Drugs in Afghanistan

opium, outlaws and scorpion tales

Author: David Macdonald

Publisher: Pluto Press

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 295

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Exposes the devastation that the heroin trade and drug addiction is causing within Afghanistan.

Cartels at War

Mexico's Drug-Fueled Violence and the Threat to U. S. National Security

Author: Paul Rexton Kan

Publisher: Potomac Books, Inc.

ISBN: 1597977071

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 3716

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Now in its sixth year, the conflict in Mexico is a mosaic of several wars occurring at once: cartels battle one another, cartels suffer violence within their own organizations, cartels fight against the Mexican state, cartels and gangs wage war against the Mexican people, and gangs combat gangs. The war has killed more than 60,000 people since President Felipe Calder?n began cracking down on the cartels in December 2006. The targets of the violence have been wide-rangingùfrom police officers to journalists, from clinics to discos. Governments on either side of the U.S.-Mexican border have been unable to control the violence. The war has spilled over into American cities and affects domestic policy issues ranging from immigration to gun control, making the border the nexus of national security and public safety concerns. Drawing on fieldwork along the border and interviews with officials at the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Office of National Drug Control Policy, the Department of Defense, U.S. Border Patrol, and Mexican military officers, Paul Rexton Kan argues that policy responses must be carefully calibrated to prevent stoking more cartel violence, to cut the incentives to smuggle drugs into the United States, and to stop the erosion of Mexican governmental capacity.

Drug Legalization

For and Against

Author: Rod L. Evans,Irwin M. Berent

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN: 9780812691849

Category: Political Science

Page: 331

View: 6570

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Should drugs be legalized? This collection gives both sides of the argument, with 24 selected articles by 23 well-known participants in the great debate. All the relevant issues are covered, including: comparisons with legal drugs like alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine; law enforcement problems, addiction rates; moral dilemmas, and the results of practical experience with Prohibition and other anti-drug policies.

Responding to afghanistan's opium economy challenge

Author: William A. Byrd

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0803040822

Category: Afghanistan

Page: 30

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Abstract: Opium, Afghanistan's leading economic activity, lies at the heart of the challenges the country faces in state building, governance, security, and development. With their narrow law enforcement focus and limited recognition of development, security, and political implications, current global counter-narcotics polices impose a heavy burden on Afghanistan. This paper first provides a summary overview of Afghanistan's opium economy and the factors determining rural households' decisions on cultivating opium poppy. It then discusses the dynamic evolution of the Afghan drug industry in recent years, in particular its consolidation around fewer, powerful, politically-connected actors and the associated compromising of parts of some government agencies by drug industry interests. The paper reviews the experience with different counter-narcotics interventions, analyzes some proposals not yet tried in Afghanistan, and draws lessons and policy implications. Unfortunately there are no "silver bullets"-easy, quick, or one-dimensional solutions, and a longer-term horizon along with sustained commitment and resources will be required in order to phase out the opium economy over time. The paper concludes by putting forward some broad principles and approaches of a "smart strategy" against drugs in Afghanistan.

Opium

Uncovering the Politics of the Poppy

Author: Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674051348

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 9340

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Known to the Greeks as opos or opion, as afiun in Persian and Arabic, and fuyung in Chinese, opium is at once a palliative and a poison. Its exotic origins, its literary associations, and the properties that are, often erroneously, attributed to it have ensured an ongoing air of mystery. Pierre-Arnaud Chouvy reveals the long and fascinating history of a powerful and addictive drug and explores the changing fortunes of the modern-day illicit opium trade, especially in the remote regions of Asia. He answers key questions: Why have anti-drug policies failed despite four decades of increasing effort? And what are the shortcomings and limitations of forced eradication, alternative development, "silver bullets," and other quick fixes? In answering these questions, Chouvy draws upon geography, anthropology, politics, and development studies. He shows that the history of opium production is unexpectedly linked to the history of Afghanistan. A compelling account of a narcotic as old as humanity, Opium offers powerful insights into the complex politics and economics of the poppy in the world today.

Innocent Bystanders

Developing Countries and the War on Drugs

Author: Philip Keefer,Norman Loayza

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821380352

Category: Political Science

Page: 388

View: 1722

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This book presents evidence that drug policies impose high costs on poor transit and producer countries. It argues that, in the face of great uncertainty about the benefits of alternative drug policies, those with lower social costs should receive greater emphasis.

Afghanistan

Transition under Threat

Author: Geoffrey Hayes,Mark Sedra

Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press

ISBN: 1554586984

Category: Political Science

Page: 348

View: 966

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Many have questioned the wisdom of the international intervention in Afghanistan in light of the escalation of violence and instability in the country in the past few years. Particularly uncertain are Canadians, who have been inundated with media coverage of an increasingly dirty war in southern Afghanistan, one in which Canadians are at the frontline and suffering heavy casualties. However, the conflict is only one aspect of Afghanistan’s complicated, and incomplete, political, economic, and security transition. In Afghanistan: Transition under Threat, leading Afghanistan scholars and practitioners paint a full picture of the situation in Afghanistan and the impact of international and particularly Canadian assistance. They review the achievements of the reconstruction process and outline future challenges, focusing on key issues like the narcotics trade, the Pakistan—Afghanistan bilateral relationship, the Taliban-led insurgency, and continuing endemic poverty. This collection provides new insight into the nature and state of Afghanistan’s post-conflict transition and illustrates the consequences of failure. Co-published with the Centre for International Governance Innovation

The Golden Triangle

Inside Southeast Asia's Drug Trade

Author: Ko-lin Chin

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 080145719X

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 9044

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The Golden Triangle region that joins Burma, Thailand, and Laos is one of the global centers of opiate and methamphetamine production. Opportunistic Chinese businessmen and leaders of various armed groups are largely responsible for the manufacture of these drugs. The region is defined by the apparently conflicting parallel strands of criminality and efforts at state building, a tension embodied by a group of individuals who are simultaneously local political leaders, drug entrepreneurs, and members of heavily armed militias. Ko-lin Chin, a Chinese American criminologist who was born and raised in Burma, conducted five hundred face-to-face interviews with poppy growers, drug dealers, drug users, armed group leaders, law-enforcement authorities, and other key informants in Burma, Thailand, and China. The Golden Triangle provides a lively portrait of a region in constant transition, a place where political development is intimately linked to the vagaries of the global market in illicit drugs. Chin explains the nature of opium growing, heroin and methamphetamine production, drug sales, and drug use. He also shows how government officials who live in these areas view themselves not as drug kingpins, but as people who are carrying the responsibility for local economic development on their shoulders.

Illegal Drugs, Economy, and Society in the Andes

Author: Francisco E. Thoumi

Publisher: Woodrow Wilson Center Press

ISBN: 9780801878541

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 416

View: 528

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Some countries develop illegal drugs industries, and others do not. Discerning the distinguishing characteristics—social, economic, and political—of countries with these industries forms the subject of this sophisticated and humane study. The author, Francisco E. Thoumi, though trained as an economist, rejects simplistic economic solutions as well as simplistic moral ones as he addresses the Andean countries of Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia and the attitudes and responses of the United States. He investigates how the United States and the Andean countries perceive drugs issues; the history, structure, and evolution of drug industries in the Andes; the size of the industries in Peru, Colombia, and Bolivia; and their economic, political, and social effects in each country. Thoumi also addresses the political systems and social characteristics of these countries and why they have been so vulnerable to influence from these industries. And he offers case studies of a variety of anti-drug efforts including crop substitution and alternative development, eradication, interdiction of illicit traffic and manufacturing facilities, and extradition to the United States of traffickers.

Drugs and the world

Author: Axel Klein

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: N.A

Category: Psychology

Page: 221

View: 2159

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The use and misuse of psychoactive substances is one of the most widely discussed and yet least understood social processes. It is easy to condemn the use of illicit drugs, as well as alcohol and tobacco, as problems that require the services of professionals and the retribution of the state. Sight has been lost of the contributions that drugs have played in society and culture and the key role they play in ritual, religion and possibly human evolution. Drugs and the World restores the constructive aspect of drug use to the discussion, and reviews the policies and interventions that make up the contemporary web of drug controls. Axel Klein traces the classification of substances to define 'drugs', and examines the links with both crime and addiction. He investigates the arguments made concerning the role of drugs, first in human evolution and then in history, to underscore their importance in the development of trade and nation states. Drawing on research from around the world, this book illustrates how global efforts to suppress drugs have had little impact on drug use, but have instead eroded institutions of the state, corrupted law enforcement and courts, and undermined the democratic process. Providing new material from the Caribbean, West Africa and the Caucasus to illustrate the bizarre consequences of an internationally devised drug-control programme, Drugs and the World moves to discussing the contribution of drugs to contemporary society, and ways of regulating their use and distribution. Written by an expert author with more than fifteen years experience in the field of drug use, addiction prevention and drug policy, this book will appeal to a wide audience of readers wishing to know more about the use of illicit drugs in the world today.

Drink

A Cultural History of Alcohol

Author: Iain Gately

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781440631269

Category: Cooking

Page: 560

View: 4060

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A spirited look at the history of alcohol, from the dawn of civilization to the modern day Alcohol is a fundamental part of Western culture. We have been drinking as long as we have been human, and for better or worse, alcohol has shaped our civilization. Drink investigates the history of this Jekyll and Hyde of fluids, tracing mankind's love/hate relationship with alcohol from ancient Egypt to the present day. Drink further documents the contribution of alcohol to the birth and growth of the United States, taking in the War of Independence, the Pennsylvania Whiskey revolt, the slave trade, and the failed experiment of national Prohibition. Finally, it provides a history of the world's most famous drinks-and the world's most famous drinkers. Packed with trivia and colorful characters, Drink amounts to an intoxicating history of the world.

Drug War Zone

Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez

Author: Howard Campbell

Publisher: University of Texas Press

ISBN: 0292782799

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 5182

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Thousands of people die in drug-related violence every year in Mexico. Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, adjacent to El Paso, Texas, has become the most violent city in the Mexican drug war. Much of the cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamine consumed in the United States is imported across the Mexican border, making El Paso/Juárez one of the major drug-trafficking venues in the world. In this anthropological study of drug trafficking and anti-drug law enforcement efforts on the U.S.-Mexico border, Howard Campbell uses an ethnographic perspective to chronicle the recent Mexican drug war, focusing especially on people and events in the El Paso/Juárez area. It is the first social science study of the violent drug war that is tearing Mexico apart. Based on deep access to the drug-smuggling world, this study presents the drug war through the eyes and lives of direct participants. Half of the book consists of oral histories from drug traffickers, and the other half from law enforcement officials. There is much journalistic coverage of the drug war, but very seldom are the lived experiences of traffickers and "narcs" presented in such vivid detail. In addition to providing an up-close, personal view of the drug-trafficking world, Campbell explains and analyzes the functioning of drug cartels, the corruption that facilitates drug trafficking, the strategies of smugglers and anti-narcotics officials, and the perilous culture of drug trafficking that Campbell refers to as the "Drug War Zone."

Gangrillas

The Unspoken Pros and Cons of Legalizing Drugs

Author: D. Mendez Beddow,Sam J. Thibodeaux

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN: 9781426948473

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

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The United States continues to crack down on drug trafficking despite a growing number of citizens who think illegal drugs should be legalized. If you have doubts about the legalization of drugs in the United States, you are not alone. Its important to consider all the facts before coming to conclusions. Gangrillas uncovers the facts and data that usually remains hidden. In addition to discussing ways the drug trade affects the United States, authors D. Mendez Beddow and Sam J. Thibodeaux examine its roots in other countries. They consider a variety of topics, including the pros and cons of legalization the history of coca leaf products the historical background of "Bolivarization" the drug trade and its connection to terrorism The Western Hemisphere Drug Policy Commission was quietly created in December 2009 to determine the merits of legalizing drugs. Meanwhile, just several months later, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton declared the turf war of the Mexican cartels an insurgency similar to the situation in Colombia twenty years ago. Establish your own, informed opinions and develop a clear understanding of the pros, cons, and challenges that would accompany the legalization of drugs in Gangrillas.

Even Cowgirls Get the Blues

A Novel

Author: Tom Robbins

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 9780553897890

Category: Fiction

Page: 384

View: 5252

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The whooping crane rustlers are girls. Young girls. Cowgirls, as a matter of fact, all “bursting with dimples and hormones”—and the FBI has never seen anything quite like them. Yet their rebellion at the Rubber Rose Ranch is almost overshadowed by the arrival of the legendary Sissy Hankshaw, a white-trash goddess literally born to hitchhike, and the freest female of them all. Freedom, its prizes and its prices, is a major theme of Tom Robbins’s classic tale of eccentric adventure. As his robust characters attempt to turn the tables on fate, the reader is drawn along on a tragicomic joyride across the badlands of sexuality, wild rivers of language, and the frontiers of the mind. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Afghanistan

A Modern History

Author: Angelo Rasanayagam

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 9781850438571

Category: History

Page: 311

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The first major history of modern Afghanistan, this book traces the country's development from the accession of Abdul Rahman Khan, the 'Iron Amir' in 1880, right up to the demise of the Taliban under US bombing over the winter of 2001, and the search for a new state structure in 2002.

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society

Author: Sarah E. Boslaugh

Publisher: SAGE Publications

ISBN: 1506346189

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 1888

View: 5881

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The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society explores the social and policy sides of the pharmaceutical industry and its pervasive influence in society. While many technical STM works explore the chemistry and biology of pharmacology and an equally large number of clinically oriented works focus on use of illegal drugs, substance abuse, and treatment, there is virtually nothing on the immensely huge business (“Big Pharma”) of creating, selling, consuming, and regulating legal drugs. With this new Encyclopedia, the topic of socioeconomic, business and consumer, and legal and ethical issues of the pharmaceutical industry in contemporary society around the world are addressed. Key Features: 800 signed articles, authored by prominent scholars, are arranged A-to-Z and published in a choice of electronic or print formats Although arranged A-to-Z, a Reader's Guide in the front matter groups articles by thematic areas Front matter also includes a Chronology highlighting significant developments in this field All articles conclude with Further Readings and Cross References to related articles Back matter includes an annotated Resource Guide to further research, a Glossary, Appendices (e.g., statistics on the amount and types of drugs prescribed, etc.), and a detailed Index The Index, Reader’s Guide, and Cross References combine for search-and-browse capabilities in the electronic edition The SAGE Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Society is an authoritative and rigorous source addressing the pharmacology industry and how it influences society, making it a must-have reference for all academic libraries as a source for both students and researchers to utilize.

The Chemical Muse

Drug Use and the Roots of Western Civilization

Author: D. C.A. Hillman, Ph.D.

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 1466882298

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 4535

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"The last wild frontier of classical studies." ---The Times (UK) The Chemical Muse uncovers decades of misdirection and obfuscation to reveal the history of widespread drug use in Ancient Rome and Greece. In the city-states that gave birth to Western civilization, drugs were an everyday element of a free society. Often they were not just available, but vitally necessary for use in medicine, religious ceremonies, and war campaigns. Their proponents and users existed in all classes, from the common soldier to the emperor himself. Citing examples in myths, medicine, and literature, D. C. A. Hillman shows how drugs have influenced and inspired the artists, philosophers, and even politicians whose ideas have formed the basis for civilization as we know it. Many of these ancient texts may seem well-known, but Hillman shows how timid, prudish translations have left scholars and readers in the dark about the reality of drug use in the Classical world. Hillman's argument is not simply "pro-drug." Instead, he appeals for an intellectual honesty that acknowledges the use of drugs in ancient societies despite today's conflicting social mores. In the modern world, where academia and university life are often politically charged, The Chemical Muse offers a unique and long overdue perspective on the contentious topic of drug use and the freedom of thought.

Beyond Turk and Hindu

Rethinking Religious Identities in Islamicate South Asia

Author: David Gilmartin,Bruce B. Lawrence

Publisher: Orange Groove Books

ISBN: 9781616101183

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 6961

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