Crystals, Defects and Microstructures

Modeling Across Scales

Author: Rob Phillips

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521793575

Category: Mathematics

Page: 780

View: 7634

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Examines the advances made in the field in recent years and looks at the various methods now used; ideal for graduate students and researchers.

Defect and Microstructure Analysis by Diffraction

Author: Robert L. Snyder,Jaroslav Fiala,Hans Joachim Bunge

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780198501893

Category: Science

Page: 785

View: 4495

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'This book reviews the state of the art for determining the 'real' structure of matter' Zeitschrift Fur kristallographieThis book reviews the state of the art for determining the 'real' structure of matter. Nature does not stack atoms up in crystals in a perfect manner. Various types of 'mistakes' find their way into the arrangements of atoms in real crystals. These mistakes or defects determine the physical properties of a material and understanding them is critical to predicting a new materials properties. This book reviews the principal characterisation technique permitting us to measure the defect solid state: X-ray diffraction.

Crystallography and Crystal Defects

Author: Anthony Kelly,Kevin M. Knowles

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470750154

Category: Science

Page: 521

View: 5317

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This new edition updates readers with the latest concepts of crystallography in a clear, succinct manner, and describes their application in line and planar defects in crystalline materials, quasicrystals, and crystal interfaces. The coverage begins with a chapter on lattice geometry, followed by crystal systems and crystal structures.

Handbook of Materials Modeling

Author: Sidney Yip

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402032862

Category: Science

Page: 2965

View: 1348

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The first reference of its kind in the rapidly emerging field of computational approachs to materials research, this is a compendium of perspective-providing and topical articles written to inform students and non-specialists of the current status and capabilities of modelling and simulation. From the standpoint of methodology, the development follows a multiscale approach with emphasis on electronic-structure, atomistic, and mesoscale methods, as well as mathematical analysis and rate processes. Basic models are treated across traditional disciplines, not only in the discussion of methods but also in chapters on crystal defects, microstructure, fluids, polymers and soft matter. Written by authors who are actively participating in the current development, this collection of 150 articles has the breadth and depth to be a major contributor toward defining the field of computational materials. In addition, there are 40 commentaries by highly respected researchers, presenting various views that should interest the future generations of the community. Subject Editors: Martin Bazant, MIT; Bruce Boghosian, Tufts University; Richard Catlow, Royal Institution; Long-Qing Chen, Pennsylvania State University; William Curtin, Brown University; Tomas Diaz de la Rubia, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; Nicolas Hadjiconstantinou, MIT; Mark F. Horstemeyer, Mississippi State University; Efthimios Kaxiras, Harvard University; L. Mahadevan, Harvard University; Dimitrios Maroudas, University of Massachusetts; Nicola Marzari, MIT; Horia Metiu, University of California Santa Barbara; Gregory C. Rutledge, MIT; David J. Srolovitz, Princeton University; Bernhardt L. Trout, MIT; Dieter Wolf, Argonne National Laboratory.

Modeling Materials

Continuum, Atomistic and Multiscale Techniques

Author: Ellad B. Tadmor,Ronald E. Miller

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139500651

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6327

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Material properties emerge from phenomena on scales ranging from Angstroms to millimeters, and only a multiscale treatment can provide a complete understanding. Materials researchers must therefore understand fundamental concepts and techniques from different fields, and these are presented in a comprehensive and integrated fashion for the first time in this book. Incorporating continuum mechanics, quantum mechanics, statistical mechanics, atomistic simulations and multiscale techniques, the book explains many of the key theoretical ideas behind multiscale modeling. Classical topics are blended with new techniques to demonstrate the connections between different fields and highlight current research trends. Example applications drawn from modern research on the thermo-mechanical properties of crystalline solids are used as a unifying focus throughout the text. Together with its companion book, Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics (Cambridge University Press, 2011), this work presents the complete fundamentals of materials modeling for graduate students and researchers in physics, materials science, chemistry and engineering.

Analysis and Computation of Microstructure in Finite Plasticity

Author: Sergio Conti,Klaus Hackl

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319182420

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 257

View: 4851

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This book addresses the need for a fundamental understanding of the physical origin, the mathematical behavior and the numerical treatment of models which include microstructure. Leading scientists present their efforts involving mathematical analysis, numerical analysis, computational mechanics, material modelling and experiment. The mathematical analyses are based on methods from the calculus of variations, while in the numerical implementation global optimization algorithms play a central role. The modeling covers all length scales, from the atomic structure up to macroscopic samples. The development of the models ware guided by experiments on single and polycrystals and results will be checked against experimental data.

Microstructure of Metals and Alloys

An Atlas of Transmission Electron Microscopy Images

Author: Ganka Zlateva,Zlatanka Martinova

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420075578

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 192

View: 1200

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A teaching tool intended to complement existing books on the theory of materials science, metallurgy, and electron microscopy, this text focuses on metals and alloys. It visualizes key structural elements common to crystalline materials, including crystal lattice imperfections, along with the principles and steps involved in the microstructure development in metallic materials under external influences. Designed as an atlas, Microstructure of Metals and Alloys contains a collection of carefully selected original transmission electron microscope (TEM) micrographs taken by the authors. These images demonstrate typical crystal lattice defects, elements of the microstructure of metals and alloys, and the basic processes occurring to the crystal structure during plastic deformation, polygonization, recrystallization, and rapid solidification. The book is organized into six chapters. Each deals with a particular problem in the field of physical metallurgy, and begins with a description of the basic concept and terms. These descriptions enable readers to achieve a better understanding of the essential issues relevant to specific challenges. Providing comprehensive, illustrative coverage of the basic topics in materials science, this important work emphasizes fundamental principles over specific materials, in a manner that is fully consistent with the contemporary tendency in materials science teaching.

Introduction to Materials Science

Author: Jean P Mercier,Gerald Zambelli,Wilfried Kurz

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008095071X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 460

View: 8390

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The approach of this concise but comprehensive introduction, covering all major classes of materials, is right for not just materials science students and professionals, but also for those in engineering, physics and chemistry, or other related disciplines. The characteristics of all main classes of materials, metals, polymers and ceramics, are explained with reference to real-world examples. So each class of material is described, then its properties are explained, with illustrative examples from the leading edge of application. This edition contains new material on nanomaterials and nanostructures, and includes a study of degradation and corrosion, and a presentation of the main organic composite materials. Illustrative examples include carbon fibres, the silicon crystal, metallic glasses, and diamond films. Applications explored include ultra-light aircraft, contact lenses, dental materials, single crystal blades for gas turbines, use of lasers in the automotive industry, cables for cable cars, permanent magnets and molecular electronic devices. Covers latest materials including nanomaterials and nanostructures Real-world case studies bring the theory to life and illustrate the latest in good design All major classes of materials are covered in this concise yet comprehensive volume

Materials Science for Engineering Students

Author: Traugott Fischer

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0080920020

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 600

View: 4688

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Materials Science for Engineering Students offers students of introductory materials science and engineering, and their instructors, a fresh perspective on the rapidly evolving world of advanced engineering materials. This new, concise text takes a more contemporary approach to materials science than the more traditional books in this subject, with a special emphasis on using an inductive method to first introduce materials and their particular properties and then to explain the underlying physical and chemical phenomena responsible for those properties. The text pays particular attention to the newer classes of materials, such as ceramics, polymers and composites, and treats them as part of two essential classes – structural materials and functional materials – rather than the traditional method of emphasizing structural materials alone. This book is recommended for second and third year engineering students taking a required one- or two-semester sequence in introductory materials science and engineering as well as graduate-level students in materials, electrical, chemical and manufacturing engineering who need to take this as a core prerequisite. Presents balanced coverage of both structural and functional materials Types of materials are introduced first, followed by explanation of physical and chemical phenomena that drive their specific properties Strong focus on engineering applications of materials The first materials science text to include a whole chapter devoted to batteries Provides clear, mathematically simple explanations of basic chemistry and physics underlying materials properties

Microstructures and Structural Defects in High-temperature Superconductors

Author: Zhi-Xiong Cai,Yimei Zhu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810232856

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 507

View: 7128

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This book provides an extensive introduction to the microstructures and structural defects in high-temperature superconductors in a consistent manner. It illustrates the application of modern experimental techniques as well as theoretical modeling tools in the study of these complex materials. The book also gives the reader an overview of the efforts involved in developing large-scale (high-current, high-field) applications for high-T(c) superconductors.

Physical Biology of the Cell

Author: Rob Phillips,Jane Kondev,Julie Theriot,Hernan Garcia

Publisher: Garland Science

ISBN: 1134111584

Category: Science

Page: 1058

View: 7688

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Physical Biology of the Cell is a textbook for a first course in physical biology or biophysics for undergraduate or graduate students. It maps the huge and complex landscape of cell and molecular biology from the distinct perspective of physical biology. As a key organizing principle, the proximity of topics is based on the physical concepts that unite a given set of biological phenomena. Herein lies the central premise: that the appropriate application of a few fundamental physical models can serve as the foundation of whole bodies of quantitative biological intuition, useful across a wide range of biological problems. The Second Edition features full-color illustrations throughout, two new chapters, a significantly expanded set of end-of-chapter problems, and is available in a variety of e-book formats.

Etching of Crystals

Theory, Experiment and Application

Author: K. Sangwal

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444599010

Category: Science

Page: 518

View: 626

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Defects in Solids, Volume 15: Etching of Crystals: Theory, Experiment, and Application focuses on the processes, reactions, and methodologies involved in the etching of crystals, including thermodynamics and diffusion. The publication first underscores the defects in crystals, detection of defects, and growth and dissolution of crystals. Discussions focus on thermodynamic theories, nature of pit sites, surface roughening during diffusion-controlled dissolution, growth controlled by simultaneous mass transfer and surface reactions, and chemical and thermal etching. The text then examines the theories of dissolution and etch-pit formation and the chemical aspects of the dissolution process, including catalytic reactions, dissolution of semiconductors, topochemical adsorption theories, and diffusion theories. The book tackles the solubility of crystals and complexes in solution and the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution. Topics include metallic crystals, semiconductors, stability of complexes, relationship between solubility, surface energy, and hardness of crystals, and solvents for crystals and estimation of crystal solubility in solvents other than water. The publication is a dependable source of data for readers interested in the etching of crystals.

Properties and Microstructure

Treatise on Materials Science and Technology

Author: R. K. MacCrone

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483218201

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 472

View: 3630

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Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 11: Properties And Microstructure covers the parameters important to understanding microstructural effects. The book discusses the direct observation and characterization of defects in materials; the cause and effect of crystal defects in silicon integrated circuits; as well as the microstructure of some noncrystalline ceramics. The text also describes microstructural defects in the important semiconductors silicon and germanium, microstructural effects in glasses, microstructural effects on the mechanical properties of ceramics, and finally, microstructures in ferrites. Materials scientists, materials engineers, and graduate students taking related courses will find the book invaluable.

Steels: Microstructure and Properties

Author: Harry Bhadeshia,Robert Honeycombe

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080462928

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 360

View: 2032

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Steels represent the most widely-used metallic alloy, possessing a wide range of microstructures and mechanical properties. By examining the mechanical properties of steels in conjunction with microstructure this book provides a valuable description of the development and behaviour of these materials - the very foundation of their widespread use. Updated throughout and including new chapters on nanostructured steels, and new alloys and technologies for the energy and automobile industries, the book is clearly written and illustrated, with extensive bibliographies and real-life examples. An essential reference, both compact and readily comprehensive, for metallurgists and engineers in both industry and academia. Covers the microstructure, mechanical behaviour and properties of steels, the most widely-used metallic alloy Thoroughly updated with new materials and technologies Respected author team who bring their wide experience to students and professionals

Nanomaterials

Mechanics and Mechanisms

Author: K.T. Ramesh

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 038709783X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 316

View: 9752

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This book grew out of my desire to understand the mechanics of nanomaterials, and to be able to rationalize in my own mind the variety of topics on which the people around me were doing research at the time. The ?eld of nanomaterials has been growing rapidly since the early 1990s. I- tially, the ?eld was populated mostly by researchers working in the ?elds of synt- sis and processing. These scientists were able to make new materials much faster than the rest of us could develop ways of looking at them (or understanding them). However, a con?uence of interests and capabilities in the 1990s led to the exp- sive growth of papers in the characterization and modeling parts of the ?eld. That con?uence came from three primary directions: the rapid growth in our ability to make nanomaterials, a relatively newfound ability to characterize the nanomate- als at the appropriate length and time scales, and the rapid growth in our ability to model nanomaterials at atomistic and molecular scales. Simultaneously, the commercial potential of nanotechnology has become app- ent to most high-technology industries, as well as to some industries that are tra- tionally not viewed as high-technology (such as textiles). Much of the rapid growth came through the inventions of physicists and chemists who were able to develop nanotechnology products (nanomaterials) through a dizzying array of routes, and who began to interface directly with biological entities at the nanometer scale. That growth continues unabated.

Micromechanics of Defects in Solids

Author: T. Mura

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400934890

Category: Science

Page: 588

View: 4905

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This book stems from a course on Micromechanics that I started about fifteen years ago at Northwestern University. At that time, micromechanics was a rather unfamiliar subject. Although I repeated the course every year, I was never convinced that my notes have quite developed into a final manuscript because new topics emerged constantly requiring revisions, and additions. I finally came to realize that if this is continued, then I will never complete the book to my total satisfaction. Meanwhile, T. Mori and I had coauthored a book in Japanese, entitled Micromechanics, published by Baifu-kan, Tokyo, in 1975. It received an extremely favorable response from students and re searchers in Japan. This encouraged me to go ahead and publish my course notes in their latest version, as this book, which contains further development of the subject and is more comprehensive than the one published in Japanese. Micromechanics encompasses mechanics related to microstructures of materials. The method employed is a continuum theory of elasticity yet its applications cover a broad area relating to the mechanical behavior of materi als: plasticity, fracture and fatigue, constitutive equations, composite materi als, polycrystals, etc. These subjects are treated in this book by means of a powerful and unified method which is called the 'eigenstrain method. ' In particular, problems relating to inclusions and dislocations are most effectively analyzed by this method, and therefore, special emphasis is placed on these topics.

The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019156771X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 3763

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This book provides a clear introduction to topics which are essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which are otherwise only covered in specialised and mathematically detailed texts. It shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination, it develops the concepts of crystal symmetry, point and space groups by way of two dimensional examples of patterns and tilings, it explains the concept of the reciprocal lattice in simple terms and shows its importance in an understanding of light, X-ray and electron diffraction. Practical examples of the applications of these techniques are described and also the importance of diffraction in the performance of optical instruments. The book is also of value to the general reader since it shows, by biographical and historical references, how the subject has developed and thereby indicates some of the excitement of scientific discovery.

Defect Control in Semiconductors

Author: K. Sumino

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0444600647

Category: Science

Page: 817

View: 6415

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Defect control in semiconductors is a key technology for realizing the ultimate possibilities of modern electronics. The basis of such control lies in an integrated knowledge of a variety of defect properties. From this viewpoint, the volume discusses defect-related problems in connection with defect control in semiconducting materials, such as silicon, III-V, II-VI compounds, organic semiconductors, heterostructure, etc. The conference brought together scientists in the field of fundamental research and engineers involved in application related to electronic devices in order to promote future research activity in both fields and establish a fundamental knowledge of defect control. The main emphasis of the 254 papers presented in this volume is on the control of the concentration, distribution, structural and electronic states of any types of defects including impurities as well as control of the electrical, optical and other activities of defects. Due to the extensive length of the contents, only the number of papers presented per session is listed below.

Ceramic Materials

Science and Engineering

Author: C. Barry Carter,M. Grant Norton

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461435234

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 766

View: 4419

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Ceramic Materials: Science and Engineering is an up-to-date treatment of ceramic science, engineering, and applications in a single, comprehensive text. Building on a foundation of crystal structures, phase equilibria, defects, and the mechanical properties of ceramic materials, students are shown how these materials are processed for a wide diversity of applications in today's society. Concepts such as how and why ions move, how ceramics interact with light and magnetic fields, and how they respond to temperature changes are discussed in the context of their applications. References to the art and history of ceramics are included throughout the text, and a chapter is devoted to ceramics as gemstones. This course-tested text now includes expanded chapters on the role of ceramics in industry and their impact on the environment as well as a chapter devoted to applications of ceramic materials in clean energy technologies. Also new are expanded sets of text-specific homework problems and other resources for instructors. The revised and updated Second Edition is further enhanced with color illustrations throughout the text.

Sync

How Order Emerges from Chaos In the Universe, Nature, and Daily Life

Author: Steven H. Strogatz

Publisher: Hachette Books

ISBN: 140130446X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 1136

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At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant Universe, Sync is a tour-de-force of nonfiction writing.