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In this book, brain-grounded theory of temporal and spatial design in architecture and the environment is discussed. The author believes that it is a key to solving such global problems as environmental disorders and severe climate change as well as conflicts that are caused by the ill-conceived notion of “time is money”. There are three phases or aspects of a person’s life: the physical life, the spiritual or mental life, and the third stage of life, when a person moves from middle age into old age and can choose what he or she wishes to do instead of simply what must be done. This book describes the temporal design of the environment based on the theory of subjective preference, which could make it possible for an individual to realize a healthy life in all three phases. In his previously published work, the present author wrote that the theory of subjective preference has been established for the sound and visual fields based on neural evidence, and that subjective preference is an overall response of cooperating temporal and spatial factors, associated with the brain’s left and right hemispheres, respectively. In this book, based on that theory, some examples are shown for the temporal design of architecture and the environment, which may play important roles in the development of personality, thus inducing creativity. Also discussed is how all individuals may find their own personality and develop it according to the preferred direction of their individual lives.
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Signal Processing in Auditory Neuroscience: Temporal and Spatial Features of Sound and Speech discusses how the physical attributes of different sounds manifest in neural signals and how to tease-apart their different influences. It includes EEG/MEG as additional variables to be considered when studying neural mechanisms of auditory processing in general, specifically in speech. Focuses on signal processing in human auditory-neuroscience Contains information that will be useful to researchers using a MEG/EEG recording of brain activity to study neural mechanisms of auditory processing and speech Gives an important overview and methodological background for techniques that are useful in human auditory-neuroscience
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Ando establishes a theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall, based on preference theory with a model of human auditory- brain system. The model uses the autocorrelation function and the interaural crosscorrelation function for signals arriving at two ear entrances and considers the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. The theory may be applied to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre, and duration. The theory may also be applied to visual sensations as well as subjective preference of visual environments. Remarkable findings in activities in both auditory-brain and visual-brain systems in relation to subjective preference as a primitive response are described.
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In the last 10-15 years, the "embodied" and "grounded" cognition approach has become widespread in all fields related to cognitive science, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, anthropology, computational modelling and robotics. According to this approach, our cognitive activity is grounded in sensory-motor processes and situated in specific contexts and situations. Therefore, in this view, concepts consist of the reactivation of the same neural pattern that is present when we perceive and/or interact with the objects they refer to. In the same way, understanding language would imply forming a mental simulation of what is linguistically described. This simulation would entail the recruitment of the same neurons that are activated when actually acting or perceiving the situation, action, emotion, object or entity described by language. In the last years a lot of evidence has been collected in favour of EC and GC view. The aim of this Research Topic is twofold. First, it intends to give an idea of the field of embodied and grounded cognition in its broadness. We therefore intend to invite scientists of different disciplines (anthropology, philosophy, linguistics, cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, computer science) to submit their proposals. The second aim of this Research Topicis to focus on some challenges that in our opinion embodied and grounded theories of cognition need to face. First, we believe that one important challenge for EC and GC views is to account for the way the so-called "abstract concepts" and abstract words are represented. Evidence on the representation of concrete concepts and words is compelling, whereas evidence on abstract concepts representation is still too scarce and limited to restricted domains. We therefore welcome proposals dealing with this complex issue. Second, we think that embodied and grounded theories of cognition would need to formulate more precise hypotheses, and that in general within the field a larger theoretical effort should be made. It is striking that, even if a lot of work in the field of computational modelling and robotics starts from an embodied approach, experimental and modelling work on embodied cognition remain somehow separate. We therefore invite researchers to submit papers proposing models which might help to explain phenomena as well as to constrain and specify in more detail the predictions and the claims advanced within the framework of EC and GC theories.
Author: Karl J. Friston,Christopher D. Frith,Raymond J. Dolan,Cathy J. Price,Semir Zeki,John T. Ashburner,William D. Penny
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This updated second edition provides the state of the art perspective of the theory, practice and application of modern non-invasive imaging methods employed in exploring the structural and functional architecture of the normal and diseased human brain. Like the successful first edition, it is written by members of the Functional Imaging Laboratory - the Wellcome Trust funded London lab that has contributed much to the development of brain imaging methods and their application in the last decade. This book should excite and intrigue anyone interested in the new facts about the brain gained from neuroimaging and also those who wish to participate in this area of brain science. * Represents an almost entirely new book from 1st edition, covering the rapid advances in methods and in understanding of how human brains are organized * Reviews major advances in cognition, perception, emotion and action * Introduces novel experimental designs and analytical techniques made possible with fMRI, including event-related designs and non-linear analysis
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From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.
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To be outside allows one a fresh perspective on the inside. In these essays, philosopher Elizabeth Grosz explores the ways in which two disciplines that are fundamentally outside each another--architecture and philosophy--can meet in a third space to interact free of their internal constraints. "Outside" also refers to those whose voices are not usually heard in architectural discourse but who inhabit its space--the destitute, the homeless, the sick, and the dying, as well as women and minorities.Grosz asks how we can understand space differently in order to structure and inhabit our living arrangements accordingly. Two themes run throughout the book: temporal flow and sexual specificity. Grosz argues that time, change, and emergence, traditionally viewed as outside the concerns of space, must become more integral to the processes of design and construction. She also argues against architecture's historical indifference to sexual specificity, asking what the existence of (at least) two sexes has to do with how we understand and experience space. Drawing on the work of such philosophers as Henri Bergson, Roger Caillois, Gilles Deleuze, Jacques Derrida, Luce Irigaray, and Jacques Lacan, Grosz raises abstract but nonformalistic questions about space, inhabitation, and building. All of the essays propose philosophical experiments to render space and building more mobile and dynamic.
Author: Dean Hawkes,with Jane McDonald,Koen Steemers
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
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The complex art of architecture embraces all of the concerns of the world's cultures. It meets the fundamental needs for shelter from the elements, but, almost from its origins, has acquired other purposes and meanings. The Selective Environment is an approach to environmentally responsive architectural design that seeks to make connections between the technical preoccupations of architectural science, and the necessity, never more urgent than today, to sustain cultural identity at a time of rapid global, technological change.
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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.
The Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life
Author: Stephen R. Kellert,Judith Heerwagen,Martin Mador
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
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"When nature inspires our architecture-not just how it looks but how buildings and communities actually function-we will have made great strides as a society. Biophilic Design provides us with tremendous insight into the 'why,' then builds us a road map for what is sure to be the next great design journey of our times." -Rick Fedrizzi, President, CEO and Founding Chairman, U.S. Green Building Council "Having seen firsthand in my company the power of biomimicry to stimulate a wellspring of profitable innovation, I can say unequivocably that biophilic design is the real deal. Kellert, Heerwagen, and Mador have compiled the wisdom of world-renowned experts to produce this exquisite book; it is must reading for scientists, philosophers, engineers, architects and designers, and-most especially-businesspeople. Anyone looking for the key to a new type of prosperity that respects the earth should start here." -Ray C. Anderson, founder and Chair, Interface, Inc. The groundbreaking guide to the emerging practice of biophilic design This book offers a paradigm shift in how we design and build our buildings and our communities, one that recognizes that the positive experience of natural systems and processes in our buildings and constructed landscapes is critical to human health, performance, and well-being. Biophilic design is about humanity's place in nature and the natural world's place in human society, where mutuality, respect, and enriching relationships can and should exist at all levels and should emerge as the norm rather than the exception. Written for architects, landscape architects, planners,developers, environmental designers, as well as building owners, Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life is a guide to the theory, science, and practice of biophilic design. Twenty-three original and timely essays by world-renowned scientists, designers, and practitioners, including Edward O. Wilson, Howard Frumkin, David Orr, Grant Hildebrand, Stephen Kieran, Tim Beatley, Jonathan Rose, Janine Benyus, Roger Ulrich, Bert Gregory, Robert Berkebile, William Browning, and Vivian Loftness, among others, address: * The basic concepts of biophilia, its expression in the built environment, and how biophilic design connects to human biology, evolution, and development. * The science and benefits of biophilic design on human health, childhood development, healthcare, and more. * The practice of biophilic design-how to implement biophilic design strategies to create buildings that connect people with nature and provide comfortable and productive places for people, in which they can live, work, and study. Biophilic design at any scale-from buildings to cities-begins with a few simple questions: How does the built environment affect the natural environment? How will nature affect human experience and aspiration? Most of all, how can we achieve sustained and reciprocal benefits between the two? This prescient, groundbreaking book provides the answers.
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Why have people from different cultures and eras formulated myths and stories with similar structures? What does this similarity tell us about the mind, morality, and structure of the world itself? Jordan Peterson offers a provocative new hypothesis that explores the connection between what modern neuropsychology tells us about the brain and what rituals, myths, and religious stories have long narrated. A cutting-edge work that brings together neuropsychology, cognitive science, and Freudian and Jungian approaches to mythology and narrative, Maps of Meaning presents a rich theory that makes the wisdom and meaning of myth accessible to the critical modern mind.
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Lecturers, request your electronic inspection copy Kathy Charmaz presents the definitive guide to doing grounded theory from a constructivist perspective. This second edition of her groundbreaking text retains the accessibility and warmth of the first edition whilst introducing cutting edge examples and practical tips. This expanded second edition: - explores how to effectively focus on data collection - demonstrates how to use data for theorizing - adds two new chapters that guide you through conducting and analysing interviews in grounded theory - adds a new chapter on symbolic interactionism and grounded theory - considers recent epistemological debates about the place of prior theory - discusses the legacy of Anselm Strauss for grounded theory. This is a seminal title for anyone serious about understanding and doing grounded theory research. Available with Perusall—an eBook that makes it easier to prepare for class Perusall is an award-winning eBook platform featuring social annotation tools that allow students and instructors to collaboratively mark up and discuss their SAGE textbook. Backed by research and supported by technological innovations developed at Harvard University, this process of learning through collaborative annotation keeps your students engaged and makes teaching easier and more effective. Learn more.
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Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method. The editors have built Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about General Science and Scientific Theory and Method in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in General Science and Scientific Theory and Method: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.
Author: Adele E. Clarke,Carrie Friese,Rachel S. Washburn
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Category: Social Science
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The Second Edition offers an innovative extension of grounded theory useful in qualitative research projects that draws on interviews, observations, and visual, narrative, and historical discourse materials. To engage the dense complexities of real world situations, Situational Analysis (SA) braids together Strauss's ecological social worlds/arenas theory, Foucault’s discourse analysis, and Deleuze and Guattari’s rhizomes and assemblages. The book will serve as an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate-level students, as well as professional researchers and consultants from diverse backgrounds pursuing qualitative projects.
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The ultimate guide to human-centered design Even the smartest among us can feel inept as we fail to figure out which light switch or oven burner to turn on, or whether to push, pull, or slide a door. The fault, argues this ingenious-even liberating-book, lies not in ourselves, but in product design that ignores the needs of users and the principles of cognitive psychology. The problems range from ambiguous and hidden controls to arbitrary relationships between controls and functions, coupled with a lack of feedback or other assistance and unreasonable demands on memorization. The Design of Everyday Things shows that good, usable design is possible. The rules are simple: make things visible, exploit natural relationships that couple function and control, and make intelligent use of constraints. The goal: guide the user effortlessly to the right action on the right control at the right time. The Design of Everyday Things is a powerful primer on how--and why--some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them.
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A wide-ranging and challenging exploration of design and how it engages with the self The field of design has radically expanded. As a practice, design is no longer limited to the world of material objects but rather extends from carefully crafted individual styles and online identities to the surrounding galaxies of personal devices, new materials, interfaces, networks, systems, infrastructures, data, chemicals, organisms, and genetic codes. Superhumanity seeks to explore and challenge our understanding of "design" by engaging with and departing from the concept of the "self." This volume brings together more than fifty essays by leading scientists, artists, architects, designers, philosophers, historians, archaeologists, and anthropologists, originally disseminated online via e-flux Architecture between September 2016 and February 2017 on the invitation of the Third Istanbul Design Biennial. Probing the idea that we are and always have been continuously reshaped by the artifacts we shape, this book asks: Who designed the lives we live today? What are the forms of life we inhabit, and what new forms are currently being designed? Where are the sites, and what are the techniques, to design others? This vital and far-reaching collection of essays and images seeks to explore and reflect on the ways in which both the concept and practice of design are operative well beyond tangible objects, expanding into the depths of self and forms of life. Contributors: Zeynep �elik Alexander, Lucia Allais, Shumon Basar, Ruha Benjamin, Franco "Bifo" Berardi, Daniel Birnbaum, Ina Blom, Benjamin H. Bratton, Giuliana Bruno, Tony Chakar, Mark Cousins, Simon Denny, Keller Easterling, Hu Fang, Rub�n Gallo, Liam Gillick, Boris Groys, Rupali Gupte, Andrew Herscher, Tom Holert, Brooke Holmes, Francesca Hughes, Andr�s Jaque, Lydia Kallipoliti, Thomas Keenan, Sylvia Lavin, Yongwoo Lee, Lesley Lokko, MAP Office, Chus Mart�nez, Ingo Niermann, Ahmet �g�t, Trevor Paglen, Spyros Papapetros, Raqs Media Collective, Juliane Rebentisch, Sophia Roosth, Felicity D. Scott, Jack Self, Prasad Shetty, Hito Steyerl, Kali Stull, Pelin Tan, Alexander Tarakhovsky, Paulo Tavares, Stephan Tr�by, Etienne Turpin, Sven-Olov Wallenstein, Eyal Weizman, Mabel O. Wilson, Brian Kuan Wood, Liam Young, and Arseny Zhilyaev.
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Design is fundamental to our modern world. All human achievements, great and small, owe their being, in no small measure, to the concept of design. Whether it is in social and technological innovations, great human endeavours, building and construction projects or simply the environ and desire of the individual, design has been there. But a question remains: what goes on inside the designer's head? For many decades now researchers, philosophers and academics have pondered this question. In this book Dr. Marisha McAuliffe focuses on the notions of imagining and design to interrogate such a question. In this book McAuliffe's outlines her seminal work, as a design practitioner and academic over many years, to expand our understanding of imagining in the spatial design disciplines of architecture and interior design. This book is compulsive reading for the design professional, the student of design and those who have pondered, what goes on inside the designer's head?