Criminal Careers in Transition

The Social Context of Desistance from Crime

Author: Stephen Farrall,Ben Hunter,Gilly Sharpe,Adam Calverley

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780199682157

Category: Law

Page: 331

View: 6075

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"Follows the completion of a fifth sweep of interviews with members of a cohort of former probationers interviewed since the late-1990s. The research undertaken since the inception of the project in 1996 has focused on developing a long-term evidence base, rather than a rapid assessment, examining whether (and how) probation supervision assists desistance from crime. Building on interviews from previous sweeps, the authors continue their exploration into the needs identified by probation officers and probationers, the extent to which these have been successfully met over the medium to long-term, and whether this suggests that probation helps probationers to desist."--Provided by publisher

Handbook on Prisons

Author: Yvonne Jewkes,Ben Crewe,Jamie Bennett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317754557

Category: Social Science

Page: 756

View: 2649

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The second edition of the Handbook on Prisons provides a completely revised and updated collection of essays on a wide range of topics concerning prisons and imprisonment. Bringing together three of the leading prison scholars in the UK as editors, this new volume builds on the success of the first edition and reveals the range and depth of prison scholarship around the world. The Handbook contains chapters written not only by those who have established and developed prison research, but also features contributions from ex-prisoners, prison governors and ex-governors, prison inspectors and others who have worked with prisoners in a wide range of professional capacities. This second edition includes several completely new chapters on topics as diverse as prison design, technology in prisons, the high security estate, therapeutic communities, prisons and desistance, supermax and solitary confinement, plus a brand new section on international perspectives. The Handbook aims to convey the reality of imprisonment, and to reflect the main issues and debates surrounding prisons and prisoners, while also providing novel ways of thinking about familiar penal problems and enhancing our theoretical understanding of imprisonment. The Handbook on Prisons, Second edition is a key text for students taking courses in prisons, penology, criminal justice, criminology and related subjects, and is also an essential reference for academics and practitioners working in the prison service, or in related agencies, who need up-to-date knowledge of thinking on prisons and imprisonment.

Prisoner Resettlement in Europe

Author: Frieder Dünkel,Ineke Pruin,Anette Storgaard,Jonas Weber

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135176151X

Category: Social Science

Page: 530

View: 4265

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Questions regarding how to improve the transitional phase from prison to life in society after release have gained major importance in the last decade in criminal policy. All over the world release preparation and resettlement practice are discussed with the aim to reduce negative effects of imprisonment and re-offending rates. Small and large reforms aiming at the improvement of release processes and reintegration strategies have taken place in many European states. This book describes the current European landscape of prisoner resettlement and brings together the results and ideas of leading European academic experts with the ambition of furthering national, European and international reform debates. This book presents national reports about resettlement processes and structures in 20 European countries: written by national scholars, these reports reveal important actors in resettlement processes as well as political decisions about the role of the communities in "taking the prisoners back", or the use of early release as a strategy to motivate the released prisoner to enter into a future without crime. Thematic chapters then concentrate on several aspects of prisoner resettlement that are of importance across borders: ethical, legal and practical challenges are discussed with a view on European developments, and theoretical frameworks of prisoner resettlement are used to develop comprehensive perspectives for future reform debates. The book serves as a fundamental source for researchers, politicians and practitioners in the field of prison and probation reform and practice. It is also useful in the field of social work, in so far that the analyses confirm that prisoner resettlement is not just a problem of criminal, but also of social justice. Sustainable reforms need the will of and good cooperation between all responsible actors and organizations from the justice, social, health and welfare sectors, as well as from society as a whole in the consent for taking released prisoners back.

Parole and Beyond

International Experiences of Life After Prison

Author: Ruth Armstrong,Ioan Durnescu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349951188

Category: Social Science

Page: 319

View: 2484

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This book provides an assessment of contemporary international knowledge about the experiences of life after release from prison. For over 100 years people leaving prison have been supervised by probation services, but little has been written about how those who are supervised experience this process, or how this process influences experiences post-release. Research suggests that the success or failure of supervision in terms of reoffending may be related to how it is experienced, but little has been written about how supervision interacts with these experiences. Despite this lack of grounded knowledge, post-prison supervision continues to grow internationally. This book addresses issues relating to life after release through providing a vision of contemporary life after prison in different social and economic climates from those who are the subjects of this growing and changing form of penal power. An engaging and timely study, this book will be of particular interest to scholars of criminal justice and punishment.

Understanding Desistance From Crime

Author: Farrall, Stephen,Calverley, Adam

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335219489

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 7233

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Why do people stop offending? What are the processes they undergo in stopping? What can be done to help more people who have offended put their pasts behind them? The growth of interest in why people stop offending and how they are resettled following punishment has been remarkable. Once a marginal topic in criminology, it is now a central topic of research and theorising amongst those studying criminal careers. This book is both an introduction to research on desistance, and the report on a follow-up of two hundred probationers sentenced to supervision in the late 1990s. The reader is introduced to some of the wider issues and debates surrounding desistance via a consideration of the criminal careers of a group of ex-offenders. This lively engagement with both data and theoretical matters makes the book a useful tool for both academics and students. The book will appeal to undergraduates, postgraduates and academics studying criminology, criminal justice, sociology, social work, social policy and psychology, as well as trainee probation officers.

The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

Author: Rod Morgan,Mike Maguire,Robert Reiner

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199590273

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 1029

View: 4885

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With contributions from leading academics, The Oxford Handbook of Criminology provides an authoritative collection of chapters covering the topics studied on criminology courses. Each chapter details relevant theory, recent research, policy developments, and current debates, and includes extensive references to aid further research.

Offending and Desistance

The importance of social relations

Author: Beth Weaver

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317628594

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 8379

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In Offending and Desistance, Beth Weaver examines the role of a co-offending peer group in shaping and influencing offending and desistance, focusing on three phases of their criminal careers: onset, persistence and desistance. While there is consensus across the body of desistance research that social relations have a role to play in variously constraining, enabling and sustaining desistance, no desistance studies have adequately analysed the dynamics or properties of social relations, or their relationship to individuals and social structures. This book aims to reset this balance. By examining the social relations and life stories of six Scottish men (in their forties), Weaver reveals the central role of friendship groups, intimate relationships and families of formation, employment and religious communities. She shows how, for different individuals, these relations triggered reflexive evaluation of their priorities, behaviours and lifestyles, but with differing results. Weaver’s re-examination of the relationships between structure, agency, identity and reflexivity in the desistance process ultimately illuminates new directions for research, policy and practice. This book is essential reading for academics and students engaged in the study of criminology and criminal justice, delinquency, probation and criminal law.

The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making

Author: Wim Bernasco,Henk Elffers,Jean-Louis van Gelder

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190674741

Category: Social Science

Page: 792

View: 1209

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Although the issue of offender decision-making pervades almost every discussion of crime and law enforcement, only a few comprehensive texts cover and integrate information about the role of decision-making in crime. The Oxford Handbook of Offender Decision Making provide high-quality reviews of the main paradigms in offender decision-making, such as rational choice theory and dual-process theory. It contains up-to-date reviews of empirical research on decision-making in a wide range of decision types including not only criminal initiation and desistance, but also choice of locations, times, targets, victims, methods as well as large variety crimes including homicide, robbery, domestic violence, burglary, street crime, sexual crimes, and cybercrime. Lastly, it provides in-depth treatments of the major methods used to study offender decision-making, including experiments, observation studies, surveys, offender interviews, and simulations. Comprehensive and authoritative, the Handbook will quickly become the primary source of theoretical, methodological, and empirical knowledge about decision-making as it relates to criminal behavior.

Explaining Criminal Careers

Implications for Justice Policy

Author: John F. MacLeod,Peter Grove,David Farrington

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199697248

Category: Law

Page: 256

View: 9435

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A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.

Crime and Justice at the Millennium

Essays by and in Honor of Marvin E. Wolfgang

Author: Robert A. Silverman,Terence P. Thornberry,Bernard Cohen,Barry Krisberg

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475748833

Category: Social Science

Page: 404

View: 8455

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Ira Lipman Marvin Wolfgang was the greatest criminologist in the United States of America in the last half of the 20th century, if not the entire century. We first met on March 3, 1977, in Philadelphia. I sought him out after his work with Edwin Newman's NBC Reports: Violence in America. He was a tender, loving, caring individual who loved excellence-whether it be an intellectual challenge, the arts or any other pursuit. It is a great privilege to take part in honoring Marvin Wolfgang, a great American. Our approaches to the subject of crime came from different perspectives one as a researcher and the other as the founder of one of the world's largest security services companies. We both wanted to understand the causes of crime, and our discussions began a more than 21-year friendship, based on mutual respect and shared values. Dr. Wolfgang's scholarship aimed for the goal of promoting a safer, more prosperous society, one in which economic opportunity replaced criminal enterprise. He never saw crime in isolation but as part of a complex web of social relations. Only by understanding the causes and patterns of crime can society find ways to prevent it. Only through scholarship can the criminal justice community influence policy makers. To encourage the innovative scholarship that marked Marvin's career, Guardsmark established the Lipman Criminology Library at the University of Pennsylvania, at his request, and created a national criminology award in his name, the Wolfgang Award for Distinguished Achievement in Criminology.

Dangerous Politics

Risk, Political Vulnerability, and Penal Policy

Author: Harry Annison

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780198728603

Category:

Page: 288

View: 4845

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Dangerous Politics: Risk, Political Vulnerability, and Penal Policy brings together relevant literature in law, criminology, and politics to provide insights into the nature of British penal politics, the role of the judiciary and pressure groups, and the interrelation between risk, the 'public voice', and penal politics. It presents a detailed case study of the IPP story: the creation and eventual demise of the Imprisonment for Public Protection (IPP) sentence. Drawing on over 60 in-depth interviews with key policymakers, the author investigates the beliefs, traditions, and political processes that propelled developments in the 'IPP story', namely the creation, contestation, amendment, and demise of the IPP sentence. An indeterminate sentence modelled upon the existing life sentence but targeted far more broadly, the IPP sentence has been described as 'one of the least carefully planned and implemented pieces of legislation in the history of British sentencing' (Jacobson and Hough, 2010) and has dramatically increased the indeterminate-sentenced prison population, from approximately 3,000 in 1992 to over 13,000 in 2014. Though abolished in 2012, it remains a pressing issue: over 5,000 IPP prisoners remain, with ongoing campaigns pressing for their release. Standing as one of the most striking examples of the expansion of preventive goals in sentencing policy, this study of the IPP story stands as a cautionary tale, with important lessons for Australia, Canada, the United States, and other nations that continue to pursue preventive goals. This book argues that the IPP story demonstrates the need to be cautious of equating substance with process - while on one view the IPP sentence constitutes a penal manifestation of the risk society, its development refutes the 'evolutionary growth' of such policies as implied by the 'new penology' thesis. Dangerous Politics makes an original contribution to our understanding of the genesis and demise of the IPP sentence, and to our broader understanding of the nature of penalty in early 21st century Britain. It will be of interest to academics and students in the fields of criminology, criminal law, politics and policymaking, as well as sentencing and criminal justice policymakers.

Cultures of Desistance

Rehabilitation, Reintegration and Ethnic Minorities

Author: Adam Calverley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0415672619

Category: Social Science

Page: 230

View: 6291

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In contrast to the widespread focus on ethnicity in relation to engagement in offending, the question of whether or not processes associated with desistance - that is the cessation and curtailment of offending behaviour - vary by ethnicity has received less attention. This is despite known ethnic differences in factors identified as affecting disengagement from offending, such as employment, place of residence, religious affiliation and family structure, providing good reasons for believing differences would exist. This book seeks to address this oversight. Using data obtained from in-depth qualitative interviews it investigates the processes associated with desistance from crime among offenders drawn from some of the principal minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Cultures of Desistance explores how structural (families, friends, peer groups, employment, social capital) and cultural (religion, values, recognition) ethnic differences affected the environment in which their desistance took place. For Indians and Bangladeshis, desistance was characterised as a collective experience involving their families actively intervening in their lives. In contrast, Black and dual heritage offenders' desistance was a much more individualistic endeavour. The book suggests a need for a research agenda and justice policy that are sensitive to desisters' structural location, and for a wider culture which promotes and supports desisters' efforts.

Rethinking What Works with Offenders

Author: Stephen Farrall

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113402858X

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 6433

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This important and original new book reports on a major investigation of the outcomes of probation supervision, is concerned with the key question of what works in probation, and comes at an important moment of change and development for the probation service in the UK. Unlike previous studies which have relied mostly on official data, this book makes use of over 200 interviews with men and women on probation, and their supervising Probation Officers. Rethinking What Works with Offenders has the following objectives: to understand probation work from the perspectives of those who deliver it and those to whom it is delivered to study probation intervention as a whole (in particular the probation order) rather than specific aspects to locate probation work in the wider social contexts of those on probation to analyse how probation works, and to reconceptualise probation outcomes in terms of degrees of success rather than as 'successful' or 'unsuccessful' to assess the policy implications of these conclusions This book presents an important and challenging range of findings on 'what works' in probation and with offenders, and will be essential reading for anybody professionally concerned with the present and future of probation. raises central issues at a critical time for the reorganised National Probation Servicebased on extensive research, including 200+ interviewsessential reading for anybody interested in 'what works' in probation

Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality

Diverging Destinies

Author: Paul R. Amato,Alan Booth,Susan M. McHale,Jennifer Van Hook

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319083082

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 1522

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The widening gap between the rich and the poor is turning the American dream into an impossibility for many, particularly children and families. And as the children of low-income families grow to adulthood, they have less access to opportunities and resources than their higher-income peers--and increasing odds of repeating the experiences of their parents. Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality probes the complex relations between social inequality and child development and examines possibilities for disrupting these ongoing patterns. Experts across the social sciences track trends in marriage, divorce, employment, and family structure across socioeconomic strata in the U.S. and other developed countries. These family data give readers a deeper understanding of how social class shapes children's paths to adulthood and how those paths continue to diverge over time and into future generations. In addition, contributors critique current policies and programs that have been created to reduce disparities and offer suggestions for more effective alternatives. Among the topics covered: Inequality begins at home: the role of parenting in the diverging destinies of rich and poor children. Inequality begins outside the home: putting parental educational investments into context. How class and family structure impact the transition to adulthood. Dealing with the consequences of changes in family composition. Dynamic models of poverty-related adversity and child outcomes. The diverging destinies of children and what it means for children's lives. As new initiatives are sought to improve the lives of families and children in the short and long term, Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality is a key resource for researchers and practitioners in family studies, social work, health, education, sociology, demography, and psychology.

The Eclipse of Eternity

A Sociology of the Afterlife

Author: T. Walter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 023037977X

Category: Social Science

Page: 222

View: 3616

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Many people still believe in life after death, but modern institutions operate as though this were the only world - eternity is now eclipsed from view in society and even in the church. This book carefully observes the eclipse - what caused it, how full is it, what are its consequences, will it last? How significant is recent interest in near-death experiences and reincarnation?

The Penal Voluntary Sector

Author: Philippa Tomczak

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317279972

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 3620

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Winner of the 2017 British Society of Criminology Book Prize The penal voluntary sector and the relationships between punishment and charity are more topical than ever before. In recent years in England and Wales, the sector has featured significantly in both policy rhetoric and academic commentary. Penal voluntary organisations are increasingly delivering prison and probation services under contract, and this role is set to expand. However, the diverse voluntary organisations which comprise the sector, their varied relationships with statutory agencies and the effects of such work remain very poorly understood. This book provides a wide-ranging and rigorous examination of this policy-relevant but complex and little studied area. It explores what voluntary organisations are doing with prisoners and probationers, how they manage to undertake their work, and the effects of charitable work with prisoners and probationers. The author uses original empirical research and an innovative application of actor-network theory to enable a step change in our understanding of this increasingly significant sector, and develops the policy-centric accounts produced in the last decade to illustrate how voluntary organisations can mediate the experiences of imprisonment and probation at the micro and macro levels. Demonstrating how the legacy of philanthropic work and neoliberal policy reforms over the past thirty years have created a complex three-tier penal voluntary sector of diverse organisations, this cutting-edge interdisciplinary text will be of interest to criminologists, sociologists of work and industry, and those engaged in the voluntary sector.

Digital Criminology

Crime and Justice in Digital Society

Author: Anastasia Powell,Gregory Stratton,Robin Cameron

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351795058

Category: Social Science

Page: 210

View: 8574

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The infusion of digital technology into contemporary society has had significant effects for everyday life and for everyday crimes. Digital Criminology: Crime and Justice in Digital Society is the first interdisciplinary scholarly investigation extending beyond traditional topics of cybercrime, policing and the law to consider the implications of digital society for public engagement with crime and justice movements. This book seeks to connect the disparate fields of criminology, sociology, legal studies, politics, media and cultural studies in the study of crime and justice. Drawing together intersecting conceptual frameworks, Digital Criminology examines conceptual, legal, political and cultural framings of crime, formal justice responses and informal citizen-led justice movements in our increasingly connected global and digital society. Building on case study examples from across Australia, Canada, Europe, China, the UK and the United States, Digital Criminology explores key questions including: What are the implications of an increasingly digital society for crime and justice? What effects will emergent technologies have for how we respond to crime and participate in crime debates? What will be the foundational shifts in criminological research and frameworks for understanding crime and justice in this technologically mediated context? What does it mean to be a ‘just’ digital citizen? How will digital communications and social networks enable new forms of justice and justice movements? Ultimately, the book advances the case for an emerging digital criminology: extending the practical and conceptual analyses of ‘cyber’ or ‘e’ crime beyond a focus foremost on the novelty, pathology and illegality of technology-enabled crimes, to understandings of online crime as inherently social.

Justice and Penal Reform

Re-shaping the Penal Landscape

Author: Stephen Farrall,Barry Goldson,Ian Loader,Anita Dockley

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317277635

Category: Social Science

Page: 220

View: 3545

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In the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2008, Western societies entered a climate of austerity which has limited the penal expansion experienced in the US, UK and elsewhere over recent decades. These altered conditions have led to introspection and new thinking on punishment even among those on the political right who were previously champions of the punitive turn. This volume brings together a group of international leading scholars with a shared interest in using this opportunity to encourage new avenues of reform in the penal sphere. Justice is a famously contested concept and this book takes a deliberately capacious approach to the question of how justice can be mobilised to inform new reform agendas. Some of the contributors revisit an antique question in penal theory and reconsider the question of what fair or just punishment should look like today. Others seek to make gender central to understanding of crime and punishment, or actively reflect on the part that related concepts such as human rights, legitimacy and trust can and should play in thinking about the creation of more just crime control arrangements. Faced with the expansive penal developments of recent decades, much research and commentary about crime control has been gloom-laden and dystopian. By contrast, this volume seeks to contribute to a more constructive sensibility in the social analysis of penality: one that is worldly, hopeful and actively engaged in thinking about how to create more just penal arrangements. Justice and Penal Reform is a key resource for academics and as a supplementary text for students undertaking courses on punishment, penology, prisons, criminal justice and public policy. This book approaches penal reform from an international perspective and offers a fresh and diverse approach within an established field.

Men in Prison

Author: Victor Serge

Publisher: PM Press

ISBN: 1604869062

Category: Fiction

Page: 232

View: 5493

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Startlingly human and unflinchingly honest, this thinly veiled fictionalized firsthand account of talented political writer Victor Serge’s time in prison is an important addition to the canon of prison writing as well as an unfiltered view of humanity in the early 20th century. Rejecting the opportunity to present political propaganda, Serge’s portrayal of imprisonment is instead an insightful and emotionally wrought tale of repression. The depraving brutality that Serge experienced behind bars is at once a mirror of a society at war and a deeply personal question of purpose. Originally published in 1930 and translated from the French by Richard Greeman in 1977, this reprint makes a fascinating and compelling novel available again with a new introduction by Greeman that situates the work in the context of Serge’s life.