Conservative Parties and the Birth of Democracy

Author: Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108298591

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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How do democracies form and what makes them die? Daniel Ziblatt revisits this timely and classic question in a wide-ranging historical narrative that traces the evolution of modern political democracy in Europe from its modest beginnings in 1830s Britain to Adolf Hitler's 1933 seizure of power in Weimar Germany. Based on rich historical and quantitative evidence, the book offers a major reinterpretation of European history and the question of how stable political democracy is achieved. The barriers to inclusive political rule, Ziblatt finds, were not inevitably overcome by unstoppable tides of socioeconomic change, a simple triumph of a growing middle class, or even by working class collective action. Instead, political democracy's fate surprisingly hinged on how conservative political parties – the historical defenders of power, wealth, and privilege – recast themselves and coped with the rise of their own radical right. With striking modern parallels, the book has vital implications for today's new and old democracies under siege.

Conservative Parties and the Birth of Democracy

Author: Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521172998

Category: Political Science

Page: 404

View: 5544

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How do democracies form and what makes them die? Daniel Ziblatt revisits this timely and classic question in a wide-ranging historical narrative that traces the evolution of modern political democracy in Europe from its modest beginnings in 1830s Britain to Adolf Hitler's 1933 seizure of power in Weimar Germany. Based on rich historical and quantitative evidence, the book offers a major reinterpretation of European history and the question of how stable political democracy is achieved. The barriers to inclusive political rule, Ziblatt finds, were not inevitably overcome by unstoppable tides of socioeconomic change, a simple triumph of a growing middle class, or even by working class collective action. Instead, political democracy's fate surprisingly hinged on how conservative political parties - the historical defenders of power, wealth, and privilege - recast themselves and coped with the rise of their own radical right. With striking modern parallels, the book has vital implications for today's new and old democracies under siege.

Political Parties, Growth and Equality

Conservative and Social Democratic Economic Strategies in the World Economy

Author: Carles Boix

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521585958

Category: Political Science

Page: 280

View: 5124

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Given the increased openness of countries to international trade and financial flows, the general public and the scholarly literature have grown skeptical about the capacity of policy-makers to affect economic performance. Challenging this view, Political Parties, Growth, and Equality shows that the increasingly interdependent world economy and recent technological shocks have actually exacerbated the dilemmas faced by governments in choosing among various policy objectives, such as generating jobs and reducing income inequality, thereby granting political parties and electoral politics a fundamental and growing role in the economy. To make growth and equality compatible, social democrats employ the public sector to raise the productivity of capital and labor. By contrast, conservatives rely on the private provision of investment. Based on analysis of the economic policies of all OECD countries since the 1960s and in-depth examination of Britain and Spain in the 1980s, this book offers a new understanding of how contemporary democracies work.

Structuring the State

The Formation of Italy and Germany and the Puzzle of Federalism

Author: Daniel Ziblatt

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691121673

Category: History

Page: 220

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"This is the most important book on state-building to appear in recent years. In addition to offering the definitive account of Italy's and Germany's creation, Ziblatt's work also sets the agenda for future scholarship on the comparative study of federalism. Rich narrative combined with theoretical sophistication bring new life to a very important set of debates about the origins of federalism and nation-states more broadly. This work should be read by specialists of Italian and German political development and comparative politics and by students of political institutions more broadly."--Sergio Fabbrini, Political Science, University of Trento, editor of "Italian Journal of Political Science" "With calm, knowledgeable precision, Daniel Ziblatt wades into the adjacent swamps of federalism and nineteenth-century European history, emerging with hands full of gems. Beneath the tangle of great statesmen and national culture he discovers conflicting regional political interests, sharp regional variations in political capacity, fearful defenses against excessive democracy, coercive conquest of weak states, and unintended consequences galore. Read, think, and learn."--Charles Tilly, Columbia University "A work of the highest quality and significance, "Structuring the State" represents an original contribution to both political science and macrohistorical sociology for three reasons. First, it applies a variety of quantitative methods to the kind of comparative historical problem that is usually approached in an entirely qualitative way. Second, it overcomes the old division between society- and state-centered explanations for Italian and German unification by integrating them in a creative manner, while also pointing to other factors often overlooked in standard accounts. Finally, it challenges directly the dominant rational choice model of federalism by refuting the contention that politicians at the center are always power maximizers."--Thomas Ertman, New York University, author of "Birth of the Leviathan: Building States" and "Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe" "In "Structuring the State," Daniel Ziblatt contends that previous scholarship in political science has overlooked a key determinant of state structure, namely the pre-existing administrative and institutional capacity in newly absorbed states. Well-organized, well written, and employing the most advanced methods of comparative-historical research in a sophisticated and clear fashion, the book moves forward with clarity and grace. Political scientists, sociologists, and historians working on the development of modern organizations--and indeed policy makers interested in building state capacity--will all learn from this timely volume."--Andrew C. Gould, University of Notre Dame, author of "The Origins of Liberal Dominance: State, Church, and Party in Nineteenth-Century Europe"

The Promise of Power

The Origins of Democracy in India and Autocracy in Pakistan

Author: Maya Tudor

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107032962

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 8103

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Under what conditions are some developing countries able to create stable democracies while others have slid into instability and authoritarianism? To address this classic question at the center of policy and academic debates, The Promise of Power investigates a striking puzzle: why, upon the 1947 Partition of British India, was India able to establish a stable democracy while Pakistan created an unstable autocracy? Drawing on interviews, colonial correspondence, and early government records to document the genesis of two of the twentieth century's most celebrated independence movements, Maya Tudor refutes the prevailing notion that a country's democratization prospects can be directly attributed to its levels of economic development or inequality. Instead, she demonstrates that the differential strengths of India's and Pakistan's independence movements directly account for their divergent democratization trajectories. She also establishes that these movements were initially constructed to pursue historically conditioned class interests. By illuminating the source of this enduring contrast, The Promise of Power offers a broad theory of democracy's origins that will interest scholars and students of comparative politics, democratization, state-building, and South Asian political history.

Authoritarian Origins of Democratic Party Systems in Africa

Author: Rachel Beatty Riedl

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107045045

Category: Political Science

Page: 286

View: 1362

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Why have seemingly similar African countries developed very different forms of democratic party systems? Despite virtually ubiquitous conditions that are assumed to be challenging to democracy - low levels of economic development, high ethnic heterogeneity, and weak state capacity - nearly two dozen African countries have maintained democratic competition since the early 1990s. Yet the forms of party system competition vary greatly: from highly stable, nationally organized, well-institutionalized party systems to incredibly volatile, particularistic parties in systems with low institutionalization. To explain their divergent development, Rachel Beatty Riedl points to earlier authoritarian strategies to consolidate support and maintain power. The initial stages of democratic opening provides an opportunity for authoritarian incumbents to attempt to shape the rules of the new multiparty system in their own interests, but their power to do so depends on the extent of local support built up over time. The particular form of the party system that emerges from the democratic transition is sustained over time through isomorphic competitive pressures embodied in the new rules of the game, the forms of party organization and the competitive strategies that shape party and voter behavior alike.

Presidentialism and Democracy in Latin America

Author: Scott Mainwaring

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521576147

Category: Political Science

Page: 493

View: 2993

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David J. Samuels and Matthew S. Shugart provide the first systematic analysis of how democratic constitutional design shapes party politics.

Post-Imperial Democracies

Ideology and Party Formation in Third Republic France, Weimar Germany, and Post-Soviet Russia

Author: Stephen E. Hanson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139491490

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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This book examines the causal impact of ideology through a comparative-historical analysis of three cases of 'post-imperial democracy': the early Third Republic in France (1870–86); the Weimar Republic in Germany (1918–34); and post-Soviet Russia (1992–2008). Hanson argues that political ideologies are typically necessary for the mobilization of enduring, independent national party organizations in uncertain democracies. By presenting an explicit and desirable picture of the political future, successful ideologues induce individuals to embrace a long-run strategy of cooperation with other converts. When enough new converts cooperate in this way, it enables sustained collective action to defend and extend party power. Successful party ideologies thus have the character of self-fulfilling prophecies: by portraying the future polity as one organized to serve the interests of those loyal to specific ideological principles, they help to bring political organizations centered on these principles into being.

Political Parties and the State

The American Historical Experience

Author: Martin Shefter

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400821228

Category: Political Science

Page: 316

View: 8592

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This book collects a number of Martin Shefter's most important articles on political parties. They address three questions: Under what conditions will strong party organizations emerge? What influences the character of parties--in particular, their reliance on patronage? In what circumstances will the parties that formerly dominated politics in a nation or city come under attack? Shefter's work exemplifies the "new institutionalism" in political science, arguing that the reliance of parties on patronage is a function not so much of mass political culture as of their relationship with public bureaucracies. The book's opening chapters analyze the circumstances conducive to the emergence of strong political parties and the changing balance between parties and bureaucracies in Europe and America. The middle chapters discuss the organization and exclusion of the American working classes by machine and reform regimes. The book concludes by examining party organizations as instruments of political control in the largest American city, New York.

Democracy and Redistribution

Author: Carles Boix

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521532679

Category: History

Page: 264

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In this 2003 book, Boix offers a complete theory of political transitions.

Forbearance as Redistribution

The Politics of Informal Welfare in Latin America

Author: Alisha C. Holland

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316802698

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Why do governments tolerate the violation of their own laws and regulations? Conventional wisdom is that governments cannot enforce their laws. Forbearance as Redistribution challenges the standard interpretation by showing that politicians choose not to enforce laws to distribute resources and win elections. Alisha Holland demonstrates that this forbearance towards activities such as squatting and street vending is a powerful strategy for attracting the electoral support of poor voters. In many developing countries, state social programs are small or poorly targeted and thus do not offer politicians an effective means to mobilize the poor. In contrast, forbearance constitutes an informal welfare policy around which Holland argues much of urban politics turns. While forbearance offers social support to those failed by their governments, it also perpetuates the same exclusionary welfare policies from which it grows.

Post-Communist Democracies and Party Organization

Author: Margit Tavits

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107276802

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Scholars of post-communist politics often argue that parties in new democracies lack strong organizations - sizable membership, local presence, and professional management - because they do not need them to win elections and they may hinder a party's flexibility and efficiency in office. Post-Communist Democracies and Party Organization explains why some political parties are better able than others to establish themselves in new democracies and why some excel at staying unified in parliament, whereas others remain dominated by individuals. Focusing on the democratic transitions in post-communist Europe from 1990 to 2010, Margit Tavits demonstrates that the successful establishment of a political party in a new democracy crucially depends on the strength of its organization. Yet not all parties invest in organization development. This book uses data from ten post-communist democracies, including detailed analysis of parties in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, and Poland.

Defending Democracy

Reactions to Extremism in Interwar Europe

Author: Giovanni Capoccia

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 9780801880384

Category: History

Page: 335

View: 9085

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Winner, Best Book on European Politics, European Politics and Society Section, American Political Science Association A comprehensive and thoughtful historical analysis of the democracies of interwar Europe, Defending Democracy provides a unique perspective on the many lessons to be learned from their successes and failures. With an exclusively empirical investigative approach, Capoccia develops a methodology for analyzing contemporary democracies -- such as Algeria, Turkey, Israel, and others -- where similar political conditions are present.

Democracy and the Politics of Electoral System Choice

Engineering Electoral Dominance

Author: Amel Ahmed

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107031613

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 6411

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Explores the dynamics of electoral system choice and raises questions about the democratic credentials of the early processes of democratization.

The Politics of Authoritarian Rule

Author: Milan W. Svolik

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110702479X

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 7830

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"What drives politics in dictatorships? Milan W. Svolik argues authoritarian regimes must resolve two fundamental conflicts. Dictators face threats from the masses over which they rule - the problem of authoritarian control. Secondly from the elites with whom dictators rule - the problem of authoritarian power-sharing. Using the tools of game theory, Svolik explains why some dictators establish personal autocracy and stay in power for decades; why elsewhere leadership changes are regular and institutionalized, as in contemporary China; why some dictatorships are ruled by soldiers, as Uganda was under Idi Amin; why many authoritarian regimes, such as PRI-era Mexico, maintain regime-sanctioned political parties; and why a country's authoritarian past casts a long shadow over its prospects for democracy, as the unfolding events of the Arab Spring reveal. Svolik complements these and other historical case studies with the statistical analysis on institutions, leaders and ruling coalitions across dictatorships from 1946 to 2008"--

Elite Parties, Poor Voters

Author: Tariq Thachil

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107070082

Category: Political Science

Page: 352

View: 1768

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This book analyzes how the paradox of the poor often voting against their material interests emerged in India.

Exclusion by Elections

Inequality, Ethnic Identity, and Democracy

Author: John D. Huber

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316872777

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

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Exclusion by Elections develops a theory about the circumstances under which 'class identities' as opposed to 'ethnic identities' become salient in democratic politics, and links this theory to issues of inequality and the propensity of governments to address it. The book argues that in societies with even modest levels of ethnic diversity, inequality invites ethnic politics, and ethnic politics results in less redistribution than class politics. Thus, contrary to existing workhorse models in social science, where democracies are expected to respond to inequality by increasing redistribution, the argument here is that inequality interacts with ethnic diversity to discourage redistribution. As a result, inequality often becomes reinforced by inequality itself. The author explores the argument empirically by examining cross-national patterns of voting behaviour, redistribution and democratic transitions, and he discusses the argument's implications for identifying strategies that can be used to address rising inequality in the world today.