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This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.
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The purpose of this book is to introduce the basic ideas of mathematical proof to students embarking on university mathematics. The emphasis is on helping the reader in understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. This is achieved by exploring set theory, combinatorics and number theory, topics which include many fundamental ideas which are part of the tool kit of any mathematician. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. Over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student as well as plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.
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Mathematical Reasoning: Writing and Proof is a text for the ?rst college mathematics course that introduces students to the processes of constructing and writing proofs and focuses on the formal development of mathematics. The primary goals of the text are to help students: Develop logical thinking skills and to develop the ability to think more abstractly in a proof oriented setting; develop the ability to construct and write mathematical proofs using standard methods of mathematical proof including direct proofs, proof by contradiction, mathematical induction, case analysis, and counterexamples; develop the ability to read and understand written mathematical proofs; develop talents for creative thinking and problem solving; improve their quality of communication in mathematics. This includes improving writing techniques, reading comprehension, and oral communication in mathematics; better understand the nature of mathematics and its language. Another important goal of this text is to provide students with material that will be needed for their further study of mathematics. Important features of the book include: Emphasis on writing in mathematics; instruction in the process of constructing proofs; emphasis on active learning.There are no changes in content between Version 2.0 and previous versions of the book. The only change is that the appendix with answers and hints for selected exercises now contains solutions and hints for more exercises.
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Susanna Epp's DISCRETE MATHEMATICS: AN INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL REASONING, provides the same clear introduction to discrete mathematics and mathematical reasoning as her highly acclaimed DISCRETE MATHEMATICS WITH APPLICATIONS, but in a compact form that focuses on core topics and omits certain applications usually taught in other courses. The book is appropriate for use in a discrete mathematics course that emphasizes essential topics or in a mathematics major or minor course that serves as a transition to abstract mathematical thinking. The ideas of discrete mathematics underlie and are essential to the science and technology of the computer age. This book offers a synergistic union of the major themes of discrete mathematics together with the reasoning that underlies mathematical thought. Renowned for her lucid, accessible prose, Epp explains complex, abstract concepts with clarity and precision, helping students develop the ability to think abstractly as they study each topic. In doing so, the book provides students with a strong foundation both for computer science and for other upper-level mathematics courses. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
Author: Camilla Gilmore,Silke M. Göbel,Matthew Inglis
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The last decade has seen a rapid growth in our understanding of the cognitive systems that underlie mathematical learning and performance, and an increased recognition of the importance of this topic. This book showcases international research on the most important cognitive issues that affect mathematical performance across a wide age range, from early childhood to adulthood. The book considers the foundational competencies of nonsymbolic and symbolic number processing before discussing arithmetic, conceptual understanding, individual differences and dyscalculia, algebra, number systems, reasoning and higher-level mathematics such as formal proof. Drawing on diverse methodology from behavioural experiments to brain imaging, each chapter discusses key theories and empirical findings and introduces key tasks used by researchers. The final chapter discusses challenges facing the future development of the field of mathematical cognition and reviews a set of open questions that mathematical cognition researchers should address to move the field forward. This book is ideal for undergraduate or graduate students of psychology, education, cognitive sciences, cognitive neuroscience and other academic and clinical audiences including mathematics educators and educational psychologists.
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Written by two well-known scholars in the field, Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting presents a clear and comprehensive introduction to the concepts and methodology of beginning combinatorics. Focusing on modern techniques and applications, the book develops a variety of effective approaches to solving counting problems. Balancing abstract ideas with specific topical coverage, the book utilizes real world examples with problems ranging from basic calculations that are designed to develop fundamental concepts to more challenging exercises that allow for a deeper exploration of complex combinatorial situations. Simple cases are treated first before moving on to general and more advanced cases. Additional features of the book include: • Approximately 700 carefully structured problems designed for readers at multiple levels, many with hints and/or short answers • Numerous examples that illustrate problem solving using both combinatorial reasoning and sophisticated algorithmic methods • A novel approach to the study of recurrence sequences, which simplifies many proofs and calculations • Concrete examples and diagrams interspersed throughout to further aid comprehension of abstract concepts • A chapter-by-chapter review to clarify the most crucial concepts covered Combinatorial Reasoning: An Introduction to the Art of Counting is an excellent textbook for upper-undergraduate and beginning graduate-level courses on introductory combinatorics and discrete mathematics.
An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers
Author: Bernd S. W. Schröder
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An accessible introduction to abstract mathematics with an emphasis on proof writing Addressing the importance of constructing and understanding mathematical proofs, Fundamentals of Mathematics: An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers introduces key concepts from logic and set theory as well as the fundamental definitions of algebra to prepare readers for further study in the field of mathematics. The author supplies a seamless, hands-on presentation of number systems, utilizing key elements of logic and set theory and encouraging readers to abide by the fundamental rule that you are not allowed to use any results that you have not proved yet. The book begins with a focus on the elements of logic used in everyday mathematical language, exposing readers to standard proof methods and Russell's Paradox. Once this foundation is established, subsequent chapters explore more rigorous mathematical exposition that outlines the requisite elements of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory and constructs the natural numbers and integers as well as rational, real, and complex numbers in a rigorous, yet accessible manner. Abstraction is introduced as a tool, and special focus is dedicated to concrete, accessible applications, such as public key encryption, that are made possible by abstract ideas. The book concludes with a self-contained proof of Abel's Theorem and an investigation of deeper set theory by introducing the Axiom of Choice, ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers. Throughout each chapter, proofs are written in much detail with explicit indications that emphasize the main ideas and techniques of proof writing. Exercises at varied levels of mathematical development allow readers to test their understanding of the material, and a related Web site features video presentations for each topic, which can be used along with the book or independently for self-study. Classroom-tested to ensure a fluid and accessible presentation, Fundamentals of Mathematics is an excellent book for mathematics courses on proofs, logic, and set theory at the upper-undergraduate level as well as a supplement for transition courses that prepare students for the rigorous mathematical reasoning of advanced calculus, real analysis, and modern algebra. The book is also a suitable reference for professionals in all areas of mathematics education who are interested in mathematical proofs and the foundation upon which all mathematics is built.
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Formal logic provides us with a powerful set of techniques for criticizing some arguments and showing others to be valid. These techniques are relevant to all of us with an interest in being skilful and accurate reasoners. In this highly accessible book, Peter Smith presents a guide to the fundamental aims and basic elements of formal logic. He introduces the reader to the languages of propositional and predicate logic, and then develops formal systems for evaluating arguments translated into these languages, concentrating on the easily comprehensible 'tree' method. His discussion is richly illustrated with worked examples and exercises. A distinctive feature is that, alongside the formal work, there is illuminating philosophical commentary. This book will make an ideal text for a first logic course, and will provide a firm basis for further work in formal and philosophical logic.
Category: General -- Instructional exposition (textbooks, tutorial papers, etc.)
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This accessible textbook gives beginning undergraduate mathematics students a first exposure to introductory logic, proofs, sets, functions, number theory, relations, finite and infinite sets, and the foundations of analysis. The book provides students with a quick path to writing proofs and a practical collection of tools that they can use in later mathematics courses such as abstract algebra and analysis. The importance of the logical structure of a mathematical statement as a framework for finding a proof of that statement, and the proper use of variables, is an early and consistent theme used throughout the book.
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In the twenty-first century, everyone can benefit from being able to think mathematically. This is not the same as "doing math." The latter usually involves the application of formulas, procedures, and symbolic manipulations; mathematical thinking is a powerful way of thinking about things in the world -- logically, analytically, quantitatively, and with precision. It is not a natural way of thinking, but it can be learned.Mathematicians, scientists, and engineers need to "do math," and it takes many years of college-level education to learn all that is required. Mathematical thinking is valuable to everyone, and can be mastered in about six weeks by anyone who has completed high school mathematics. Mathematical thinking does not have to be about mathematics at all, but parts of mathematics provide the ideal target domain to learn how to think that way, and that is the approach taken by this short but valuable book.The book is written primarily for first and second year students of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) at colleges and universities, and for high school students intending to study a STEM subject at university. Many students encounter difficulty going from high school math to college-level mathematics. Even if they did well at math in school, most are knocked off course for a while by the shift in emphasis, from the K-12 focus on mastering procedures to the "mathematical thinking" characteristic of much university mathematics. Though the majority survive the transition, many do not. To help them make the shift, colleges and universities often have a "transition course." This book could serve as a textbook or a supplementary source for such a course.Because of the widespread applicability of mathematical thinking, however, the book has been kept short and written in an engaging style, to make it accessible to anyone who seeks to extend and improve their analytic thinking skills. Going beyond a basic grasp of analytic thinking that everyone can benefit from, the STEM student who truly masters mathematical thinking will find that college-level mathematics goes from being confusing, frustrating, and at times seemingly impossible, to making sense and being hard but doable.Dr. Keith Devlin is a professional mathematician at Stanford University and the author of 31 previous books and over 80 research papers. His books have earned him many awards, including the Pythagoras Prize, the Carl Sagan Award, and the Joint Policy Board for Mathematics Communications Award. He is known to millions of NPR listeners as "the Math Guy" on Weekend Edition with Scott Simon. He writes a popular monthly blog "Devlin's Angle" for the Mathematical Association of America, another blog under the name "profkeithdevlin", and also blogs on various topics for the Huffington Post.
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Noted for its integration of real-world data and case studies, this guide offers sound coverage of the theoretical aspects of mathematical statistics. It demonstrates how and when to use statistical methods, while reinforcing the calculus that readers have already mastered. Presents standard statistical techniques in a mathematical context, allowing the reader to see the underlying hypotheses for the applications. Uses case studies and practical worked-out examples to motivate statistical reasoning and demonstrate the application of statistical methods to a wide variety of real-world situations. Discusses practical problems in the application of the ideas covered in each chapter, as well as common misunderstandings or faulty approaches. Revised Minitab sections now conform to the Version 14, the latest release. For anyone interested in learning more about mathematical statistics.
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Learn how to develop your reasoning skills and how to write well-reasoned proofs Learning to Reason shows you how to use the basic elements of mathematical language to develop highly sophisticated, logical reasoning skills. You'll get clear, concise, easy-to-follow instructions on the process of writing proofs, including the necessary reasoning techniques and syntax for constructing well-written arguments. Through in-depth coverage of logic, sets, and relations, Learning to Reason offers a meaningful, integrated view of modern mathematics, cuts through confusing terms and ideas, and provides a much-needed bridge to advanced work in mathematics as well as computer science. Original, inspiring, and designed for maximum comprehension, this remarkable book: * Clearly explains how to write compound sentences in equivalent forms and use them in valid arguments * Presents simple techniques on how to structure your thinking and writing to form well-reasoned proofs * Reinforces these techniques through a survey of sets--the building blocks of mathematics * Examines the fundamental types of relations, which is "where the action is" in mathematics * Provides relevant examples and class-tested exercises designed to maximize the learning experience * Includes a mind-building game/exercise space at www.wiley.com/products/subject/mathematics/
An Introduction to Traditional and Bayesian Statistics Using R
Author: Jeffrey M. Stanton
Publisher: Guilford Publications
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Engaging and accessible, this book teaches readers how to use inferential statistical thinking to check their assumptions, assess evidence about their beliefs, and avoid overinterpreting results that may look more promising than they really are. It provides step-by-step guidance for using both classical (frequentist) and Bayesian approaches to inference. Statistical techniques covered side by side from both frequentist and Bayesian approaches include hypothesis testing, replication, analysis of variance, calculation of effect sizes, regression, time series analysis, and more. Students also get a complete introduction to the open-source R programming language and its key packages. Throughout the text, simple commands in R demonstrate essential data analysis skills using real-data examples. The companion website (www.guilford.com/stanton2-materials) provides annotated R code for the book's examples, in-class exercises, supplemental reading lists, and links to online videos, interactive materials, and other resources. Pedagogical Features: *Playful, conversational style and gradual approach; suitable for students without strong math backgrounds. *End-of-chapter exercises based on real data supplied in the free R package. *Technical explanation and equation/output boxes. *Appendices on how to install R and work with the sample datasets.
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Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.
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Classic by prominent mathematician offers a concise introduction to set theory using language and notation of informal mathematics. Topics include the basic concepts of set theory, cardinal numbers, transfinite methods, more. 1960 edition.
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This revised and enlarged fifth edition features four new chapters, which contain highly original and delightful proofs for classics such as the spectral theorem from linear algebra, some more recent jewels like the non-existence of the Borromean rings and other surprises. From the Reviews "... Inside PFTB (Proofs from The Book) is indeed a glimpse of mathematical heaven, where clever insights and beautiful ideas combine in astonishing and glorious ways. There is vast wealth within its pages, one gem after another. ... Aigner and Ziegler... write: "... all we offer is the examples that we have selected, hoping that our readers will share our enthusiasm about brilliant ideas, clever insights and wonderful observations." I do. ... " Notices of the AMS, August 1999 "... This book is a pleasure to hold and to look at: ample margins, nice photos, instructive pictures and beautiful drawings ... It is a pleasure to read as well: the style is clear and entertaining, the level is close to elementary, the necessary background is given separately and the proofs are brilliant. ..." LMS Newsletter, January 1999 "Martin Aigner and Günter Ziegler succeeded admirably in putting together a broad collection of theorems and their proofs that would undoubtedly be in the Book of Erdös. The theorems are so fundamental, their proofs so elegant and the remaining open questio ns so intriguing that every mathematician, regardless of speciality, can benefit from reading this book. ... " SIGACT News, December 2011.
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Mathematics education in schools has seen a revolution in recent years. Students everywhere expect the subject to be well-motivated, relevant and practical. When such students reach higher education the traditional development of analysis, often rather divorced from the calculus which they learnt at school, seems highly inappropriate. Shouldn't every step in a first course in analysis arise naturally from the student's experience of functions and calculus at school? And shouldn't such a course take every opportunity to endorse and extend the student's basic knowledge of functions? In Yet Another Introduction to Analysis the author steers a simple and well-motivated path through the central ideas of real analysis. Each concept is introduced only after its need has become clear and after it has already been used informally. Wherever appropriate the new ideas are related to school topics and are used to extend the reader's understanding of those topics. A first course in analysis at college is always regarded as one of the hardest in the curriculum. However, in this book the reader is led carefully through every step in such a way that he/she will soon be predicting the next step for him/herself. In this way the subject is developed naturally: students will end up not only understanding analysis, but also enjoying it.