Child Soldier

When Boys and Girls Are Used in War

Author: Michel Chikwanine,Jessica Humphrey

Publisher: Kids Can Press Ltd

ISBN: 1771381264

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 48

View: 8835

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Michel is like many other five-year-olds: he has a loving family and spends his days going to school and playing soccer. But in 1993, the Democratic Republic of Congo, where Michel and his family live, is a country in tumult. One afternoon Michel and his friends are kidnapped by rebel militants and forced to become child soldiers. Child Soldier is the sometimes heartbreaking but ultimately inspiring true story of the triumph of the human spirit.

Child Soldier

Author: China Keitetsi

Publisher: Souvenir Press

ISBN: 0285639986

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 7335

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China's story of her life as a child conscript in the Ugandan National Resistance Army starts at age 8 and continues for ten years of terror, humiliation and sexual assault. After rejoining the army years later she serves as bodyguard to the Minister for Records who is disgraced and China is then captured by the Ugandan secret service and is tortured for six months. It is a story from the horrors of the Ugandan civil war, one of Africa's bloodiest and longest-running conflicts, which has gone on for over 40 years and where children are abducted and forced to commit atrocities regularly (as many as 8,000 per year). China's story exposes the reality of their civil war and the terrors committed and endured by children.

Child Soldiers

A Reference Handbook

Author: David M. Rosen

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1598845268

Category: History

Page: 323

View: 6235

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This book exposes the role of children in war, describing where, why, and how children are deployed, the attempts made by international organizations to protect children, and the underlying political and cultural issues that make this such a thorny issue. * A chronology of major events in the efforts to limit the use of child soldiers * Biographical sketches of famous child soldiers and key figures in the effort to ban the use of child soldiers * A directory of organizations involved in the child soldier issue

Child Soldiers

Sierra Leone's Revolutionary United Front

Author: Myriam S. Denov

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521872243

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 1902

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Traces the experiences of child soldiers in Sierra Leone during and after war and examines the implications of their participation.

Child Soldiers

From Violence to Protection

Author: Michael G. Wessells

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674023598

Category: Psychology

Page: 284

View: 3638

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Human rights activists, physicians and citizens around the world recognise the need to find effective interventions for child soldiers but up to now we have lacked systematic information about them. Wessells discusses all of the major concerns: how boys and girls are recruited or enticed into guerrilla groups.

Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy

Author: Mark A. Drumbl

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199592659

Category: History

Page: 239

View: 1849

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Child soldiers are generally perceived as faultless, passive victims. This ignores that the roles of child soldiers vary, from innocent abductee to wilful perpetrator. This book argues that child soldiers should be judged on their actions and that treating them like a homogenous group prevents them from taking responsibility for their acts.

International Law and Child Soldiers

Author: Gus Waschefort

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1782254331

Category: Law

Page: 224

View: 4643

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This book commences with an analysis of the current state of child soldiering internationally. Thereafter the proscriptive content of contemporary norms on the prohibition of the use and recruitment of child soldiers is evaluated, so as to determine whether these norms are capable of better enforcement. An 'issues-based' approach is adopted, in terms of which no specific regime of law, such as international humanitarian law (IHL), is deemed dominant. Instead, universal and regional human rights law, international criminal law and IHL are assessed cumulatively, so as to create a mutually reinforcing web of protection. Ultimately, it is argued that the effective implementation of child soldier prohibitive norms does not require major changes to any entity or functionary engaged in such prevention; rather, it requires the constant reassessment and refinement of all such entities and functionaries, and here, some changes are suggested. International judicial, quasi-judicial and non-judicial entities and functionaries most relevant to child soldier prevention are critically assessed. Ultimately the conclusions reached are assessed in light of a case study on the use and recruitment of child soldiers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Child to Soldier

Stories from Joseph Kony's Lord's Resistance Army

Author: Opiyo Oloya

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 144261417X

Category: History

Page: 217

View: 1730

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A collection of stories and interviews from former child soldiers of the Lord's Resistance Army.

Child Soldiers in Africa

Author: Alcinda Honwana

Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press

ISBN: 0812204778

Category: Social Science

Page: 216

View: 4463

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Young people have been at the forefront of political conflict in many parts of the world, even when it has turned violent. In some of those situations, for a variety of reasons, including coercion, poverty, or the seductive nature of violence, children become killers before they are able to grasp the fundamentals of morality. It has been only in the past ten years that this component of warfare has captured the attention of the world. Images of boys carrying guns and ammunition are now commonplace as they flash across television screens and appear on the front pages of newspapers. Less often, but equally disturbingly, stories of girls pressed into the service of militias surface in the media. A major concern today is how to reverse the damage done to the thousands of children who have become not only victims but also agents of wartime atrocities. In Child Soldiers in Africa, Alcinda Honwana draws on her firsthand experience with children of Angola and Mozambique, as well as her study of the phenomenon for the United Nations and the Social Science Research Council, to shed light on how children are recruited, what they encounter, and how they come to terms with what they have done. Honwana looks at the role of local communities in healing and rebuilding the lives of these children. She also examines the efforts undertaken by international organizations to support these wartime casualties and enlightens the reader on the obstacles faced by such organizations.

Child Soldiers in the Western Imagination

From Patriots to Victims

Author: David M Rosen

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 0813572894

Category: History

Page: 256

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When we hear the term “child soldiers,” most Americans imagine innocent victims roped into bloody conflicts in distant war-torn lands like Sudan and Sierra Leone. Yet our own history is filled with examples of children involved in warfare—from adolescent prisoner of war Andrew Jackson to Civil War drummer boys—who were once viewed as symbols of national pride rather than signs of human degradation. In this daring new study, anthropologist David M. Rosen investigates why our cultural perception of the child soldier has changed so radically over the past two centuries. Child Soldiers in the Western Imagination reveals how Western conceptions of childhood as a uniquely vulnerable and innocent state are a relatively recent invention. Furthermore, Rosen offers an illuminating history of how human rights organizations drew upon these sentiments to create the very term “child soldier,” which they presented as the embodiment of war’s human cost. Filled with shocking historical accounts and facts—and revealing the reasons why one cannot spell “infantry” without “infant”—Child Soldiers in the Western Imagination seeks to shake us out of our pervasive historical amnesia. It challenges us to stop looking at child soldiers through a biased set of idealized assumptions about childhood, so that we can better address the realities of adolescents and pre-adolescents in combat. Presenting informative facts while examining fictional representations of the child soldier in popular culture, this book is both eye-opening and thought-provoking.

The War Crime of Child Soldier Recruitment

Author: Julie McBride

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9067049212

Category: Law

Page: 216

View: 9981

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The practice of using children to participate in conflict has become a defining characteristic of 21st century warfare and is the most recent addition to the canon of international war crimes. This text examines the development of this crime of recruiting, conscripting or using children for participation in armed conflict, from human rights principle to fully fledged war crime, prosecuted at the International Criminal Court. The background and reasons for the growing use of children in armed conflict are analysed, before discussing the origins of the crime in international humanitarian law and human rights law treaties, including the Convention on the Rights of the Child and its Optional Protocol. Specific focus is paid to the jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court in developing and expanding the elements of the crime, the modes of ascribing liability to perpetrators and the defences of mistake and negligence. The question of how the courts addressed issues of cultural sensitivity, notably in terms of the liability of children, is also addressed.

Child soldiers

the role of children in armed conflict

Author: Ilene Cohn,Guy S. Goodwin-Gill,Institut Henry-Dunant

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Law

Page: 228

View: 7404

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Armies of the Young

Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism

Author: David M. Rosen

Publisher: Rutgers University Press

ISBN: 9780813535685

Category: History

Page: 199

View: 4092

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Children have served as soldiers throughout history. They fought in the American Revolution, the Civil War, and in both world wars. They served as uniformed soldiers, camouflaged insurgents, and even suicide bombers. Indeed, the first U.S. soldier to be killed by hostile fire in the Afghanistan war was shot in ambush by a fourteen-year-old boy. Does this mean that child soldiers are aggressors? Or are they victims? It is a difficult question with no obvious answer, yet in recent years the acceptable answer among humanitarian organizations and contemporary scholars has been resoundingly the latter. These children are most often seen as especially hideous examples of adult criminal exploitation. In this provocative book, David M. Rosen argues that this response vastly oversimplifies the child soldier problem. Drawing on three dramatic examples-from Sierra Leone, Palestine, and Eastern Europe during the Holocaust-Rosen vividly illustrates this controversial view. In each case, he shows that children are not always passive victims, but often make the rational decision that not fighting is worse than fighting. With a critical eye to international law, Armies of the Young urges readers to reconsider the situation of child combatants in light of circumstance and history before adopting uninformed child protectionist views. In the process, Rosen paints a memorable and unsettling picture of the role of children in international conflicts.

War Child

A Child Soldier's Story

Author: Emmanuel Jal

Publisher: St. Martin's Press

ISBN: 9781429918756

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 272

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In the mid-1980s, Emmanuel Jal was a seven year old Sudanese boy, living in a small village with his parents, aunts, uncles, and siblings. But as Sudan's civil war moved closer—with the Islamic government seizing tribal lands for water, oil, and other resources—Jal's family moved again and again, seeking peace. Then, on one terrible day, Jal was separated from his mother, and later learned she had been killed; his father Simon rose to become a powerful commander in the Christian Sudanese Liberation Army, fighting for the freedom of Sudan. Soon, Jal was conscripted into that army, one of 10,000 child soldiers, and fought through two separate civil wars over nearly a decade. But, remarkably, Jal survived, and his life began to change when he was adopted by a British aid worker. He began the journey that would lead him to change his name and to music: recording and releasing his own album, which produced the number one hip-hop single in Kenya, and from there went on to perform with Moby, Bono, Peter Gabriel, and other international music stars. Shocking, inspiring, and finally hopeful, War Child is a memoir by a unique young man, who is determined to tell his story and in so doing bring peace to his homeland.

Child Soldiers in the Age of Fractured States

Author: Scott Gates,Simon Reich

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press

ISBN: 0822973596

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 321

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Current global estimates of children engaged in warfare range from 200,000 to 300,000. Children's roles in conflict range from armed and active participants to spies, cooks, messengers, and sex slaves. Child Soldiers in the Age of Fractured States examines the factors that contribute to the use of children in war, the effects of war upon children, and the perpetual cycle of warfare that engulfs many of the world's poorest nations. The contributors seek to eliminate myths of historic or culture-based violence, and instead look to common traits of chronic poverty and vulnerable populations. Individual essays examine topics such as: the legal and ethical aspects of child soldiering; internal UN debates over enforcement of child protection policies; economic factors; increased access to small arms; displaced populations; resource endowments; forced government conscription; rebel-enforced quota systems; motivational techniques employed in recruiting children; and the role of girls in conflict. The contributors also offer viable policies to reduce the recruitment of child soldiers such as the protection of refugee camps by outside forces, “naming and shaming,” and criminal prosecution by international tribunals. Finally, they focus on ways to reintegrate former child soldiers into civil society in the aftermath of war.

Children at War

Author: Peter W. Singer

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1101970057

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 6824

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Children at War is the first comprehensive book to examine the growing and global use of children as soldiers. P.W. Singer, an internationally recognized expert in twenty-first-century warfare, explores how a new strategy of war, utilized by armies and warlords alike, has targeted children, seeking to turn them into soldiers and terrorists. Singer writes about how the first American serviceman killed by hostile fire in Afghanistan—a Green Beret—was shot by a fourteen-year-old Afghan boy; how suspected militants detained by U.S. forces in Iraq included more than one hundred children under the age of seventeen; and how hundreds who were taken hostage in Thailand were held captive by the rebel "God's Army," led by twelve-year-old twins. Interweaving the voices of child soldiers throughout the book, Singer looks at the ways these children are recruited, abducted, trained, and finally sent off to fight in war-torn hot spots, from Colombia and the Sudan to Kashmir and Sierra Leone. He writes about children who have been indoctrinated to fight U.S. forces in Iraq and Afghanistan; of Iraqui boys between the ages of ten and fifteen who had been trained in military arms and tactics to become Saddam Hussein's Ashbal Saddam (Lion Cubs); of young refugees from Pakistani madrassahs who were recruited to help bring the Taliban to power in the Afghan civil war. The author, National Security Fellow at the Brookings Institution and director of the Brookings Project on U.S. Policy Towards the Islamic World, explores how this phenomenon has come about, and how social disruptions and failures of development in modern Third World nations have led to greater global conflict and an instability that has spawned a new pool of recruits. He writes about how technology has made today's weapons smaller and lighter and therefore easier for children to carry and handle; how one billion people in the world live in developing countries where civil war is part of everyday life; and how some children—without food, clothing, or family—have volunteered as soldiers as their only way to survive. Finally, Singer makes clear how the U.S. government and the international community must face this new reality of modern warfare, how those who benefit from the recruitment of children as soldiers must be held accountable, how Western militaries must be prepared to face children in battle, and how rehabilitation programs can undo this horrific phenomenon and turn child soldiers back into children.

Child Soldiers: From Recruitment to Reintegration

Author: Alpaslan Özerdem,Sukanya Podder

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230342922

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

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This book examines the complex and under-researched relationship between recruitment experiences and reintegration outcomes for child soldiers. It looks at time spent in the group, issues of cohesion, identification, affiliation, membership and the post demobilization experience of return, and resettlement.

Child Soldier

Author: Herman F Bosman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780620684682

Category:

Page: 252

View: 6758

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"For some children, the brutality of war is the only "normality" they will ever experience." In 2015, there were an estimated 300,000 children taking part in at least 30 different conflicts worldwide. The use of child soldiers is most prevalent in Africa and Asia where socioeconomic and political circumstances are contributing factors. Children might join a combat group purely for the food and shelter it may offer. Because they are so young, many children are easily indoctrinated or manipulated into taking part in conflicts. They do not fully comprehend the consequences of their actions or the complexities of war and politics. With little understanding of the dangers of warfare, or the mental, physical and sexual abuse which may accompany their daily lives, some children take part in wars voluntarily. "This is the fictional journey as seen through the eyes of one such child." Follow his epic struggle for survival - from street child in Uganda to hardened child soldier in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Share his pain, misery, abuse and indoctrination at the hands of the "Merchants of Death" rebel army - an army led by a brutal colossus with blood diamond interests spanning across borders. Experience the utter loss of innocence no child should ever have to endure. The complete absence of empathetic emotions such as love, compassion and respect for life. Concepts that we take for granted. Concepts which make us human.

From child soldier to ex-fighter

female fighters, demobilisation and reintegration in Ethiopia

Author: Angela Veale,Institute for Security Studies (South Africa)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 69

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Girl Soldier

A Story of Hope for Northern Uganda's Children

Author: Faith J. H. McDonnell,Grace Akallo

Publisher: Chosen Books

ISBN: 1441217010

Category: Religion

Page: 240

View: 1711

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For several decades a brutal army of rebels has been raiding villages in northern Uganda, kidnapping children and turning them into soldiers or wives of commanders. More than 30,000 children have been abducted over the last twenty years and forced to commit unspeakable crimes. Grace Akallo was one of these. Her story, which is the story of many Ugandan children, recounts her terrifying experience. This unforgettable book--with historical background and insights from Faith McDonnell, one of the clearest voices in the church today calling for freedom and justice--will inspire readers around the world to take notice, pray, and work to end this tragedy.