An Introduction to Science Studies

The Philosophical and Social Aspects of Science and Technology

Author: John M. Ziman

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521346801

Category: Philosophy

Page: 203

View: 6539

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The purpose of this book is to give a coherent account of the different perspectives on science and technology that are normally studied under various disciplinary heads such as philosophy of science, sociology of science and science policy. It is intended for students embarking on courses in these subjects and assumes no special knowledge of any science. It is written in a direct and simple style, and technical language is introduced very sparingly. As various perspectives are sketched out in this book, the reader moves towards a consistent conception of contemporary science as a rapidly changing social institution that has already grown out of its traditional forms and plays a central role in society at large. It will appeal to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines and complement well Professor Ziman's earlier books.

An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies

Author: Sergio Sismondo

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144435888X

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 2523

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An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies, Second Edition reflects the latest advances in the field while continuing to provide students with a road map to the complex interdisciplinary terrain of science and technology studies. Distinctive in its attention to both the underlying philosophical and sociological aspects of science and technology Explores core topics such as realism and social construction, discourse and rhetoric, objectivity, and the public understanding of science Includes numerous empirical studies and illustrative examples to elucidate the topics discussed Now includes new material on political economies of scientific and technological knowledge, and democratizing technical decisions Other features of the new edition include improved readability, updated references, chapter reorganization, and more material on medicine and technology

Science in Society

An Introduction to Social Studies of Science

Author: Massimiano Bucchi

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415322006

Category: Social Science

Page: 162

View: 9431

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The world around us is continually being shaped by science, and by society's relationship to it. In recent years sociologists have been increasingly preoccupied with the latter, and now in this fascinating book, Massimiano Bucchi provides a brief introduction to this topical issue. Bucchi provides clear and unassuming summaries of all the major theoretical positions within the sociology of science, illustrated with many fascinating examples. Theories covered include Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific change, the sociology of scientific knowledge, actor-network theory, and the social construction of technology. The second half of the book looks at recent public controversies over the role of science in the modern world including: * the Sokal affair, otherwise known as the science wars * debates over public understanding of science, such as global warming and genetically modified food * the implications of the human genome project. This much needed introduction to a rapidly growing area brings theory alive and will be essential reading for all students of the sociology of science.

Ideas, Machines, and Values

An Introduction to Science, Technology, and Society Studies

Author: Stephen H. Cutcliffe

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742500679

Category: Social Science

Page: 179

View: 537

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Ideas, Machines, and Values is an introductory overview of the emergence of STS as a field of study, as well as a portrait of its current interests and concerns. The book examines the growth of STS from its birth inthe mid-1960's through its development as an interdisciplinary field to its present state. Also addressed are the questions 'Why should we study STS?' and 'In what direction should STS be headed?' This work is highly recommended for anyone interested in building a solid foundation for Science, Technology, and Society Studies.

Theory and Reality

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: Peter Godfrey-Smith

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226300610

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6140

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How does science work? Does it tell us what the world is "really" like? What makes it different from other ways of understanding the universe? In Theory and Reality, Peter Godfrey-Smith addresses these questions by taking the reader on a grand tour of one hundred years of debate about science. The result is a completely accessible introduction to the main themes of the philosophy of science. Intended for undergraduates and general readers with no prior background in philosophy, Theory and Reality covers logical positivism; the problems of induction and confirmation; Karl Popper's theory of science; Thomas Kuhn and "scientific revolutions"; the views of Imre Lakatos, Larry Laudan, and Paul Feyerabend; and challenges to the field from sociology of science, feminism, and science studies. The book then looks in more detail at some specific problems and theories, including scientific realism, the theory-ladeness of observation, scientific explanation, and Bayesianism. Finally, Godfrey-Smith defends a form of philosophical naturalism as the best way to solve the main problems in the field. Throughout the text he points out connections between philosophical debates and wider discussions about science in recent decades, such as the infamous "science wars." Examples and asides engage the beginning student; a glossary of terms explains key concepts; and suggestions for further reading are included at the end of each chapter. However, this is a textbook that doesn't feel like a textbook because it captures the historical drama of changes in how science has been conceived over the last one hundred years. Like no other text in this field, Theory and Reality combines a survey of recent history of the philosophy of science with current key debates in language that any beginning scholar or critical reader can follow.

An Introduction to Scientific Research Methods in Geography and Environmental Studies

Author: Daniel Montello,Paul Sutton

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446291219

Category: Reference

Page: 328

View: 8448

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"Covers a broad range of subjects that undergraduates in the discipline should be familiar and comfortable with upon graduation. From chapters on the scientific method and fundamental research concepts, to experimental design, sampling and statistical analysis, the text offers an excellent introduction to the key concepts of geographical research. The content is applicable for students at the beginning of their studies right through to planning and conducting dissertations. The book has also been of particular support in designing my level 1 and 2 tutorials which cover similar ground to several of the chapters." - Joseph Mallalieu, School of Geography, Leeds University "Montello and Sutton is one of the best texts I've used in seminars on research methodology. The text offers a clear balance of quantitative vs. qualitative and physical vs. human which I've found particularly valuable. The chapters on research ethics, scientific communication, information technologies and data visualization are excellent." - Kenneth E. Foote, Department of Geography, University of Colorado at Boulder This is a broad and integrative introduction to the conduct and interpretation of scientific research, covering both geography and environmental studies. Written for undergraduate and postgraduate students, it: Explains both the conceptual and the technical aspects of research, as well as all phases of the research process Combines approaches in physical geography and environmental science, human geography and human-environment relations, and geographic and environmental information techniques (such as GIS, cartography, and remote sensing) Combines natural and social scientific approaches common to subjects in geography and environmental studies Includes case studies of actual research projects to demonstrate the breadth of approaches taken It will be core reading for students studying scientific research methods in geography, environmental studies and related disciplines such as planning and earth science.

Recipes for Science

An Introduction to Scientific Methods and Reasoning

Author: Angela Potochnik,Matteo Colombo,Cory Wright

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317416449

Category: Philosophy

Page: 336

View: 9186

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Today, scientific literacy is an essential aspect of any undergraduate education. Recipes for Science responds to this need by providing an accessible introduction to the nature of science and scientific methods, reasoning, and concepts that is appropriate for any beginning college student. It is designed to be adaptable to a wide variety of different kinds of courses, such as introductions to scientific reasoning or critical thinking, philosophy of science, and science education. In any of these different uses, the book helps students better navigate our scientific, 21st-century world. Key Features Contemporary and historical examples of science from many fields of physical, life, and social sciences. Visual aids to clarify and illustrate ideas. Text boxes to explore related topics. Plenty of exercises to ensure full student engagement and mastery of the information. Annotated 'Further Reading' sections at the end of each chapter. Final glossary with helpful definitions of key terms. A companion website with author-developed and crowdsourced materials, including syllabi for courses using this textbook, bibliography of additional resources and online materials, sharable PowerPoint presentations and lecture notes, and additional exercises and extended projects.

Between Science and Literature

An Introduction to Autopoetics

Author: Ira Livingston

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252072543

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 192

View: 6912

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Ira Livingston's Between Science and Literature sets out to introduce the fundamentals of cultural and literary theory to a non-specialist audience. Using ideas about self-reference, performativity, and autopoetics, Livingston constructs an alternate framework in which complex, self-organizing processes occur at all scales, cutting across traditional divisions between words and things, culture and nature. Livingston regards both language and culture as self-referential systems, and argues for an approach that sees language as a part of the world, rejecting the traditional split between words in our minds and things out there to which they are supposed to refer. Livingston makes his case by drawing on the work of thinkers across disciplines, ranging from philosophers like Deleuze and Guattari, to sociologists like Niklas Luhmann, to biologists like Stuart Kaufman, as well as historians, gender theorists, and science fiction writers.

The Science Studies Reader

Author: Mario Biagioli

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415918688

Category: Art

Page: 590

View: 8454

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A landmark anthology of writing in the burgeoning new field of science studies, this collection features contributions by some of the most prominent scientific thinkers, speaking to the nature of science and knowledge across time, genders, and cultures.

Animal Studies

An Introduction

Author: Paul Waldau

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199827036

Category: Law

Page: 362

View: 5266

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Animal studies is a growing interdisciplinary field which seeks to understand how humans study and conceive of other-than-human animals, and how these conceptions have changed over time, across cultures, and among various scholarly modes of inquiry. Until now, this growing field has lacked a comprehensive introductory text appropriate for new scholars. Animal Studies: An Introduction fills this deficiency, providing the first holistic survey of the field.

An Introduction to Scientific Research

Author: E. Bright Wilson

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 048613718X

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 2449

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Exceptionally useful guide to pragmatic scientific method: design of experiments and apparatus, analysis of data, sampling and measurement, numerical computation, much more. Broad applications. References. Illustrations.

The Science of Stories

An Introduction to Narrative Psychology

Author: János László

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134048408

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 2071

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The Science of Stories explores the role narrative plays in human life. Supported by in-depth research, the book demonstrates how the ways in which people tell their stories can be indicative of how they construct their worlds and their own identities. Based on linguistic analysis and computer technology, Laszlo offers an innovative methodology which aims to uncover underlying psychological processes in narrative texts. The reader is presented with a theoretical framework along with a series of studies which explore the way a systematic linguistic analysis of narrative discourse can lead to a scientific study of identity construction, both individual and group. The book gives a critical overview of earlier narrative theories and summarizes previous scientific attempts to uncover relationships between language and personality. It also deals with social memory and group identity: various narrative forms of historical representations (history books, folk narratives, historical novels) are analyzed as to how they construct the past of a nation. The Science of Stories is the first book to build a bridge between scientific and hermeneutic studies of narratives. As such, it will be of great interest to a diverse spectrum of readers in social science and the liberal arts, including those in the fields of cognitive science, social psychology, linguistics, philosophy, literary studies and history.

Reading the Book of Nature

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: Peter Kosso

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521426824

Category: Philosophy

Page: 198

View: 9088

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This is an introductory survey to the philosophy of science suitable for beginners and nonspecialists. Its point of departure is the question: why should we believe what science tells us about the world? In this attempt to justify the claims of science the book treats such topics as observation data, confirmation of theories, and the explanation of phenomena. The writing is clear and concrete with detailed examples drawn from contemporary science: solar neutrinos, the gravitational bending of light, and the creation/evolution debate, for example. What emerges is a view of science in which observation relies on theory to give it meaning and credibility, while theory relies on observation for its motivation and validation. It is shown that this reciprocal support is not circular since the theory used to support a particular observation is independent of the theory for which the observation serves as evidence.

A Tapestry of Values

An Introduction to Values in Science

Author: Kevin C. Elliott

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190260831

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 8483

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The role of values in scientific research has become an important topic of discussion in both scholarly and popular debates. Pundits across the political spectrum worry that research on topics like climate change, evolutionary theory, vaccine safety, and genetically modified foods has become overly politicized. At the same time, it is clear that values play an important role in science by limiting unethical forms of research and by deciding what areas of research have the greatest relevance for society. Deciding how to distinguish legitimate and illegitimate influences of values in scientific research is a matter of vital importance. Recently, philosophers of science have written a great deal on this topic, but most of their work has been directed toward a scholarly audience. This book makes the contemporary philosophical literature on science and values accessible to a wide readership. It examines case studies from a variety of research areas, including climate science, anthropology, chemical risk assessment, ecology, neurobiology, biomedical research, and agriculture. These cases show that values have necessary roles to play in identifying research topics, choosing research questions, determining the aims of inquiry, responding to uncertainty, and deciding how to communicate information. Kevin Elliott focuses not just on describing roles for values but also on determining when their influences are actually appropriate. He emphasizes several conditions for incorporating values in a legitimate fashion, and highlights multiple strategies for fostering engagement between stakeholders so that value influences can be subjected to careful and critical scrutiny.

The Many Faces Of Science

An Introduction To Scientists, Values, And Society

Author: Henry Byerly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429975929

Category: Philosophy

Page: 288

View: 5848

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The development of modern science, and its increasing impact on our lives and cultures, is one of the great stories of our time. So, understanding--and coming to terms with--the institution of modern science should be an integral part of education. In The Many Faces of Science, Leslie Stevenson and Henry Byerly masterfully, and painlessly, provide the basic information and the philosophical reflection students need to gain such understanding. The authors make good use of case study methods, and they introduce us to dozens of figures from the history of science. Stevenson and Byerly provide an elementary sketch of the development of science through the lives of its practitioners, and they examine the often mixed motives of scientists, as well as the conflicting values people bring to science--and to their perceptions of its impact on society. The authors also explore the relationship between scientific practice and political and economic power.Accessible and rich with anecdotes, personal asides, and keen insight, The Many Faces of Science is the ideal interdisciplinary introduction for nonscientists in courses on science studies, science and society, and science and human values. It will also prove useful as supplementary reading in courses on science and philosophy, sociology, and political science. In this second edition of The Many Faces of Science, the authors have updated topics that they explore in the first edition, and they present new case studies on subjects such as HIV and AIDS, women in science, and work done in psychology and the social sciences. The authors also extend their discussion of science and values, in addition to revising their study of science and technology to emphasize changes in scientific practice today.

Science Journalism

An Introduction

Author: Martin W Angler

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1317369823

Category: Social Science

Page: 348

View: 1174

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Science Journalism: An Introduction gives wide-ranging guidance on producing journalistic content about different areas of scientific research. It provides a step-by-step guide to mastering the practical skills necessary for covering scientific stories and explaining the business behind the industry. Martin W. Angler, an experienced science and technology journalist, covers the main stages involved in getting an article written and published; from choosing an idea, structuring your pitch, researching and interviewing, to writing effectively for magazines, newspapers and online publications. There are chapters dedicated to investigative reporting, handling scientific data and explaining scientific practice and research findings to a non-specialist audience. Coverage in the chapters is supported by reading lists, review questions and practical exercises. The book also includes extensive interviews with established science journalists, scholars and scientists that provide tips on building a career in science journalism, address what makes a good reporter and discuss the current issues they face professionally. The book concludes by laying out the numerous available routes into science journalism, such as relevant writing programs, fellowships, awards and successful online science magazines. For students of journalism and professional journalists at all levels, this book offers an invaluable overview of contemporary science journalism with an emphasis on professional journalistic practice and success in the digital age.

Forensic Science

An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, Fourth Edition

Author: Stuart H. James,Jon J. Nordby, Ph.D.

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 143985386X

Category: Law

Page: 614

View: 3619

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Covering a range of fundamental topics essential to modern forensic investigation, the fourth edition of the landmark text Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques presents contributions from experts in the field who discuss case studies from their own personal files. This edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the cutting edge of forensic science across many different areas. Designed for a single-term course at the lower undergraduate level, the book begins by discussing the intersection of law and forensic science, how things become evidence, and how courts decide if an item or testimony should be admissible. It takes the evidence from crime scene investigation into laboratory analysis and even onto the autopsy table for the fullest breadth of subject matter of any forensic text available. Topics include Forensic anthropology and the role of entomology in a death investigation Death investigation, including identifying the cause, manner, mechanism, and time of death Bloodstain pattern analysis, the identification of blood and body fluids, the work of forensic toxicologists, and seized drug analysis The history and development of DNA typing and the many ways it can be used Fingerprint, firearm and ballistic, tool mark, tread impression, and trace evidence The forensic analysis of questioned documents and computers Arson, fire, explosives, and the work of forensic engineers in vehicular accidents and structural collapses Forensic psychology and psychiatry, including criminal profiling The future of forensic science Going beyond theory to application, this text incorporates the wisdom of forensic practitioners who discuss the real cases they have investigated. Color-coded sidebars in each chapter provide historical notes, case studies, and current events as well as advice for career advancement. Each section and each chapter begins with an overview and ends with a summary, and key terms, review questions, and up-to-date references are provided. Appropriate for any sensibility, more than 300 photos from real cases give students a true-to-life learning experience. *Access to identical eBook version included

Ethics and Science

An Introduction

Author: Adam Briggle,Carl Mitcham

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521878411

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 388

View: 5570

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This book explores ethical issues at the interfaces of science, policy, religion and technology, cultivating the skills for critical analysis.

An Introduction to Rumen Studies

Author: J. W. Czerkawski

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483292983

Category: Nature

Page: 246

View: 3204

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The rumen is an object of study for many types of biological scientist, from anatomists to microbiologists, and more recently even mathematicians. The developments and use of various experimental techniques have enabled much progress to be made in rumen studies. Several chapters of this book concentrate on these techniques and concepts that stem from their application. Biochemical and microbial interrelationships are dealt with fully, with an emphasis on the integrated nature of the rumen's contents. The book concludes by considering the most fruitful approaches that might lead to a more complete understanding of this complex and efficient organ. Each chapter is a complete unit that can be read and understood without reference to other chapters. A general reading list at the end of each chapter, together with more detailed references, will help to launch the student into any specific area of rumen studies.