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Distributed systems are fast becoming the norm in computer science. Formal mathematical models and theories of distributed behaviour are needed in order to understand them. This book proposes a distributed pi-calculus called Dpi, for describing the behaviour of mobile agents in a distributed world. It is based on an existing formal language, the pi-calculus, to which it adds a network layer and a primitive migration construct. A mathematical theory of the behaviour of these distributed systems is developed, in which the presence of types plays a major role. It is also shown how in principle this theory can be used to develop verification techniques for guaranteeing the behavior of distributed agents. The text is accessible to computer scientists with a minimal background in discrete mathematics. It contains an elementary account of the pi-calculus, and the associated theory of bisimulations. It also develops the type theory required by Dpi from first principles.
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Starting from the premise that understanding the foundations of concurrent programming is key to developing distributed computing systems, this book first presents the fundamental theories of concurrent computing and then introduces the programming languages that help develop distributed computing systems at a high level of abstraction. The major theories of concurrent computation -- including the p-calculus, the actor model, the join calculus, and mobile ambients -- are explained with a focus on how they help design and reason about distributed and mobile computing systems. The book then presents programming languages that follow the theoretical models already described, including Pict, SALSA, and JoCaml. The parallel structure of the chapters in both part one (theory) and part two (practice) enable the reader not only to compare the different theories but also to see clearly how a programming language supports a theoretical model. The book is unique in bridging the gap between the theory and the practice of programming distributed computing systems. It can be used as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in computer science or as a reference for researchers in the area of programming technology for distributed computing. By presenting theory first, the book allows readers to focus on the essential components of concurrency, distribution, and mobility without getting bogged down in syntactic details of specific programming languages. Once the theory is understood, the practical part of implementing a system in an actual programming language becomes much easier.
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Complex communicating computer systems -- computers connected by data networks and in constant communication with their environments -- do not always behave as expected. This book introduces behavioral modeling, a rigorous approach to behavioral specification and verification of concurrent and distributed systems. It is among the very few techniques capable of modeling systems interaction at a level of abstraction sufficient for the interaction to be understood and analyzed. Offering both a mathematically grounded theory and real-world applications, the book is suitable for classroom use and as a reference for system architects. The book covers the foundation of behavioral modeling using process algebra, transition systems, abstract data types, and modal logics. Exercises and examples augment the theoretical discussion. The book introduces a modeling language, mCRL2, that enables concise descriptions of even the most intricate distributed algorithms and protocols. Using behavioral axioms and such proof methods as confluence, cones, and foci, readers will learn how to prove such algorithms equal to their specifications. Specifications in mCRL2 can be simulated, visualized, or verified against their requirements. An extensive mCRL2 toolset for mechanically verifying the requirements is freely available online; this toolset has been successfully used to design and analyze industrial software that ranges from healthcare applications to particle accelerators at CERN. Appendixes offer material on equations and notation as well as exercise solutions.
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Ten years ago, groupware bundled with email and calendar applications helped track the flow of work from person to person within an organization. Workflow in today's enterprise means more monitoring and orchestrating massive systems. A new technology called Business Process Management, or BPM, helps software architects and developers design, code, run, administer, and monitor complex network-based business processes BPM replaces those sketchy flowchart diagrams that business analysts draw on whiteboards with a precise model that uses standard graphical and XML representations, and an architecture that allows it converse with other services, systems, and users. Sound complicated? It is. But it's downright frustrating when you have to search the Web for every little piece of information vital to the process. Essential Business Process Modeling gathers all the concepts, design, architecture, and standard specifications of BPM into one concise book, and offers hands-on examples that illustrate BPM's approach to process notation, execution, administration and monitoring. Author Mike Havey demonstrates standard ways to code rigorous processes that are centerpieces of a service-oriented architecture (SOA), which defines how networks interact so that one can perform a service for the other. His book also shows how BPM complements enterprise application integration (EAI), a method for moving from older applications to new ones, and Enterprise Service BUS for integrating different web services, messaging, and XML technologies into a single network. BPM, he says, is to this collection of services what a conductor is to musicians in an orchestra: it coordinates their actions in the performance of a larger composition. Essential Business Process Modeling teaches you how to develop examples of process-oriented applications using free tools that can be run on an average PC or laptop. You'll also learn about BPM design patterns and best practices, as well as some underlying theory. The best way to monitor processes within an enterprise is with BPM, and the best way to navigate BPM is with this valuable book.
17th European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2008, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2008, Budapest, Hungary, March 29-April 6, 2008, Proceedings
Author: Sophia Drossopoulou
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This proceedings volume of the 17th European Symposium on Programming examines fundamental issues in the specification, analysis and implementation of programming languages and systems, including static analysis, security, concurrency and program verification.
Calculi an Automata for Modelling Untimed and Timed Concurrent Systems
Author: Howard Bowman,Rodolfo Gomez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
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Intheworldweliveinconcurrencyisthenorm.Forexample,thehumanbody isamassivelyconcurrentsystem,comprisingahugenumberofcells,allsim- taneously evolving and independently engaging in their individual biological processing.Inaddition,inthebiologicalworld,trulysequentialsystemsrarely arise. However, they are more common when manmade artefacts are cons- ered. In particular, computer systems are often developed from a sequential perspective. Why is this? The simple reason is that it is easier for us to think about sequential, rather than concurrent, systems. Thus, we use sequentiality as a device to simplify the design process. However, the need for increasingly powerful, ?exible and usable computer systems mitigates against simplifying sequentiality assumptions. A good - ample of this is the all-powerful position held by the Internet, which is highly concurrent at many di?erent levels of decomposition. Thus, the modern c- puter scientist (and indeed the modern scientist in general) is forced to think aboutconcurrentsystemsandthesubtleandintricatebehaviourthatemerges from the interaction of simultaneously evolving components. Over a period of 25 years, or so, the ?eld of concurrency theory has been involved in the development of a set of mathematical techniques that can help system developers to think about and build concurrent systems. These theories are the subject matter of this book.
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Network calculus is a theory dealing with queuing systems found in computer networks. Its focus is on performance guarantees. Central to the theory is the use of alternate algebras such as the min-plus algebra to transform complex network systems into analytically tractable systems. To simplify the ana- sis, another idea is to characterize tra?c and service processes using various bounds. Since its introduction in the early 1990s, network calculus has dev- oped along two tracks—deterministic and stochastic. This book is devoted to summarizing results for stochastic network calculus that can be employed in the design of computer networks to provide stochastic service guarantees. Overview and Goal Like conventional queuing theory, stochastic network calculus is based on properly de?ned tra?c models and service models. However, while in c- ventional queuing theory an arrival process is typically characterized by the inter-arrival times of customers and a service process by the service times of customers, the arrival process and the service process are modeled in n- work calculus respectively by some arrival curve that (maybe probabilis- cally) upper-bounds the cumulative arrival and by some service curve that (maybe probabilistically) lower-bounds the cumulative service. The idea of usingboundstocharacterizetra?candservicewasinitiallyintroducedfor- terministic network calculus. It has also been extended to stochastic network calculus by exploiting the stochastic nature of arrival and service processes.
WoTUG-30 : Proceedings of the 30th WoTUG Technical Meeting, 8-11 July 2007, University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom
Author: Alistair A. McEwan
Publisher: IOS Press
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"This publication deals with Computer Science and models of Concurrency. It particularly emphasises on hardware/software co-design, and the understanding of concurrency that results from these systems. A range of papers on this topic have been included, from the formal modeling of buses in co-design systems through to software simulation and development environments. The book includes a contribution by Professor Sir Tony Hoare (FRS), the founding father of the theoretical basis upon which much of the work in this series is based. He shares new thoughts on fine-grained concurrency. Another important contribution is by Professor David May (FRS) on his new architecture for massively multicore processors, its underlying programming model and applications. The editors trust you will find this publication informative and inspirational."
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Combinatory logic and lambda-calculus, originally devised in the 1920s, have since developed into linguistic tools, especially useful in programming languages. The authors' previous book served as the main reference for introductory courses on lambda-calculus for over 20 years: this version is thoroughly revised and offers an account of the subject with the same authoritative exposition. The grammar and basic properties of both combinatory logic and lambda-calculus are discussed, followed by an introduction to type-theory. Typed and untyped versions of the systems, and their differences, are covered. Lambda-calculus models, which lie behind much of the semantics of programming languages, are also explained in depth. The treatment is as non-technical as possible, with the main ideas emphasized and illustrated by examples. Many exercises are included, from routine to advanced, with solutions to most at the end of the book.
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This extensively revised and updated new edition of Specification of Software Systems builds upon the original focus on software specification with added emphasis on the practice of formal methods for specification and verification activities for different types of software systems and at different stages of developing software systems. Topics and features: provides a wide coverage of formal specification techniques and a clear writing style, supported by end-of-chapter bibliographic notes for further reading; presents a logical structure, with sections devoted to specification fundamentals, basics of formalism, logic, set theory and relations, property-oriented specification methods, and model-based specification techniques; contains end-of-chapter exercises and numerous case studies, with potential course outlines suggested in the Preface; covers Object-Z, B-Method, and Calculus of Communicating Systems; offers material that can be taught with tool-supported laboratory projects.
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This textbook provides a concise but lucid explanation of the fundamentals of spread-spectrum systems with an emphasis on theoretical principles. The choice of specific topics is tempered by the author’s judgment of their practical significance and interest to both researchers and system designers. Throughout the book, learning is facilitated by many new or streamlined derivations of the classical theory. Problems at the end of each chapter are intended to assist readers in consolidating their knowledge and to provide practice in analytical techniques. This third edition includes new coverage of topics such as CDMA networks, Acquisition and Synchronization in DS-CDMA Cellular Networks, Hopsets for FH-CDMA Ad Hoc Networks, and Implications of Information Theory, as well as updated and revised material on Central Limit Theorem, Power Spectral Density of FH/CPM Complex Envelopes, and Anticipative Adaptive-Array Algorithm for Frequency-Hopping Systems.
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Designed for economics, business, or social or behavioral science majors in a one- or two-term course, Brief Calculus for the Business, Social, and Life Sciences presents mathematics in a clear and accessible language. Engaging, real-world examples and real data applications make calculus relevant, and the easy-to-read conversational style of the text evokes the one-on-one communication of a personalized tutorial session without sacrificing depth of coverage or intellectual rigor. The revised and updated Third Edition of this popular text includes a new, four-step problem-solving method that allows students to independently find solutions to a broad spectrum of problem sets. Rich in pedagogical features, this text includes comprehensive exercise sets, chapter openers that outline key concepts for each chapter, and Flashback features that revisit and reinforce content from previous chapters. The Third Edition contains all-new exercises, updated real-world data for modeling applications, and Section Objectives that provide students with a clear understanding of learning goals for each section. The text is packaged with a full ancillary suite of instructor resources, including a test bank, lecture outlines in PowerPoint format, WebAssign, and a Complete Solutions Manual; additional student resources include a Student Solutions Manual and access to the student companion website. Brief Calculus for the Business, Social, and Life Sciences is a comprehensive, student-friendly text that will gently push students to new levels of independent problem-solving. Key features of the new Third Edition include: Optional highlighted Technology Option sections that point out how solutions can be found using a graphing calculator From Your Toolbox feature that reinforces previously introduced material Real data applications, fully revised and updated for the Third Edition, that keep problems relevant and interesting Comprehensive exercise sets, including Concept and Writing Exercises, Vocabulary Exercises, and Application Exercises Clearly defined four-step problem-solving method new to the Third Edition User-friendly, conversational approach that mimics the style of an individualized tutorial session Chapter Openers and Section Objectives that clearly outline key concepts for each chapter and section Section Projects that encourage further study, reflection, and independent research A full suite of ancillary student and instructor resources"
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Written by two distinguished experts in the field of digital communications, this classic text remains a vital resource three decades after its initial publication. Its treatment is geared toward advanced students of communications theory and to designers of channels, links, terminals, modems, or networks used to transmit and receive digital messages. The three-part approach begins with the fundamentals of digital communication and block coding, including an analysis of block code ensemble performance. The second part introduces convolutional coding, exploring ensemble performance and sequential decoding. The final section addresses source coding and rate distortion theory, examining fundamental concepts for memoryless sources as well as precepts related to memory, Gaussian sources, and universal coding. Appendixes of useful information appear throughout the text, and each chapter concludes with a set of problems, the solutions to which are available online.