figures that support intuition. Through 35 centuries of the history of geometry, discover the birth and follow the evolution of those innovative ideas that allowed humankind to develop so many aspects of contemporary mathematics. Understand the various levels of rigor which successively established themselves through the centuries. Be amazed, as mathematicians of the 19th century were, when observing that both an axiom and its contradiction can be chosen as a valid basis for developing a mathematical theory. Pass through the door of this incredible world of axiomatic mathematical theories!

Metric Spaces of Non-Positive Curvature

Author: Martin R. Bridson,André Häfliger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3662124947

Category: Mathematics

Page: 643

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A description of the global properties of simply-connected spaces that are non-positively curved in the sense of A. D. Alexandrov, and the structure of groups which act on such spaces by isometries. The theory of these objects is developed in a manner accessible to anyone familiar with the rudiments of topology and group theory: non-trivial theorems are proved by concatenating elementary geometric arguments, and many examples are given. Part I provides an introduction to the geometry of geodesic spaces, while Part II develops the basic theory of spaces with upper curvature bounds. More specialized topics, such as complexes of groups, are covered in Part III.

Geometric Group Theory

An Introduction

Author: Clara Löh

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319722549

Category: Mathematics

Page: 389

View: 8117

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Inspired by classical geometry, geometric group theory has in turn provided a variety of applications to geometry, topology, group theory, number theory and graph theory. This carefully written textbook provides a rigorous introduction to this rapidly evolving field whose methods have proven to be powerful tools in neighbouring fields such as geometric topology. Geometric group theory is the study of finitely generated groups via the geometry of their associated Cayley graphs. It turns out that the essence of the geometry of such groups is captured in the key notion of quasi-isometry, a large-scale version of isometry whose invariants include growth types, curvature conditions, boundary constructions, and amenability. This book covers the foundations of quasi-geometry of groups at an advanced undergraduate level. The subject is illustrated by many elementary examples, outlooks on applications, as well as an extensive collection of exercises.

Lectures on Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Riccardo Benedetti,Carlo Petronio

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642581587

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 6431

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Focussing on the geometry of hyperbolic manifolds, the aim here is to provide an exposition of some fundamental results, while being as self-contained, complete, detailed and unified as possible. Following some classical material on the hyperbolic space and the Teichmüller space, the book centers on the two fundamental results: Mostow's rigidity theorem (including a complete proof, following Gromov and Thurston) and Margulis' lemma. These then form the basis for studying Chabauty and geometric topology; a unified exposition is given of Wang's theorem and the Jorgensen-Thurston theory; and much space is devoted to the 3D case: a complete and elementary proof of the hyperbolic surgery theorem, based on the representation of three manifolds as glued ideal tetrahedra.

Thirty-three Miniatures

Mathematical and Algorithmic Applications of Linear Algebra

Author: Jiří Matoušek

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821849778

Category: Mathematics

Page: 182

View: 7466

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This volume contains a collection of clever mathematical applications of linear algebra, mainly in combinatorics, geometry, and algorithms. Each chapter covers a single main result with motivation and full proof in at most ten pages and can be read independently of all other chapters (with minor exceptions), assuming only a modest background in linear algebra. The topics include a number of well-known mathematical gems, such as Hamming codes, the matrix-tree theorem, the Lovasz bound on the Shannon capacity, and a counterexample to Borsuk's conjecture, as well as other, perhaps less popular but similarly beautiful results, e.g., fast associativity testing, a lemma of Steinitz on ordering vectors, a monotonicity result for integer partitions, or a bound for set pairs via exterior products. The simpler results in the first part of the book provide ample material to liven up an undergraduate course of linear algebra. The more advanced parts can be used for a graduate course of linear-algebraic methods or for seminar presentations. Table of Contents: Fibonacci numbers, quickly; Fibonacci numbers, the formula; The clubs of Oddtown; Same-size intersections; Error-correcting codes; Odd distances; Are these distances Euclidean?; Packing complete bipartite graphs; Equiangular lines; Where is the triangle?; Checking matrix multiplication; Tiling a rectangle by squares; Three Petersens are not enough; Petersen, Hoffman-Singleton, and maybe 57; Only two distances; Covering a cube minus one vertex; Medium-size intersection is hard to avoid; On the difficulty of reducing the diameter; The end of the small coins; Walking in the yard; Counting spanning trees; In how many ways can a man tile a board?; More bricks--more walls?; Perfect matchings and determinants; Turning a ladder over a finite field; Counting compositions; Is it associative?; The secret agent and umbrella; Shannon capacity of the union: a tale of two fields; Equilateral sets; Cutting cheaply using eigenvectors; Rotating the cube; Set pairs and exterior products; Index. (STML/53)